كتاب Metal Shaping Processes
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Metal Shaping Processes

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عدد المساهمات : 15950
التقييم : 27140
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Metal Shaping Processes    كتاب Metal Shaping Processes  Emptyالإثنين 04 مايو 2020, 3:44 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Metal Shaping Processes
Casting and Molding; Particulate
Processing; Deformation Processes; and Metal Removal
Vukota Boljanovic, Ph.d.

كتاب Metal Shaping Processes  M_s_p_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface Xv
Introduction Xvii
General Processes Overview Xvii
Classification of Shaping Processes Xvii
Production Equipment and Tooling Xix
Part I Casting and Molding 1
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Metal Casting 3
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Heating the Metal 4
1.3 Pouring the Molten Metal 5
1.3.1 Engineering Analysis 7
1.4 Fluidity 9
1.4.1 Test for Fluidity 10
1.5 Solidification and Cooling of Metals 11
1.5.1 Solidification Time 13
1.5.2 Shrinkage 14
1.6 Defects in Casting 15
Chapter 2 Metal Casting Processes 23
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Sand Casting 24
2.2.1 Foundry Sands 25
2.2.2 Patterns 25
2.2.3 Cores 27
2.2.4 Types of Sand Molds 27
2.2.5 Sand Molding Techniques 28
2.2.6 the Sand Casting Operation 29
2.2.7 Rammed Graphite Molding 31
2.3 Other Expendable Mold Casting Processes 31
2.3.1 Shell Molding 32
2.3.2 V-process 34
2.3.3 Evaporative Pattern Casting Process 35
2.3.4 Investment Casting 36
2.3.5 Plaster Mold Casting 37
2.3.6 Ceramic Mold Casting 38
2.4 Permanent Mold Casting Processes 38
2.4.1 Basic Permanent Mold Casting 38
2.4.2 Vacuum Permanent Mold Casting 40
Vii2.4.3 Slush Casting 40
2.4.4 Pressure Casting 41
2.4.5 Die Casting 41
2.4.6 Centrifugal Casting 44
2.4.7 Squeeze Casting 47
2.5 Melting Practice and Furnaces 48
2.5.1 Furnaces 49
Chapter 3 Metal Casting: Design and Materials 55
3.1 Introduction 55
3.2 Casting Design Considerations 55
3.2.1 General Design Considerations for Casting 56
3.3 Computer Modeling of Casting Processes 64
3.4 Metals for Casting 65
3.4.1 Cast Irons 65
3.4.2 Cast Steels 68
3.4.3 Nonferrous Casting Alloys 69
Part Ii Particulate Processing for Metals 73
Chapter 4 Powder Metallurgy 75
4.1 Introduction 75
4.2 Characteristics of Metal Powders 76
4.2.1 Particle Size Measurement and Distribution 77
4.2.2 Particle Shape and Internal Structure 79
4.2.3 Friction and Flow Characteristics of Particles 81
4.2.4 Packing, Density, and Porosity 82
4.3 Production of Metallic Powder 83
4.3.1 Atomization 83
4.3.2 Mechanical Processes 85
4.3.3 Chemical Processes 86
4.3.4 Electrolytic Deposition 87
4.3.5 Hybrid Atomization 87
4.4 Powder Manufacturing Processes of Metal Parts 88
4.4.1 Blending and Mixing of the Powders 88
4.4.2 Compaction of Metallic Powder 89
4.4.3 Sintering 91
4.4.4 Secondary Operations 91
4.4.5 Isostatic Pressing 92
4.4.6 Powder Injection Molding 93
4.4.7 Powder Rolling, Extrusion, and Forging 94
4.4.8 Liquid Phase Sintering 96
4.5 Powder Metallurgy Materials 96
4.5.1 Conventional Materials 96
4.5.2 Advanced Materials 98
Viii Contents4.6 Design Considerations in Powder Metallurgy 100
4.6.1 Tooling Considerations 100
4.7 Economics of Powder Metallurgy 105
Part Iii Deformation Processes 107
Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Metal Forming 109
5.1 Introduction 109
5.2 Classification of Metal Forming Processes 110
5.3 Material Behavior in Metal Forming Processes 111
5.3.1 Tensile Properties 112
5.3.2 Flow Stress 117
5.4 Temperature in Metal Forming 119
5.4.1 Cold Working 119
5.4.2 Warm-working 120
5.4.3 Hot Working 120
5.4.4 Isothermal Forming 121
5.5 Effect of Strain Rate 121
5.6 Friction in Metal Forming 122
5.7 Lubrication in Metal Forming 126
Chapter 6 Rolling of Metals 129
6.1 Introduction 129
6.2 Flat Rolling Process 131
6.2.1 Analysis of Workpiece Deformation by Flat Rolling 133
6.2.2 Roll Force, Torque, and Power 137
6.2.3 Vibration and Chatter 139
6.3 Shape Rolling 140
6.4 Tube Rolling Process 141
6.4.1 Pierce and Pilger Rolling Process 141
6.4.2 Plug Rolling Process 143
6.4.3 Continuous Mandrel Rolling Process 144
6.4.4 Push Bench Process 145
6.5 Ring Rolling 145
6.6 Rolling Mills 146
Chapter 7 Forging 149
7.1 Introduction 149
7.2 Hand Forging 150
7.2.1 Tools and Equipment for Hand Forging 150
7.2.2 Fundamental Hand Forging Operations 151
7.3 Open Die Forging 154
7.3.1 Analysis of Open Die Forging 156
7.4 Impression Die Forging 159
7.4.1 Analysis of Impression Die Forging and Flash Land Geometry 160
Contents Ix7.5 Flashless Die Forging 162
7.6 Various Forging Processes 163
7.6.1 Coining 163
7.6.2 Heading 164
7.6.3 Hobbing 165
7.6.4 Orbital Forging 166
7.6.5 Isothermal Forging 167
7.6.6 Swaging and Radial Forging 167
7.7 Forgeability of Metals 169
7.8 Forging Die Design and Die Materials 171
7.8.1 Customer Technical Specification 171
7.8.2 Die Design 172
7.8.3 Testing of the Die 175
7.8.4 Customer Approval 175
7.8.5 Die Wear and Die Materials 175
7.9 Forging Machines 176
7.9.1 Forging Presses 176
7.9.2 Forging Hammers 177
Chapter 8 Extrusion and Drawing of Metals 179
8.1 Extrusion 179
8.1.1 Direct Extrusion 180
8.1.2 Indirect Extrusion 181
8.1.3 Hydrostatic Extrusion 182
8.1.4 Impact Extrusion 182
8.1.5 Hot Versus Cold Extrusion 183
8.1.6 Analysis of Extrusion 185
8.1.7 Defects in Extrusion 188
8.1.8 Extrusion Dies and Presses 189
8.2 Drawing 191
8.2.1 Wire and Bar Drawing 192
8.2.2 Tube Drawing 194
8.2.3 Mechanics of Drawing 196
Chapter 9 Sheet Metal Working 199
9.1 Introduction 199
9.2 Cutting Processes 200
9.2.1 Shearing 200
9.2.2 Cutoff and Parting 203
9.2.3 Blanking and Punching 204
9.2.4 Other Sheet Metal Cutting Operations 208
9.3 Bending Processes 211
9.3.1 Mechanics of Bending 211
9.3.2 Bend Allowance 213
9.3.3 Bend Radius 215
X Contents9.3.4 Bending Force 217
9.3.5 Springback 219
9.3.6 Three-roll Bending 221
9.3.7 Other Bending and Related Forming Operations 222
9.4 Tube and Pipe Bending 223
9.4.1 Press Bending 224
9.4.2 Rotary Draw Bending 225
9.4.3 Compression Bending 226
9.4.4 Roll Bending 226
9.5 Deep Drawing Process 227
9.5.1 Mechanics of Deep Drawing 228
9.5.2 Deep Drawability 230
9.5.3 Blank Size Determination 232
9.5.4 Blank Reduction Percentage 235
9.5.5 Drawing and Ironing Force 235
9.5.6 Blankholder Force 238
9.5.7 Deep Drawing Practice 238
9.5.8 Clearance 241
9.5.9 Drawing Defects 242
9.6 Other Sheet Metal Forming Processes 243
9.6.1 Stretch Forming 243
9.6.2 Spinning 245
9.6.3 Rubber Pad Forming 248
9.6.4 Hydroforming Process 251
9.6.5 Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding 252
9.7 Classification and Types of Dies 257
9.7.1 Die Classification 257
9.7.2 Types of Dies 257
9.8 Presses for Sheet Metal Working 261
9.8.1 Mechanical Presses 262
9.8.2 Hydraulic Presses 264
9.9 High-energy Rate Metal Forming Processes 265
9.9.1 Explosive Forming 265
9.9.2 Electrohydraulic Forming 267
9.9.3 Electromagnetic Forming 268
Part Iv Metal Removal Processes 273
Chapter 10 Fundamentals of Metal Machining 275
10.1 Introduction 275
10.2 Mechanics of Machining 277
10.2.1 Types of Cutting 278
10.2.2 Chip Formation 283
10.3 Cutting Force and Power 285
10.3.1 Cutting Force 285
10.3.2 Power 288
Contents Xi10.4 Thermodynamics of Cutting 289
10.4.1 Cutting Heat 289
10.4.2 Cutting Temperature 291
10.5 Tool Wear and Tool Life 293
10.5.1 Tool Wear 294
10.5.2 Taylor’s Tool Life Theory 295
10.6 Cutting Fluids 297
10.6.1 Methods of Cutting Fluid Application 298
10.6.2 Types of Cutting Fluids 300
10.7 Surface Finish 301
10.7.1 Iso Surface Finish 304
10.8 Cutting Tool Materials 304
10.8.1 Tool Steels and Cast Alloys 307
10.8.2 Carbides 308
10.9 Machinability 311
10.9.1 Effects of Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics
Of Materials 312
10.10 Selection of Cutting Conditions and Machining Economics 312
10.10.1 Selecting Cutting Conditions 313
10.10.2 Machining Economics 314
Chapter 11 Machining Processes 319
11.1 Introduction 319
11.2 Turning 321
11.2.1 Machining Operations Related to Turning 321
11.2.2 Cutting Conditions in Turning 323
11.2.3 Cutting Tools for Turning Operations 326
11.2.4 Lathes 328
11.2.5 Boring 333
11.3 Drilling 334
11.3.1 Types of Drills 335
11.3.2 Cutting Conditions in Drilling 336
11.3.3 Reaming 340
11.3.4 Machines for Drilling 342
11.4 Milling 346
11.4.1 Types of Milling Operations 347
11.4.2 Generation of Surfaces in Milling 350
11.4.3 Cutting Conditions in Milling 351
11.4.4 Milling Cutters 353
11.4.5 Milling Machines 356
11.5 Sawing 359
11.5.1 Types of Sawing 360
11.5.2 Saw Blades 361
11.6 Planing and Shaping 363
Xii Contents11.6.1 Planing and Planers 363
11.6.2 Shaping and Shapers 365
11.6.3 Cutting Conditions 366
11.7 Broaching 368
11.7.1 Broaches 370
11.7.2 Broaching Machines 372
11.8 Gear Manufacturing 374
11.8.1 Gear Terminology and Definitions 374
11.8.2 Methods of Manufacturing Gears 377
11.8.3 Gear Finishing Processes 381
Chapter 12 Abrasive Machining Processes 387
12.1 Introduction 387
12.2 Abrasives 388
12.2.1 Abrasive Grain Size and Geometry 390
12.3 Grinding 392
12.3.1 Grinding Wheels 392
12.3.2 Analysis of the Grinding Process 397
12.3.3 Grinding Operations and Machines 402
12.4 Finishing Operations 409
12.4.1 Honing 409
12.4.2 Lapping 411
12.4.3 Superfinishing 411
12.4.4 Polishing and Buffing 411
Chapter 13 Nontraditional Machining Processes 413
13.1 Introduction 413
13.2 Mechanical Energy Processes 414
13.2.1 Ultrasonic Machining 414
13.2.2 Water-jet Cutting 415
13.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes 415
13.3.1 Electrochemical Machining 415
13.3.2 Electrochemical Grinding 417
13.4 Thermal Energy Processes 418
13.4.1 Electric Discharge Processes 418
13.4.2 Laser Beam Machining 420
13.4.3 Electron Beam Machining 422
13.5 Chemical Machining 423
13.5.1 Chemical Milling 423
Index 42


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