حل كتاب Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual
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 حل كتاب Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual

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مُساهمةموضوع: حل كتاب Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual    حل كتاب Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual  Emptyالثلاثاء 05 مايو 2020, 3:52 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم حل كتاب
Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual
Yunus a. Cengel
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Nevada,reno
John M.
Cimbala
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University
Robert H. Turner
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Nevada, Reno  

حل كتاب Fundamentals of Thermal Fluid Sciences - Solution Manual  Y_a_c_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :

B R I E F C O N T E N T S
Preface Xv
Chapter O N E
Introduction and Overview 1
Chapter T W O
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics 23
Chapter T H R E E
Energy, Energy Transfer, and General Energy Analysis 57
Chapter F O U R
Properties of Pure Substances 101
Chapter F I V E
Energy Analysis of Closed Systems 141
Chapter S I X
Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes 179
Chapter S E V E N
The Second Law of Thermodynamics 233
Chapter E I G H T
Entropy 275
Chapter N I N E
Power and Refrigeration Cycles 345
Chapter T E N
Introduction and Properties of Fluids 417
Chapter E L E V E N
Fluid Statics 443
Chapter T W E L V E
Bernoulli and Energy Equations 465
Chapter T H I R T E E N
Momentum Analysis of Flow Systems 495
Chapter F O U R T E E N
Internal Flow 527
Chapter F I F T E E N
External Flow: Drag and Lift 577
Chapter S I X T E E N
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 625
Chapter S E V E N T E E N
Steady Heat Conduction 655
Chapter E I G H T E E N
Transient Heat Conduction 717chapter N I N E T E E N
Forced Convection 765
Chapter T W E N T Y
Natural Convection 821
Chapter T W E N T Y O N E
Radiation Heat Transfer 859
Chapter T W E N T Y T W O
Heat Exchangers 919
A P P E N D I X 1
Property Tables and Charts (Si Units) 969
A P P E N D I X 2
Property Tables and Charts (English Units) 1013
Index 1051
Nomenclature 1061
Conversion Factors and Some Physical Constants 1065
Vi
Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciencesc O N T E N T S
Preface Xv
Chapter O N E
Introduction and Overview 1
1–1 Introduction to Thermal-fluid Sciences 2
Application Areas of Thermal?fluid Sciences 2
1–2 Thermodynamics 3
1–3 Heat Transfer 5
1–4 Fluid Mechanics 6
1–5 Importance of Dimensions and Units 7
Some Si and English Units 9
Dimensional Homogeneity 11
Unity Conversion Ratios 12
1–6 Problem-solving Technique 13
Step 1: Problem Statement 13
Step 2: Schematic 14
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations 14
Step 4: Physical Laws 14
Step 5: Properties 14
Step 6: Calculations 14
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion 14
Engineering Software Packages 15
A Remark on Significant Digits 16
Summary 17
References and Suggested Readings 18
Problems 18
Part 1 Thermodynamics 21
Chapter T W O
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics 23
2–1 Systems and Control Volumes 24
2–2 Properties of a System 25
Continuum 26
2–3 Density and Specific Gravity 26
2–4 State and Equilibrium 27
The State Postulate 28
2–5 Processes and Cycles 29
The Steady?flow Process 30
2–6 Temperature and the Zeroth Law
Of Thermodynamics 30
Temperature Scales 31
The International Temperature Scale of
1990 (Its?90) 33
2–7 Pressure 35
Variation of Pressure With Depth 37
2–8 Pressure Measurement Devices 40
The Barometer 40
The Manometer 43
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 46
Summary 47
References and Suggested Readings 48
Problems 48
Chapter T H R E E
Energy, Energy Transfer, and General
Energy Analysis 57
3–1 Introduction 58
3–2 Forms of Energy 59
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 61
More on Nuclear Energy 62
Mechanical Energy 64
3–3 Energy Transfer by Heat 66
Historical Background on Heat 67
3–4 Energy Transfer by Work 68
Electrical Work 71
3–5 Mechanical Forms of Work 72
Shaft Work 72
Spring Work 73
Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars 73
Work Associated With the Stretching of a
Liquid Film 74
Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body 74
Nonmechanical Forms of Work 76
3–6 the First Law of Thermodynamics 76
Energy Balance 78
Energy Change of a System, Desystem 78
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 793–7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 84
Efficiencies of Mechanical
And Electrical Devices 88
Summary 91
References and Suggested Readings 92
Problems 92
Chapter F O U R
Properties of Pure Substances 101
4–1 Pure Substance 102
4–2 Phases of a Pure Substance 102
4–3 Phase-change Processes of Pure
Substances 103
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 104
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 104
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 105
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 106
4–4 Property Diagrams for Phase-change
Processes 108
1 the T?v Diagram 108
2 the P?v Diagram 110
Extending the Diagrams to Include
The Solid Phase 110
3 the P?t Diagram 112
The P?v?t Surface 113
4–5 Property Tables 114
Enthalpy—a Combination Property 114
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 115
1b Saturated Liquid–vapor Mixture 117
2 Superheated Vapor 120
3 Compressed Liquid 121
Reference State and Reference Values 122
4–6 the Ideal-gas Equation of State 124
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 127
4–7 Compressibility Factor—a Measure
Of Deviation From Ideal-gas Behavior 128
Summary 132
References and Suggested Readings 132
Problems 133
Chapter F I V E
Energy Analysis of Closed Systems 141
5–1 Moving Boundary Work 142
Polytropic Process 146
5–2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 147
5–3 Specific Heats 152
5–4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats
Of Ideal Gases 154
Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 156
5–5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats
Of Solids and Liquids 161
Internal Energy Changes 162
Enthalpy Changes 162
Summary 165
References and Suggested Readings 166
Problems 166
Chapter S I X
Mass and Energy Analysis of Control
Volumes 179
6–1 Conservation of Mass 180
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 180
Conservation of Mass Principle 182
Mass Balance for Steady?flow Processes 184
Special Case: Incompressible Flow 185
6–2 Flow Work and the Energy
Of a Flowing Fluid 187
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 188
Energy Transport by Mass 189
6–3 Energy Analysis of Steady-flow Systems 191
6–4 Some Steady-flow Engineering Devices 194
1 Nozzles and Diffusers 195
2 Turbines and Compressors 198
3 Throttling Valves 200
4a Mixing Chambers 202
4b Heat Exchangers 204
5 Pipe and Duct Flow 206
6–5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-flow
Processes 208
Summary 213
References and Suggested Readings 214
Problems 214
Chapter S E V E N
The Second Law of Thermodynamics 233
7–1 Introduction to the Second Law 234
7–2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 235
Viii
Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciencescontents
Ix
7–3 Heat Engines 236
Thermal Efficiency 237
Can We Save Qout? 239
The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Kelvin–planck Statement 241
7–4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 241
Coefficient of Performance 242
Heat Pumps 243
Performance of Refrigerators, Air Conditioners,
And Heat Pumps 244
The Second Law of Thermodynamics:
Clausius Statement 246
Equivalence of the Two Statements 247
7–5 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 248
Irreversibilities 249
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 250
7–6 the Carnot Cycle 251
The Reversed Carnot Cycle 253
7–7 the Carnot Principles 253
7–8 the Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 255
7–9 the Carnot Heat Engine 257
The Quality of Energy 258
7–10 the Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 259
Summary 262
References and Suggested Readings 263
Problems 263
Chapter E I G H T
Entropy 275
8–1 Entropy 276
A Special Case: Internally Reversible
Isothermal Heat Transfer Processes 279
8–2 the Increase of Entropy Principle 280
Some Remarks About Entropy 282
8–3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 283
8–4 Isentropic Processes 286
8–5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 288
8–6 What is Entropy? 289
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 292
8–7 the T Ds Relations 293
8–8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 295
8–9 the Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 298
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 299
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 299
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 301
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 301
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 302
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 302
8–10 Reversible Steady-flow Work 305
Proof That Steady?flow Devices Deliver
The Most and Consume the Least Work
When the Process is Reversible 308
8–11 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-flow
Devices 309
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 310
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors
And Pumps 312
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 314
8–12 Entropy Balance 316
Entropy Change of a System, Dssystem 316
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 317
1 Heat Transfer 317
2 Mass Flow 318
Entropy Generation, Sgen 318
Closed Systems 319
Control Volumes 320
Summary 326
References and Suggested Readings 327
Problems 327
Chapter N I N E
Power and Refrigeration Cycles 345
9–1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis
Of Power Cycles 346
9–2 the Carnot Cycle and Its Value
In Engineering 348
9–3 Air-standard Assumptions 350
9–4 an Overview of Reciprocating
Engines 350
9–5 Otto Cycle: the Ideal Cycle
For Spark-ignition Engines 352
9–6 Diesel Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for
Compression-ignition Engines 359
9–7 Brayton Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for
Gas-turbine Engines 362
Development of Gas Turbines 365
Deviation of Actual Gas?turbine Cycles From
Idealized Ones 368
9–8 the Brayton Cycle With Regeneration 369
9–9 the Carnot Vapor Cycle 372x
Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciences
9–10 Rankine Cycle: the Ideal Cycle
For Vapor Power Cycles 373
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 373
9–11 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles
From Idealized Ones 376
9–12 How Can We Increase the Efficiency
Of the Rankine Cycle? 379
Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg) 379
Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures (Increases
T
High,avg) 380
Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,avg) 380
9–13 the Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 383
9–14 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 387
9–15 the Reversed Carnot Cycle 388
9–16 the Ideal Vapor-compression
Refrigeration Cycle 389
9–17 Actual Vapor-compression
Refrigeration Cycle 392
9–18 Heat Pump Systems 394
Summary 396
References and Suggested Readings 397
Problems 398
Part 2 Fluid Mechanics 415
Chapter T E N
Introduction and Properties
Of Fluids 417
10–1 the No-slip Condition 418
10–2 Classification of Fluid Flows 419
Viscous Versus Inviscid Regions of Flow 419
Internal Versus External Flow 419
Compressible Versus Incompressible Flow 419
Laminar Versus Turbulent Flow 420
Natural (or Unforced) Versus Forced Flow 420
Steady Versus Unsteady Flow 421
One?, Two?, and Three?dimensional Flows 422
10–3 Vapor Pressure and Cavitation 424
10–4 Viscosity 425
10–5 Surface Tension and Capillary Effect 430
Capillary Effect 433
Summary 436
References and Suggested Reading 436
Problems 437
Chapter E L E V E N
Fluid Statics 443
11–1 Introduction to Fluid Statics 444
11–2 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged
Plane Surfaces 444
Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate 447
11–3 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged
Curved Surfaces 450
11–4 Buoyancy and Stability 453
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies 456
Summary 458
References and Suggested Readings 459
Problems 459
Chapter T W E L V E
Bernoulli and Energy Equations 465
12–1 the Bernoulli Equation 466
Acceleration of a Fluid Particle 466
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation 467
Force Balance Across Streamlines 469
Unsteady, Compressible Flow 469
Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures 469
Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation 471
Hydraulic Grade Line (Hgl) and Energy
Grade Line (Egl) 472
Applications of the Bernoulli Equation 474
12–2 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows 478
Special Case: Incompressible Flow With No
Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction 481
Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, a 481
Summary 486
References and Suggested Reading 486
Problems 487
Chapter T H I R T E E N
Momentum Analysis of Flow
Systems 495
13–1 Newton’s Laws 496
13–2 Choosing a Control Volume 497
13–3 Forces Acting on a Control Volume 498
13–4 the Reynolds Transport Theorem 500
An Application: Conservation of Mass 505contents
Xi
13–5 the Linear Momentum Equation 506
Special Cases 507
Momentum?flux Correction Factor, B 508
Steady Flow 510
Flow With No External Forces 510
Summary 517
References and Suggested Readings 518
Problems 518
Chapter F O U R T E E N
Internal Flow 527
14–1 Introduction 528
14–2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 529
Reynolds Number 530
14–3 the Entrance Region 531
Entry Lengths 532
14–4 Laminar Flow in Pipes 533
Pressure Drop and Head Loss 535
Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate
In Laminar Flow 537
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes 538
14–5 Turbulent Flow in Pipes 541
Turbulent Velocity Profile 542
The Moody Chart and the Colebrook Equation 542
Types of Fluid Flow Problems 545
14–6 Minor Losses 549
14–7 Piping Networks and Pump Selection 557
Series and Parallel Pipes 557
Piping Systems With Pumps and Turbines 558
Summary 564
References and Suggested Reading 565
Problems 566
Chapter F I F T E E N
External Flow: Drag and Lift 577
15–1 Introduction 578
15–2 Drag and Lift 580
15–3 Friction and Pressure Drag 584
Reducing Drag by Streamlining 585
Flow Separation 586
15–4 Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries 587
Biological Systems and Drag 588
Drag Coefficients of Vehicles 591
Superposition 593
15–5 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates 595
Friction Coefficient 597
15–6 Flow Over Cylinders and Spheres 599
Effect of Surface Roughness 602
15–7 Lift 604
Finite?span Wings and Induced Drag 608
Summary 611
References and Suggested Reading 613
Problems 613
Part 3 Heat Transfer 623
Chapter S I X T E E N
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 625
16–1 Introduction 626
16–2 Conduction 626
Thermal Conductivity 628
Thermal Diffusivity 632
16–3 Convection 634
16–4 Radiation 636
16–5 Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms 639
Summary 644
References and Suggested Reading 645
Problems 645
Chapter S E V E N T E E N
Steady Heat Conduction 655
17–1 Steady Heat Conduction in
Plane Walls 656
Thermal Resistance Concept 657
Thermal Resistance Network 659
Multilayer Plane Walls 661
17–2 Thermal Contact Resistance 666
17–3 Generalized Thermal Resistance
Networks 671
17–4 Heat Conduction in Cylinders
And Spheres 674
Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres 675
17–5 Critical Radius of Insulation 680xii
Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciences
17–6 Heat Transfer From Finned Surfaces 683
Fin Equation 684
Fin Efficiency 689
Fin Effectiveness 691
Proper Length of a Fin 694
Summary 699
References and Suggested Reading 700
Problems 700
Chapter E I G H T E E N
Transient Heat Conduction 717
18–1 Lumped System Analysis 718
Criteria for Lumped System Analysis 719
Some Remarks on Heat Transfer in
Lumped Systems 721
18–2 Transient Heat Conduction in
Large Plane Walls, Long Cylinders,
And Spheres With Spatial Effects 723
Nondimensionalized One?dimensional Transient
Conduction Problem 724
Approximate Analytical and Graphical Solutions 727
18–3 Transient Heat Conduction in
Semi-infinite Solids 738
Contact of Two Semi?infinite Solids 743
18–4 Transient Heat Conduction in
Multidimensional Systems 746
Summary 751
References and Suggested Reading 752
Problems 753
Chapter N I N E T E E N
Forced Convection 765
19–1 Physical Mechanism of Convection 766
Nusselt Number 768
19–2 Thermal Boundary Layer 769
Prandtl Number 769
19–3 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates 770
Flat Plate With Unheated Starting Length 772
Uniform Heat Flux 773
19–4 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres 776
19–5 General Considerations for Pipe Flow 781
Thermal Entrance Region 782
Entry Lengths 784
19–6 General Thermal Analysis 785
Constant Surface Heat Flux
(Q·s 5 Constant) 786
Constant Surface Temperature
(Ts 5 Constant) 787
19–7 Laminar Flow in Tubes 790
Constant Surface Heat Flux 791
Constant Surface Temperature 792
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Tubes 792
Developing Laminar Flow in the
Entrance Region 793
19–8 Turbulent Flow in Tubes 795
Developing Turbulent Flow in the
Entrance Region 797
Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes 797
Flow Through Tube Annulus 797
Heat Transfer Enhancement 798
Summary 802
References and Suggested Reading 803
Problems 804
Chapter T W E N T Y
Natural Convection 821
20–1 Physical Mechanism
Of Natural Convection 822
20–2 Equation of Motion and
The Grashof Number 825
The Grashof Number 827
20–3 Natural Convection Over Surfaces 828
Vertical Plates (Ts 5 Constant) 829
Vertical Plates (Q?s 5 Constant) 829
Vertical Cylinders 831
Inclined Plates 831
Horizontal Plates 832
Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres 832
20–4 Natural Convection Inside
Enclosures 836
Effective Thermal Conductivity 836
Horizontal Rectangular Enclosures 837
Inclined Rectangular Enclosures 838
Vertical Rectangular Enclosures 838
Concentric Cylinders 839
Concentric Spheres 839
Combined Natural Convection
And Radiation 840
Summary 844
References and Suggested Readings 845
Problems 846contents
Xiii
Chapter T W E N T Y
O N E
Radiation Heat Transfer 859
21–1 Introduction 860
21–2 Thermal Radiation 861
21–3 Blackbody Radiation 863
21–4 Radiative Properties 870
Emissivity 870
Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 874
Kirchhoff’s Law 876
The Greenhouse Effect 877
21–5 the View Factor 877
View Factor Relations 880
1 the Reciprocity Relation 883
2 the Summation Rule 883
3 the Superposition Rule 885
4 the Symmetry Rule 886
View Factors Between Infinitely Long Surfaces:
The Crossed?strings Method 888
21–6 Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces 890
21–7 Radiation Heat Transfer: Diffuse,
Gray Surfaces 892
Radiosity 892
Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or From a Surface 893
Net Radiation Heat Transfer Between
Any Two Surfaces 894
Methods of Solving Radiation Problems 895
Radiation Heat Transfer in Two?surface Enclosures 896
Radiation Heat Transfer in Three?surface Enclosures 898
Summary 901
References and Suggested Readings 903
Problems 903
Chapter T W E N T Y
T W O
Heat Exchangers 919
22–1 Types of Heat Exchangers 920
22–2 the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 923
Fouling Factor 926
22–3 Analysis of Heat Exchangers 930
22–4 the Log Mean Temperature Difference
Method 932
Counter?flow Heat Exchangers 934
Multipass and Cross?flow Heat Exchangers:
Use of a Correction Factor 935
22–5 the Effectiveness–ntu Method 942
Summary 953
References and Suggested Readings 954
Problems 955
A P P E N D I X 1
Property Tables and Charts
(Si Units) 969
Table a–1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Criticalpoint Properties 970
Table a–2 Ideal-gas Specific Heats of Various
Common Gases 971
Table a–3 Properties of Common Liquids, Solids,
And Foods 974
Table a–4 Saturated Water—temperature
Table 976
Table a–5 Saturated Water—pressure Table 978
Table a–6 Superheated Water 980
Table a–7 Compressed Liquid Water 984
Table a–8 Saturated Ice–water Vapor 985
Figure a–9 T-s Diagram for Water 986
Figure a–10 Mollier Diagram for Water 987
Table a–11 Saturated Refrigerant-134a—
Temperature Table 988
Table a–12 Saturated Refrigerant-134a—pressure
Table 990
Table a–13 Superheated Refrigerant-134a 991
Figure a–14 P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 993
Table a–15 Properties of Saturated Water 994
Table a–16 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-
134a 995
Table a–17 Properties of Saturated Ammonia 996
Table a–18 Properties of Saturated Propane 997
Table a–19 Properties of Liquids 998
Table a–20 Properties of Liquid Metals 999
Table a–21 Ideal-gas Properties of Air 1000
Table a–22 Properties of Air at 1 Atm
Pressure 1002
Table a–23 Properties of Gases at 1 Atm
Pressure 1003
Table a–24 Properties of Solid Metals 1005xiv
Fundamentals of Thermal-fluid Sciences
Table a–25 Properties of Solid Nonmetals 1008
Table a–26 Emissivities of Surfaces 1009
Figure a–27 the Moody Chart 1011
Figure a–28 Nelson–obert Generalized
Compressibility Chart 1012
A P P E N D I X 2
Property Tables and Charts
(English Units) 1013
Table a–1e Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Criticalpoint Properties 1014
Table a–2e Ideal-gas Specific Heats of Various
Common Gases 1015
Table a–3e Properties of Common Liquids, Solids,
And Foods 1018
Table a–4e Saturated Water—temperature
Table 1020
Table a–5e Saturated Water—pressure Table 1022
Table a–6e Superheated Water 1024
Table a–7e Compressed Liquid Water 1028
Table a–8e Saturated Ice–water Vapor 1029
Figure a–9e T-s Diagram for Water 1030
Figure a–10e Mollier Diagram for Water 1031
Table a–11e Saturated Refrigerant-134a—
Temperature Table 1032
Table a–12e Saturated Refrigerant-134a—pressure
Table 1033
Table a–13e Superheated Refrigerant-134a 1034
Figure a–14e P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-
134a 1036
Table a–15e Properties of Saturated Water 1037
Table a–16e Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-
134a 1038
Table a–17e Properties of Saturated Ammonia 1039
Table a–18e Properties of Saturated Propane 1040
Table a–19e Properties of Liquids 1041
Table a–20e Properties of Liquid Metals 1042
Table a–21e Ideal-gas Properties of Air 1043
Table a–22e Properties of Air at 1 Atm
Pressure 1045
Table a–23e Properties of Gases at 1 Atm
Pressure 1046
Table a–24e Properties of Solid Metals 1048
Table a–25e Properties of Solid Nonmetals 1050
Index 1051
Nomenclature 1061
Conversion Factors and Some Physical Constants 1065


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