كتاب Mold-Making Handbook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Mold-Making Handbook

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عدد المساهمات : 16123
التقييم : 27629
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Mold-Making Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Mold-Making Handbook    كتاب Mold-Making Handbook  Emptyالإثنين 04 مايو 2020, 3:39 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mold-Making Handbook
3rd Edition
Günter Mennig , Klaus Stoeckhert  

كتاب Mold-Making Handbook  M_m_h_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
About the Book V
Contributors . VII
Editor’s Preface to the 3rd edition XI
1 Molds for Various Processing Methods 1
1.1 Injection Molds . 1
P. Wippenbeck
1.1.1 General 1
1.1.2 Injection Molding Process . 1
1.1.3 Design of the Molded Part . 7
1.1.4 Basic Mold Structure 9
1.1.5 Types of Ejection . 10
1.1.5.1 Products without Undercuts 10
1.1.5.2 Products with External Undercuts 13
1.1.5.3 Product with Internal Undercuts 17
1.1.5.4 Products with Internal Threads . 19
1.1.6 Gate Technology . 21
1.1.6.1 Gate Design . 21
1.1.6.2 Solidifying Runner, Remaining at the Molded Part . 23
1.1.6.3 Automatically Separated Runner 26
1.1.6.4 Pass Through Channels 29
1.1.6.5 Hotrunner Molds . 31
1.1.6.6 Hotrunner Nozzles . 34
1.1.7 Venting of the Cavity . 37
1.1.8 Temperature Control . 39
1.1.9 Special Designs 41
1.1.9.1 Stack Molds . 41
1.1.9.2 Injection-Compression Molds . 43
1.1.9.3 Multi-Component Technology . 44XIV Contents
1.1.9.4 Outsert Technology 48
1.1.9.5 Molds for Thermosets and Elastomers . 49
1.2 Compression and Transfer Molds . 52
J. Berthold
1.2.1 Introduction . 52
1.2.2 Compression Molds 53
1.2.2.1 General Information 53
1.2.2.2 Requirements 55
1.2.2.3 Components of a Compression Mold . 56
1.2.3 Transfer Molding 56
1.2.3.1 General . 56
1.2.3.2 Requirements 57
1.2.3.3 Structure of a Transfer Mold 57
1.2.4 Making Compression Molds 58
1.2.4.1 Machining . 59
1.2.5 Mold Design . 59
1.2.5.1 Types of Molds 60
1.2.5.1.1 Small-Series Mold 60
1.2.5.1.2 Test Mold 60
1.2.5.1.3 Standard Mold Unit 60
1.2.5.1.4 Conventional Compression Mold 62
1.2.5.2 Structural Mold Designs 62
1.2.5.2.1 Positive Mold 62
1.2.5.2.2 Positive Mold with Lands . 63
1.2.5.2.3 Multi-Cavity Mold with a Common Loading Chamber . 64
1.2.5.2.4 Multi-Cavity Mold with Individual Loading Chambers 64
1.2.5.2.5 Mold with Lateral Core Puller . 65
1.2.5.2.6 Split Mold . 66
1.2.5.2.7 Hinged Split-Cavity Mold . 66
1.2.5.2.8 Mold with Inserts 67
1.2.5.2.9 Unscrewing Mold 67
1.2.5.3 General Aspects . 68
1.2.6 Sheet Molding Compound (SMC)-Molds . 69
1.2.6.1 Introduction . 69
1.2.6.2 Mold Design . 70
1.2.6.2.1 Mold Alignment . 72
1.2.6.2.2 Ejector Mechanism . 73
1.2.6.2.3 Undercuts . 74
1.2.6.2.4 Heating . 75
1.2.7 GMT/LFT Molds . 75
1.2.7.1 Introduction . 75Contents XV
1.2.7.2 Process Technology 76
1.2.7.2.1 Pressure Forming 76
1.2.7.2.2 Flow Molding 76
1.2.7.3 Mold Construction . 76
1.2.8 Practical Example 77
1.3 Molds for Polyurethane Products 78
U. Knipp, U. Maier
1.3.1 Products, Processes, Applications, Shrinkage, and Mold
Carriers . 79
1.3.1.1 Material Components, Processing, Applications 79
1.3.1.2 Shrinkage . 80
1.3.1.3 Mold Carriers 81
1.3.2 Molds for Low-Density PUR Foam . 82
1.3.2.1 Processing Parameters . 83
1.3.2.1.1 Reaction Temperature 83
1.3.2.1.2 Internal Pressure in Molds . 84
1.3.2.2 Filling Technology . 85
1.3.2.2.1 Open-Mold Filling Method 85
1.3.2.2.2 Closed-Mold Filling Method . 86
1.3.2.3 Venting 87
1.3.2.4 Mold Design . 89
1.3.2.4.1 Clamping 91
1.3.2.4.2 Closing and Opening Mechanism, Demolding Aids . 92
1.3.2.4.3 Fastening of Inserts 93
1.3.2.5 Molds for Flexible PUR Foams 93
1.3.2.6 Molds for Semirigid Foams . 95
1.3.2.7 Molds for Rigid PUR Foams . 96
1.3.3 Molds for PUR Integral Skin Foams (Self-Skinning Foams) 99
1.3.3.1 Influence of Processing on Mold Design . 99
1.3.3.1.1 Temperature control . 99
1.3.3.1.2 Sealing at Parting Line, Ejectors, and Side Cores/Sliders 100
1.3.3.2 Gating 101
1.3.3.3 Venting . 103
1.3.3.4 Molds for Flexible Integral Skin Foams . 105
1.3.3.5 Molds for Semirigid Integral Skin Foams . 105
1.3.3.6 Molds for Rigid Integral Skin Foams . 106
1.3.4 Molds for Microporous PUR Products 107
1.3.4.1 Molds for Flexible, Microporous PUR Products 108
1.3.4.2 Molds for Tough, Rigid, Microporous PUR (RIM) Products . 108
1.3.4.3 Molds for Rigid, Microporous PUR Products 109
1.3.5 Molds for PUR Casting Systems 110XVI Contents
1.4 Blow Molds . 112
O. Eiselen
1.4.1 Process Description . 112
1.4.1.1 Different Types of Blow Molding Processes . 112
1.4.1.2 Extrusion Blow Molding Technology . 113
1.4.1.2.1 Continuous Extrusion . 113
1.4.1.2.2 Intermittent Parison Generation . 114
1.4.1.2.3 Parison Generation 116
1.4.1.2.4 Different Blow Up Methods 117
1.4.1.2.5 Special Procedures 119
1.4.2 Extrusion Blow Molds . 120
1.4.2.1 Mold Construction 120
1.4.2.1.1 Prototype Blow Molds Made from Cast Resin 120
1.4.2.1.2 Prototype Blow Molds with Metal-Coated Model and
Metal-Filled Cast Resin 120
1.4.2.1.3 Blow Molds Made from Cast Metals 120
1.4.2.1.4 Milled Prototype Molds 121
1.4.2.1.5 Production Blow Molds 121
1.4.2.2 Construction Guidelines . 123
1.4.2.2.1 Alignment of Blow Mold . 123
1.4.2.2.2 Cutting Edges . 124
1.4.2.2.3 Clamp Stops 126
1.4.2.2.4 Venting . 126
1.4.2.3 Blow Mold Cooling 126
1.4.2.4 Accessories for Blow Molds 129
1.4.2.5 Integrated Postmolding Processes 130
1.4.2.5.1 Postcooling with a Cooling Fixture . 130
1.4.2.5.2 Manufacturing the Finished Product in the Blow Molding
Machine 131
1.4.3 Injection Blow Molding and Dip Blow Molding 133
1.4.4 Use of Computers for Blow Molding 135
1.5 Molds for Thermoforming . 138
P. Schwarzmann
1.5.1 General Information . 138
1.5.2 Process in Thermoforming . 139
1.5.3 The Mold and the Format Parts 139
1.5.4 Positive or Negative Forming? . 141
1.5.5 Design Guidelines for Thermoforming Molds . 141
1.5.5.1 Material Choice . 141
1.5.5.2 Molding Shrinkage 144
1.5.5.3 Draft Angles 145Contents XVII
1.5.5.4 Radii . 145
1.5.5.5 Surface Roughness 147
1.5.5.6 Assisting Plug 147
1.5.5.7 Venting Design . 150
1.5.5.8 Cavities 152
1.5.5.9 Avoidance of Edge Webbing in Positive Molds . 152
1.5.5.10 Vacuum Losses when Designing Mold Bottom Wrongly 153
1.5.5.11 Suggestions for Temperature Control of Hot Forming
Molds 154
1.5.6 Substructure of Hot Forming Molds 155
1.5.6.1 Vacuum Forming on a Sheet Processing Machine . 155
1.5.6.2 Pressure Air Forming with Forming/Punching Mold
with Shear Cutting 156
1.5.6.3 Pressure Air Forming with Forming/Punching Mold
with Steel Rule Die 157
1.6 Rotational and Slush Molds 158
O. Wandres, R. Hentrich
1.6.1 Process Description . 158
1.6.2 Strength of a Rotomolded Part . 158
1.6.3 Mold Requirements . 159
1.6.4 Nomenclature of Rotational Molds . 160
1.6.5 Types of Molds . 161
1.6.5.1 Prototype Rotational Molds 161
1.6.5.2 Sheet Steel Rotational Molds . 162
1.6.5.3 Aluminum Rotational Molds . 163
1.6.5.4 Electroplated Molds . 165
1.6.6 Mold Construction 168
1.6.6.1 Closing and Clamping of Molds 168
1.6.6.2 Mold Wall Thickness and Centering 169
1.6.6.3 Mold Surfaces and Changes . 169
1.6.7 Mold Peripheral . 170
1.6.7.1 Mold Venting . 170
1.6.7.2 Non-Permanent Release Agent . 171
1.6.7.3 Mold Coating (Permanent Release Coatings) 171
1.6.7.4 Threads 172
1.6.7.5 Other Inserts . 172
1.6.8 Post-Processing of Rotomolded Plastic Products . 172
1.6.8.1 Openings . 172
1.6.8.2 Decoration of Rotomolded Plastic Products 172
1.6.9 Electroplated Mold for the Slush Molding Process . 173XVIII Contents
1.7 Molds for Thermoplastic Foams 179
N. Reuber
1.7.1 Thermoplastic Foams . 179
1.7.2 Conventional Molding . 182
1.7.2.1 Procedure Description . 182
1.7.2.1.1 Filling 183
1.7.2.1.2 Expanding and Fusing 184
1.7.2.1.3 Cooling and Stabilizing 186
1.7.2.1.4 Demolding 187
1.7.2.2 Special Procedure . 188
1.7.2.2.1 Process with Non-Perforated Molds 188
1.7.2.2.2 Low Temperature Horizontal (LTH) Process . 188
1.7.2.2.3 Transfer Technology 189
1.7.2.2.4 Multiple-Density-Process 189
1.7.3 Mold Construction 190
1.7.3.1 Essential Requirements on the Mold Construction 190
1.7.3.2 Mold Materials 193
1.7.3.3 Mold Equipment 193
1.7.3.4 Special Mold Designs . 196
1.7.3.4.1 Mono-Block Molds 196
1.7.3.4.2 Molds with Adjustable Walls (Gradually or Continuously)
for Insulation Plates and Small Blocks 196
1.7.3.4.3 Mold for the Thin-Walled Technology . 197
1.7.4 Block Molds 197
1.7.4.1 Process Discription . 197
1.7.4.2 Constructive Design . 199
1.8 Molds for Continuous Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites . 200
P. Mitschang, R. Schledjewski, A. K. Schlarb
1.8.1 General Objective . 200
1.8.2 Molds for the Vacuum-Autoclave-Technology 201
1.8.2.1 General Objective . 201
1.8.2.2 Prepreg-Low Pressure-Autoclave Technology 202
1.8.2.3 Molds for the “Soft Core” Technology . 202
1.8.2.3.1 Master Model . 202
1.8.2.3.2 Mold Cavity 203
1.8.2.3.3 Product Substitute 204
1.8.2.3.4 Elastic Mat . 205
1.8.2.3.5 Manufacturing of Products 205
1.8.2.4 Molds for the Hard-Core Technology . 207
1.8.2.4.1 Mold Construction and Materials 207
1.8.2.4.2 Manufacture of Products 207Contents XIX
1.8.2.5 Molds for Automated Tape Laying 208
1.8.3 Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics . 209
1.8.3.1 General Information and Fundamentals of the Processes 209
1.8.3.2 Molds for Semifinished Part Production 209
1.8.3.2.1 General Information and Fundamentals of the Processes 209
1.8.3.2.2 Molds for Flat Semifinished Plates . 210
1.8.3.2.3 Molds for Profiles . 212
1.8.3.3 Molds for Forming Technology (Thermoforming) 213
1.8.3.3.1 General Information and Fundamentals of the Processes 213
1.8.3.3.2 Molds for the Stamp Forming 214
1.8.3.3.3 Molds for the Diaphragm Technology . 217
1.8.3.3.4 Molds for Sandwich Components . 218
1.8.3.3.5 Molds for the Process Step Integration . 219
1.8.3.4 Molds for the Welding Technology . 220
1.8.4 Molds for the Resin Injection 221
1.8.4.1 General Information and Fundamentals of the Process 221
1.8.4.2 Molds for the Preform Technology . 223
1.8.4.2.1 Binder-Forming Molds 223
1.8.4.2.2 Stitching Technology Molds 225
1.8.4.3 Molds for Vacuum Assisted Processes 227
1.8.4.3.1 Molds with a Fixed and Flexible Mold Half 227
1.8.4.3.2 Molds with Two Fixed Mold Halves 230
1.8.4.4 Molds for Pressure-Assisted Processes . 232
1.8.4.5 Molds for Hollow Components . 235
1.8.5 Molds for the Winding Technology . 238
1.8.5.1 General Information and Fundamentals of the Process 238
1.8.5.2 Molds for Rotationally Symmetrical Components 238
1.9 Molds for Elastomer Processing 241
Th. Bauernhansl, K. Zoller
1.9.1 Compression Molding (CM) 242
1.9.2 Transfer Molding (TM) 244
1.9.3 Injection Molding (IM) 246
1.9.4 Additional Processes 250
1.9.4.1 Process Combinations . 250
1.9.4.2 Gate Systems . 251
1.9.5 Mold Making . 254
1.9.5.1 Types of Molds . 255
1.9.5.2 Mold Development 255XX Contents
1.10 Micro Injection Molds . 258
G. Konzilia
1.10.1 General Information . 258
1.10.1.1 Injection Molding Process . 258
1.10.1.2 Molded Part Design . 258
1.10.1.2.1 Cooperation with Customers . 259
1.10.1.3 Materials for Injection Molded Parts . 260
1.10.2 Design . 261
1.10.2.1 The Micro-injection Mold 261
1.10.2.1.1 Gate 261
1.10.2.1.2 Demolding and Ejection . 262
1.10.2.1.3 Venting . 263
1.10.2.1.4 Mold Guiding and Centering . 264
1.10.2.1.5 Temperature Control and Cooling 265
1.10.2.2 Special Procedures and Alternative Processes 265
1.10.2.2.1 Variotherm . 265
1.10.2.2.2 Insertion Technology 266
1.10.2.2.3 Multi-Component and Assembly Injection Molding 266
1.10.2.2.4 Compression Injection Molding 267
1.10.2.2.5 Hot Embossing 267
1.10.2.3 Environment and Continuing Processes 268
1.10.3 Manufacture 269
1.10.3.1 Construction 269
1.10.3.1.1 Materials for Constructional Parts . 269
1.10.3.1.2 Standard Parts 269
1.10.3.2 Cavity Stacks . 269
1.10.3.2.1 Material for Cavity Stacks . 270
1.10.4 Manufacturing Technologies . 270
1.10.4.1 In General 270
1.10.4.1.1 Mechanical Manufacturing Technologies . 270
1.10.4.1.2 Alternative Manufacturing Processes 274
1.10.4.1.3 Surface Treatment and Refining . 276
1.10.4.1.4 Quality Assurance 277
1.10.5 Injection Molding Machine 277
1.10.6 Mold Maintenance 278
1.10.7 Outlook 279
1.11 Prototype, Small and Pre-Series Molds 280
R. Hofmann
1.11.1 Introduction 280
1.11.2 Indirect Prototype Molding 280
1.11.2.1 Vacuum Casting Polyurethane (PU) on silicone molds . 280Contents XXI
1.11.2.1.1 Vacuum Casting PU Process . 280
1.11.2.1.2 Manufacture of Silicone Molds PU . 283
1.11.2.2 Vacuum Casting Polyamide (PA) through silicone molds . 284
1.11.2.3 Synthetic Resin Molds . 287
1.11.2.3.1 Polyurethane Casting with Synthetic Resin Molds . 287
1.11.2.3.2 Manufacture of Synthetic Resin Molds . 287
1.11.2.4 Manufacture of Synthetic Resin Molds for Injection
Molding 290
1.11.2.5 Molds Manufactured through Generative Manufacturing
Procedures on the Example of LaserCUSING®-Technology . 292
1.11.2.6 Aluminum Molds . 294
1.11.2.6.1 Manufacture of Aluminum Molds 294
1.11.2.6.2 Aluminum Molds with LaserCUSING® Loose Parts 295
1.11.2.6.3 Aluminum Materials 295
2 Mold Design . 301
2.1 Design Process 301
P. Karlinger, F. Hinken
2.1.1 Introduction 301
2.1.1.1 Injection Molds . 303
2.1.1.2 Phases of the Mold Design . 303
2.1.1.3 From the Offer to the Design . 307
2.1.1.4 The Design Process in Injection Molds . 318
2.1.2 Simulation for Injection Mold Making 323
2.1.2.1 General Information . 323
2.1.2.2 The Types of Models 325
2.1.2.3 The Flow Pattern 326
2.1.2.4 Shrinkage and Warpage . 328
2.1.2.5 Thermal Design . 329
2.1.2.6 Summary . 331
2.2 Standardization and Standards . 332
J. Gockel, A. Brandt
2.2.1 Standardization for Injection Molding and Hot Runner
Molds 332
2.2.2 Standards in Mold Making . 335
2.2.2.1 Molds 336
2.2.2.2 Standardized Guide Element in Mold Making . 341
2.2.2.3 Standards for Demolding 343
2.2.2.4 Temperature Control 345XXII Contents
2.3 Hot and Cold Runner Technology . 349
D. Paulmann, M. Sander
2.3.1 Advantages of Using the Hot Runner Technology 349
2.3.2 Design of Hot Runner Systems and Hot Halves 351
2.3.3 Application Areas and Examples . 352
2.3.3.1 Hot Runner Solutions for Packaging Parts, Closures, and
Miscellaneous Polyolefin Applications 353
2.3.3.2 Hot Runner Solutions for Technical Components 356
2.3.3.3 Hot Runner Solution for Small and Micro Injection Molded
Parts . 358
2.3.3.4 Hot Runner Solutions for Multi-Point Gating through
Nozzles and Multi-Nozzles . 360
2.3.3.5 Hot Runner Solutions with Needle Valve 361
2.3.4 Hot Runner Manifold Systems, Wired Systems, and Hot
Halves 367
2.3.5 Hot Runner Control Technology 370
2.3.6 Cold Runner Systems . 372
2.3.6.1 Function and Advantages 372
2.3.6.2 Processable Materials . 373
2.3.6.3 Mold Technology 375
2.3.6.4 Demolding 375
2.3.6.5 Mold Temperature Control . 376
2.4 Temperature Control of Injection Molds 377
P. Thienel
2.4.1 Tasks and Goals of the Mold Temperature Control . 377
2.4.2 Influence of Processing Temperatures on the Cooling and
Cycle Time . 379
2.4.3 Cavity Temperature . 379
2.4.4 Influence of Temperature Control on the Molded Part
Properties 381
2.4.5 Requirements for the Temperature Control System 383
2.4.6 Temperature Control Channels . 383
2.4.7 Flow Principle 385
2.4.7.1 Series Temperature Control 385
2.4.7.2 Parallel Temperature Control 386
2.4.8 Practical Designs of Conventional Temperature Control
Options . 387
2.4.8.1 Flat Temperature Control 387
2.4.8.2 Temperature Control of Molded Part Corners . 388
2.4.8.3 Temperature Control of the Core . 389
2.4.8.3.1 Temperature Control Tubes 389Contents XXIII
2.4.8.3.2 Separating Plate (Deflection Bar) . 389
2.4.8.3.3 Spiral Cores 390
2.4.8.3.4 Heat Pipe . 390
2.4.8.4 More Conventional Temperature Control Options . 392
2.4.8.4.1 Circumferential Application Temperature Control . 392
2.4.8.4.2 Inserts Made from Different Materials 392
2.4.9 New Temperature Control Technologies 393
2.4.9.1 Contour-Depending Temperature Control . 393
2.4.9.1.1 Vacuum Brazing Technology . 394
2.4.9.1.2 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) . 395
2.4.9.2 CO
2 Temperature Control 395
2.4.9.2.1 CO
2 Temperature Control with Sintered Material 396
2.4.9.2.2 CO
2 Temperature Control with Conventional Steel . 397
2.4.9.3 Dynamic Temperature Control . 397
2.4.10 Thermal Mold Design . 400
2.4.11 Position of the Temperature Sensor for External
Temperature Control 402
2.5 Innovative Mold Technologies 405
T. Eulenstein
2.5.1 Coating Technology – Design Surfaces through Combined
Surface and Coating Technologies 405
2.5.2 Temperature Control Technology –
Inductive Heating of Injection Molds . 410
2.5.3 Vacuum Technology –
Alternative Possibilities, Optimization of Surfaces . 415
2.5.4 Mold Technology – Flexible Sealing Elements for the Flashand Damage-Free Encapsulation of Inserts 417
3 Materials for Mold Making . 421
3.1 Plastic Mold Steels 421
F. Hippenstiel
3.1.1 Introduction 421
3.1.2 Steel making and processing 423
3.1.2.1 Steelmaking 423
3.1.2.2 Heat treatment 425
3.1.2.3 Machining 427
3.1.2.4 Surface machining 427
3.1.2.5 Quality assurance . 428
3.1.3 Overview of plastic mold steels 428
3.1.3.1 Pre-hardened plastic mold steels . 434
3.1.3.2 Through-hardening plastic mold steels . 436XXIV Contents
3.1.3.3 Corrosion-resistant plastic mold steels . 437
3.1.3.4 Plastic mold steels for case hardening 439
3.1.3.5 Precipitation hardening plastic molds steels 440
3.1.3.6 Nitriding steels . 441
3.1.4 Concluding comment 441
3.2 Aluminum Alloys . 442
A. Erstling
3.2.1 Introduction 442
3.2.2 Mold Materials 443
3.2.2.1 Casting Materials . 444
3.2.2.2 Wrought Materials 444
3.2.2.3 Mechanical Properties and Design Guidelines 446
3.2.2.4 Corrosion . 448
3.2.2.5 Friction and Wear Resistance 449
3.2.3 Manufacture of Aluminum Molds 451
3.2.3.1 Abrasive Procedures 451
3.2.3.1.1 Machining 451
3.2.3.1.2 Grinding . 454
3.2.3.1.3 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) or Wire EDM 454
3.2.3.1.4 Etching . 454
3.2.3.2 Welding 454
3.2.3.3 Casting . 457
3.2.4 Applications 458
3.3 Copper Alloys-Nonferrous Metals 460
E. Seufert
3.3.1 Properties 460
3.3.1.1 Strength Properties . 460
3.3.1.2 Thermal Properties . 462
3.3.2.1 Turning 464
3.3.2.2 Milling . 465
3.3.2.3 Drilling . 465
3.3.2.4 Threading 466
3.3.2.5 Reaming 466
3.3.2.6 EDM . 467
3.3.2.7 Welding 467
3.3.3 Surfaces 468
3.3.3.1 Polishing . 469
3.3.3.2 Coating . 469
3.3.3.3 Structuring . 470
3.3.4 Summary . 470Contents XXV
4 Manufacturing and Machining Methods . 471
4.1 Mold Manufacturing 471
A. Klotzbücher
4.1.1 Introduction 471
4.1.2 Design . 471
4.1.2.1 Development . 471
4.1.2.2 Visualizing . 472
4.1.2.3 Cubing Model . 472
4.1.2.4 Stereolithography . 472
4.1.3 Data Model . 474
4.1.3.1 Data Feedback 474
4.1.3.2 Completion of Product Data 474
4.1.4 Data Transfer in Mold Making . 475
4.1.4.1 Verifying of Data Quality 475
4.1.4.2 Feasibility Studies 475
4.1.5 Feedback/Communication . 476
4.1.6 Design . 477
4.1.6.1 System Environment 477
4.1.6.2 Releases 478
4.1.7 Programming . 480
4.1.7.1 Software 480
4.1.7.2 Strategies 482
4.1.7.3 Choice of Machinery 482
4.1.8 Machining 483
4.1.8.1 Tooling . 483
4.1.8.2 Unattended Operation . 484
4.1.8.3 Releases 484
4.1.9 Dimensional Inspection . 485
4.1.10 Drilling/Deep Hole Drilling 485
4.1.11 Electric Discharge Machining 486
4.1.12 Surface Finishing . 487
4.1.13 Assembly . 487
4.1.14 Trials 489
4.1.15 Optimization Process and Finishing 489
4.2 Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) . 490
D. Sch?ffner, B. Mack
4.2.1 Introduction 490
4.2.2 Physical Processes 492
4.2.3 Tolerances and Key Data 494
4.2.4 Die-Sinking EDM . 494
4.2.5 Wire-cut EDM . 497XXVI Contents
4.2.6 Combined and Special Processes . 500
4.3 Galvanized Inserts and Molds 502
R. Hentrich
4.3.1 General Information . 502
4.3.2 Process Description . 502
4.3.3 Galvanized Materials 504
4.3.4 Model Materials and Model Design . 505
4.3.5 Clamps and Mounting Brackets 507
4.3.6 Finishing and Installation of Galvanized Injection Inserts . 509
4.3.7 Efficiency and Service Life . 510
4.3.8 Galvanized Molds for Other Plastics Processing Methods 513
4.3.8.1 Molds for Processing Polyurethane Foam . 514
4.3.8.2 PUR Spray Molds . 515
4.3.8.3 Laminating Molds for the Aerospace Industry . 516
4.3.9 Negative-Stamping Deep Drawing Process
(In-Mold Graining) 519
4.4 Polishing Technology in Mold Making 521
C. Steiner
4.4.1 General Information . 521
4.4.2 Definition of the Term Surface Roughness 521
4.4.3 Systematic Polishing Technique 522
4.4.4 Polishing Behavior-Influencing Factors . 524
4.4.5 Polishing Technologies 524
4.4.5.1 For Superfinishing (Polishing) Surface Preparatory
Leveling Technology . 524
4.4.5.2 Lapping 527
4.4.5.3 Polish Lapping 530
4.4.5.4 Polishing . 531
4.4.6 Ultrasonics . 532
4.4.7 Electric Discharge Machining/Erosion for Brilliant
Surfaces 532
4.5 Heat Treatment and Surface Finishing Techniques 534
P. Vetter
4.5.1 Introduction 534
4.5.2 Heat treatment of plastic mold steels . 534
4.5.2.1 Hardened and tempered plastic mold steels . 535
4.5.2.2 Through-hardening steels . 536
4.5.2.3 Corrosion-resistant steels 542
4.5.2.4 Case-hardening steels . 543
4.5.2.5 Nitriding steels . 543
4.5.2.6 Maraging mold steels . 543Contents XXVII
4.5.2.7 General recommendations for heat treatment . 544
4.5.3 Surface finishing 545
4.5.3.1 Thermal processes 547
4.5.3.1.1 Flame hardening 548
4.5.3.1.2 Laser hardening 549
4.5.3.2 Thermo-chemical processes 550
4.5.3.2.1 Case-hardening . 550
4.5.3.2.2 Nitriding . 552
4.5.3.2.3 Gas nitriding . 553
4.5.3.2.4 Plasma nitriding 554
4.5.3.2.5 Boriding 555
4.5.3.3 Electrochemical processes . 555
4.5.3.3.1 Hard chrome plating 556
4.5.3.3.2 Nickel plating . 558
4.5.3.4 Chemical and physical processes . 560
4.5.3.4.1 CVD coating 560
4.5.3.4.2 PACVD coating 561
4.5.3.4.3 PVD coating 561
4.5.3.5 Comparing and Selecting Surface Treatment Processes 564
4.6 Surface Structuring . 567
St. Krüth
4.6.1 The Photochemical Etching Technology . 567
4.6.1.1 Introduction 567
4.6.1.2 Why Structuring? . 568
4.6.1.3 From the Structure Template to the Film . 569
4.6.2 Requirements on the Mold Surface and Construction 569
4.6.2.1 Materials and the Selection of Materials 570
4.6.2.1.1 Steel . 571
4.6.2.1.2 Aluminum and Other Materials 571
4.6.2.1.3 Heat Treatment and Surface Refinement 571
4.6.2.1.4 Grain Depths and Tolerances 572
4.6.2.1.5 The Gloss Level in the Mold and in the Molded Part . 573
4.6.2.2 Processing Methods and Repair Technology 574
4.6.2.3 Draft Angles, Open Spaces, and Surface Preparation 574
4.6.2.4 Contour Changes by Welding of Inserts . 575
4.6.2.5 Contour Changes by Shrinking Inserts . 576
4.6.2.6 Structure Hardening, Fiber Orientation, Band-Type
Formation 577
4.6.2.7 Etching Test 578
4.6.3 Special Processes . 579
4.6.3.1 Design Types and Etching Combinations . 579XXVIII Contents
4.6.3.2 Limitations of the Processing Technology . 579
4.6.3.3 New Technologies . 580
4.6.4 The Execution of the Order 581
4.6.4.1 Supply . 581
4.6.4.2 Information about the Grain Area and the Mold . 581
4.6.4.3 Concluding Remark . 581
4.7 Rapid Prototyping in Mold Making . 582
A. Gebhardt
4.7.1 Rapid Tooling . 582
4.7.2 Fundamentals of the Generative Manufacturing Processes 583
4.7.2.1 Process Principle . 583
4.7.2.2 Data Flow and Data Formats . 584
4.7.2.3 Properties of Generative Components 584
4.7.2.4 Definitions for Rapid Tooling . 586
4.7.3 Generative Processes for Mold Making . 587
4.7.3.1 Polymerization-Stereolithography 588
4.7.3.2 Sintering and Melting . 590
4.7.3.3 Layer-Laminate Process . 592
4.7.3.4 Extrusion Process . 594
4.7.3.4.1 3D Printing . 596
4.7.4 Machines for Generative Mold Making . 598
4.7.5 Examples . 599
4.7.5.1 Prototype Tooling . 599
4.7.5.2 Direct Tooling . 599
4.7.6 Delimitation to Non-Generative Manufacturing Processes . 603
4.7.7 Names and Links . 605
5 Ordering and Operation of Molds . 607
5.1 Molds in the Offer Phase 607
F. Schl??er
5.1.1 Introduction 607
5.1.2 The Planning of Molds 608
5.1.2.1 Adjustment Process of Component and Mold 608
5.1.2.2 Design of the Mold under Consideration of the Product
Life Cycle . 609
5.1.2.3 Checklist for the Mold Specification 611
5.1.3 Costing in Mold Making . 613
5.1.3.1 Various Methods for Costing . 613
5.1.3.2 Simplified Costing in the Bidding and Design Phase . 614
5.1.3.2.1 Estimated Value Technology . 614
5.1.3.2.2 Reference Value Methodology 614Contents XXIX
5.1.3.2.3 Cost Element Methodology/Variable Costing 616
5.1.3.2.4 Detail Calculations/Post-Calculations . 618
5.1.4 Summary . 621
5.2 Setup and Control of Molds 622
Ch. Bader
5.2.1 Requirements for Effective Quality Assurance 622
5.2.2 Mold Sensor Systems Overview 622
5.2.2.1 Mold Cavity Pressure Sensors . 623
5.2.2.2 The Measuring Principle 623
5.2.2.3 Cavity Temperature Sensors . 625
5.2.2.4 Sensor Position . 625
5.2.2.5 Quick Connectors . 626
5.2.3 Data Acquisition and Electronics . 627
5.2.4 Setup and Optimization . 628
5.2.4.1 Cavity Pressure . 628
5.2.4.2 The Importance of the Cavity Temperature Curve . 631
5.2.4.3 Switchover to Holding Pressure 632
5.2.5 The Process Monitoring . 633
5.2.6 Factory-Wide Networking and Monitoring 635
5.2.7 Real-Time Controls in the Injection Molding Process 637
5.2.8 The Control of the Injection Molding Process . 638
5.2.9 Outlook 641
5.3 Wear on Injection Molds . 642
T. Eulenstein, U. Hinzpeter
5.3.1 Introduction 642
5.3.2 Tribological Fundamentals 642
5.3.3 Abrasion . 646
5.3.3.1 Forms of Damage on Molds and Hot Runners That Cause
Molded Part Defects . 646
5.3.3.2 Corrective Measures 649
5.3.4 Corrosion . 649
5.3.4.1 Causes and Forms of Damage on Molds That Cause
Molded Part Defects . 651
5.3.4.2 Corrective Measures 651
5.3.5 Abrasive Wear of Mold Elements . 653
5.3.5.1 Types of Damage on Mold Elements 653
5.3.5.2 Corrective Measures 654
5.3.6 Outlook and Development Trends 658XXX Contents
5.4 Maintenance, Storage, Service . 662
U. Thiesen
5.4.1 General Information . 662
5.4.2 Maintenance, Wear Supply, Hardness 663
5.4.3 Inspection 663
5.4.3.1 Time . 663
5.4.3.2 Inspection Plan . 663
5.4.4 Repair 665
5.4.4.1 Wear . 665
5.4.4.2 Leakage 666
5.4.4.3 Breakage . 667
5.4.4.4 Repair Measures 667
5.4.5 Optimization 669
5.4.6 Storage . 669
5.4.6.1 Preservation 671
5.4.6.2 Storage Location 672
5.4.6.3 Mold Labeling 673
5.4.6.4 Storage size . 674
5.4.7 Maintenance and Servicing Costs 674
Subject Index 677


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