كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach
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 كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach

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Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach
Second Edition
Yunus a. Cengel  

كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach  Y_a_c_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface xviii
Nomenclature xxvi
Chapter O N E
BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER 1
1-1 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 2
Application Areas of Heat Transfer 3
Historical Background 3
1-2 Engineering Heat Transfer 4
Modeling in Heat Transfer 5
1-3 Heat and Other Forms of Energy 6
Specific Heats of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7
Energy Transfer 9
1-4 The First Law of Thermodynamics 11
Energy Balance for Closed Systems (Fixed Mass) 12
Energy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 12
Surface Energy Balance 13
1-5 Heat Transfer Mechanisms 17
1-6 Conduction 17
Thermal Conductivity 19
Thermal Diffusivity 23
1-7 Convection 25
1-8 Radiation 27
1-9 Simultaneous Heat Transfer Mechanisms 30
1-10 Problem-Solving Technique 35
A Remark on Significant Digits 37
Engineering Software Packages 38
Engineering Equation Solver (EES) 39
Heat Transfer Tools (HTT) 39
Topic of Special Interest:
Thermal Comfort 40
Summary 46
References and Suggested Reading 47
Problems 47
Chapter T W O
HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION 61
2-1 Introduction 62
Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer 63
Multidimensional Heat Transfer 64
Heat Generation 66
2-2 One-Dimensional
Heat Conduction Equation 68
Heat Conduction Equation in a Large Plane Wall 68
Heat Conduction Equation in a Long Cylinder 69
Heat Conduction Equation in a Sphere 71
Combined One-Dimensional
Heat Conduction Equation 72
2-3 General Heat Conduction Equation 74
Rectangular Coordinates 74
Cylindrical Coordinates 75
Spherical Coordinates 76
2-4 Boundary and Initial Conditions 77
1 Specified Temperature Boundary Condition 78
2 Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition 79
3 Convection Boundary Condition 81
4 Radiation Boundary Condition 82
5 Interface Boundary Conditions 83
6 Generalized Boundary Conditions 84
2-5 Solution of Steady One-Dimensional
Heat Conduction Problems 86
2-6 Heat Generation in a Solid 97
2-7 Variable Thermal Conductivity, k(T) 104
Topic of Special Interest:
A Brief Review of Differential Equations 107
Summary 111
References and Suggested Reading 112
Problems 113
Chapter T H R E E
STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION 127
3-1 Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls 128
The Thermal Resistance Concept 129
C O N T E N T S
viiCONTENTS
viii
Thermal Resistance Network 131
Multilayer Plane Walls 133
3-2 Thermal Contact Resistance 138
3-3 Generalized Thermal Resistance Networks 143
3-4 Heat Conduction in Cylinders and Spheres 146
Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres 148
3-5 Critical Radius of Insulation 153
3-6 Heat Transfer from Finned Surfaces 156
Fin Equation 157
Fin Efficiency 160
Fin Effectiveness 163
Proper Length of a Fin 165
3-7 Heat Transfer in Common Configurations 169
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer Through Walls and Roofs 175
Summary 185
References and Suggested Reading 186
Problems 187
Chapter F O U R
TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION 209
4-1 Lumped System Analysis 210
Criteria for Lumped System Analysis 211
Some Remarks on Heat Transfer in Lumped Systems 213
4-2 Transient Heat Conduction in
Large Plane Walls, Long Cylinders,
and Spheres with Spatial Effects 216
4-3 Transient Heat Conduction in
Semi-Infinite Solids 228
4-4 Transient Heat Conduction in
Multidimensional Systems 231
Topic of Special Interest:
Refrigeration and Freezing of Foods 239
Summary 250
References and Suggested Reading 251
Problems 252
Chapter F I V E
NUMERICAL METHODS
IN HEAT CONDUCTION 265
5-1 Why Numerical Methods? 266
1 Limitations 267
2 Better Modeling 267
3 Flexibility 268
4 Complications 268
5 Human Nature 268
5-2 Finite Difference Formulation of
Differential Equations 269
5-3 One-Dimensional Steady Heat Conduction 272
Boundary Conditions 274
5-4 Two-Dimensional
Steady Heat Conduction 282
Boundary Nodes 283
Irregular Boundaries 287
5-5 Transient Heat Conduction 291
Transient Heat Conduction in a Plane Wall 293
Two-Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction 304
Topic of Special Interest:
Controlling Numerical Error 309
Summary 312
References and Suggested Reading 314
Problems 314
Chapter S I X
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTION 333
6-1 Physical Mechanism on Convection 334
Nusselt Number 336
6-2 Classification of Fluid Flows 337
Viscous versus Inviscid Flow 337
Internal versus External Flow 337
Compressible versus Incompressible Flow 337
Laminar versus Turbulent Flow 338
Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow 338
Steady versus Unsteady (Transient) Flow 338
One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 338
6-3 Velocity Boundary Layer 339
Surface Shear Stress 340
6-4 Thermal Boundary Layer 341
Prandtl Number 341
6-5 Laminar and Turbulent Flows 342
Reynolds Number 343
6-6 Heat and Momentum Transfer
in Turbulent Flow 343
6-7 Derivation of Differential
Convection Equations 345
Conservation of Mass Equation 345
Conservation of Momentum Equations 346
Conservation of Energy Equation 3486-8 Solutions of Convection Equations
for a Flat Plate 352
The Energy Equation 354
6-9 Nondimensionalized Convection
Equations and Similarity 356
6-10 Functional Forms of Friction and
Convection Coefficients 357
6-11 Analogies between Momentum
and Heat Transfer 358
Summary 361
References and Suggested Reading 362
Problems 362
Chapter S E V E N
EXTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION 367
7-1 Drag Force and Heat Transfer
in External Flow 368
Friction and Pressure Drag 368
Heat Transfer 370
7-2 Parallel Flow over Flat Plates 371
Friction Coefficient 372
Heat Transfer Coefficient 373
Flat Plate with Unheated Starting Length 375
Uniform Heat Flux 375
7-3 Flow across Cylinders and Spheres 380
Effect of Surface Roughness 382
Heat Transfer Coefficient 384
7-4 Flow across Tube Banks 389
Pressure Drop 392
Topic of Special Interest:
Reducing Heat Transfer through Surfaces 395
Summary 406
References and Suggested Reading 407
Problems 408
Chapter E I G H T
INTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION 419
8-1 Introduction 420
8-2 Mean Velocity and Mean Temperature 420
Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Tubes 422
8-3 The Entrance Region 423
Entry Lengths 425
8-4 General Thermal Analysis 426
Constant Surface Heat Flux (q·s  constant) 427
Constant Surface Temperature (Ts  constant) 428
8-5 Laminar Flow in Tubes 431
Pressure Drop 433
Temperature Profile and the Nusselt Number 434
Constant Surface Heat Flux 435
Constant Surface Temperature 436
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Tubes 436
Developing Laminar Flow in the Entrance Region 436
8-6 Turbulent Flow in Tubes 441
Rough Surfaces 442
Developing Turbulent Flow in the Entrance Region 443
Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes 443
Flow through Tube Annulus 444
Heat Transfer Enhancement 444
Summary 449
References and Suggested Reading 450
Problems 452
Chapter N I N E
NATURAL CONVECTION 459
9-1 Physical Mechanism of
Natural Convection 460
9-2 Equation of Motion and
the Grashof Number 463
The Grashof Number 465
9-3 Natural Convection over Surfaces 466
Vertical Plates (Ts  constant) 467
Vertical Plates (q·s  constant) 467
Vertical Cylinders 467
Inclined Plates 467
Horizontal Plates 469
Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres 469
9-4 Natural Convection from
Finned Surfaces and PCBs 473
Natural Convection Cooling of Finned Surfaces
(Ts  constant) 473
Natural Convection Cooling of Vertical PCBs
(q·s  constant) 474
Mass Flow Rate through the Space between Plates 475
9-5 Natural Convection inside Enclosures 477
Effective Thermal Conductivity 478
Horizontal Rectangular Enclosures 479
Inclined Rectangular Enclosures 479
Vertical Rectangular Enclosures 480
Concentric Cylinders 480
Concentric Spheres 481
Combined Natural Convection and Radiation 481
CONTENTS
ixCONTENTS
x
9-6 Combined Natural and Forced Convection 486
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer through Windows 489
Summary 499
References and Suggested Reading 500
Problems 501
Chapter T E N
BOILING AND CONDENSATION 515
10-1 Boiling Heat Transfer 516
10-2 Pool Boiling 518
Boiling Regimes and the Boiling Curve 518
Heat Transfer Correlations in Pool Boiling 522
Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling 526
10-3 Flow Boiling 530
10-4 Condensation Heat Transfer 532
10-5 Film Condensation 532
Flow Regimes 534
Heat Transfer Correlations for Film Condensation 535
10-6 Film Condensation Inside
Horizontal Tubes 545
10-7 Dropwise Condensation 545
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Pipes 546
Summary 551
References and Suggested Reading 553
Problems 553
Chapter E L E V E N
FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL RADIATION 561
11-1 Introduction 562
11-2 Thermal Radiation 563
11-3 Blackbody Radiation 565
11-4 Radiation Intensity 571
Solid Angle 572
Intensity of Emitted Radiation 573
Incident Radiation 574
Radiosity 575
Spectral Quantities 575
11-5 Radiative Properties 577
Emissivity 578
Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 582
Kirchhoff’s Law 584
The Greenhouse Effect 585
11-6 Atmospheric and Solar Radiation 586
Topic of Special Interest:
Solar Heat Gain through Windows 590
Summary 597
References and Suggested Reading 599
Problems 599
Chapter T W E L V E
RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 605
12-1 The View Factor 606
12-2 View Factor Relations 609
1 The Reciprocity Relation 610
2 The Summation Rule 613
3 The Superposition Rule 615
4 The Symmetry Rule 616
View Factors between Infinitely Long Surfaces:
The Crossed-Strings Method 618
12-3 Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces 620
12-4 Radiation Heat Transfer:
Diffuse, Gray Surfaces 623
Radiosity 623
Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or from a Surface 623
Net Radiation Heat Transfer between Any
Two Surfaces 625
Methods of Solving Radiation Problems 626
Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-Surface Enclosures 627
Radiation Heat Transfer in Three-Surface Enclosures 629
12-5 Radiation Shields and the Radiation Effect 635
Radiation Effect on Temperature Measurements 637
12-6 Radiation Exchange with Emitting and
Absorbing Gases 639
Radiation Properties of a Participating Medium 640
Emissivity and Absorptivity of Gases and Gas Mixtures 642
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer from the Human Body 649
Summary 653
References and Suggested Reading 655
Problems 655
Chapter T H I R T E E N
HEAT EXCHANGERS 667
13-1 Types of Heat Exchangers 668
13-2 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 671
Fouling Factor 674
13-3 Analysis of Heat Exchangers 67813-4 The Log Mean Temperature
Difference Method 680
Counter-Flow Heat Exchangers 682
Multipass and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:
Use of a Correction Factor 683
13-5 The Effectiveness–NTU Method 690
13-6 Selection of Heat Exchangers 700
Heat Transfer Rate 700
Cost 700
Pumping Power 701
Size and Weight 701
Type 701
Materials 701
Other Considerations 702
Summary 703
References and Suggested Reading 704
Problems 705
Chapter F O U R T E E N
MASS TRANSFER 717
14-1 Introduction 718
14-2 Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer 719
Temperature 720
Conduction 720
Heat Generation 720
Convection 721
14-3 Mass Diffusion 721
1 Mass Basis 722
2 Mole Basis 722
Special Case: Ideal Gas Mixtures 723
Fick’s Law of Diffusion: Stationary Medium Consisting
of Two Species 723
14-4 Boundary Conditions 727
14-5 Steady Mass Diffusion through a Wall 732
14-6 Water Vapor Migration in Buildings 736
14-7 Transient Mass Diffusion 740
14-8 Diffusion in a Moving Medium 743
Special Case: Gas Mixtures at Constant Pressure
and Temperature 747
Diffusion of Vapor through a Stationary Gas:
Stefan Flow 748
Equimolar Counterdiffusion 750
14-9 Mass Convection 754
Analogy between Friction, Heat Transfer, and Mass
Transfer Coefficients 758
Limitation on the Heat–Mass Convection Analogy 760
Mass Convection Relations 760
14-10 Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer 763
Summary 769
References and Suggested Reading 771
Problems 772
Chapter F I F T E E N
COOLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 785
15-1 Introduction and History 786
15-2 Manufacturing of Electronic Equipment 787
The Chip Carrier 787
Printed Circuit Boards 789
The Enclosure 791
15-3 Cooling Load of Electronic Equipment 793
15-4 Thermal Environment 794
15-5 Electronics Cooling in
Different Applications 795
15-6 Conduction Cooling 797
Conduction in Chip Carriers 798
Conduction in Printed Circuit Boards 803
Heat Frames 805
The Thermal Conduction Module (TCM) 810
15-7 Air Cooling: Natural Convection
and Radiation 812
15-8 Air Cooling: Forced Convection 820
Fan Selection 823
Cooling Personal Computers 826
15-9 Liquid Cooling 833
15-10 Immersion Cooling 836
Summary 841
References and Suggested Reading 842
Problems 842
A P P E N D I X 1
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(SI UNITS) 855
Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and
Critical-Point Properties 856
Table A-2 Boiling- and Freezing-Point
Properties 857
Table A-3 Properties of Solid Metals 858
Table A-4 Properties of Solid Nonmetals 861
Table A-5 Properties of Building Materials 862
CONTENTS
xiCONTENTS
xii
Table A-6 Properties of Insulating Materials 864
Table A-7 Properties of Common Foods 865
Table A-8 Properties of Miscellaneous
Materials 867
Table A-9 Properties of Saturated Water 868
Table A-10 Properties of Saturated
Refrigerant-134a 869
Table A-11 Properties of Saturated Ammonia 870
Table A-12 Properties of Saturated Propane 871
Table A-13 Properties of Liquids 872
Table A-14 Properties of Liquid Metals 873
Table A-15 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure 874
Table A-16 Properties of Gases at 1 atm
Pressure 875
Table A-17 Properties of the Atmosphere at
High Altitude 877
Table A-18 Emissivities of Surfaces 878
Table A-19 Solar Radiative Properties of
Materials 880
Figure A-20 The Moody Chart for the Friction
Factor for Fully Developed Flow
in Circular Tubes 881
A P P E N D I X 2
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(ENGLISH UNITS) 883
Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and
Critical-Point Properties 884
Table A-2E Boiling- and Freezing-Point
Properties 885
Table A-3E Properties of Solid Metals 886
Table A-4E Properties of Solid Nonmetals 889
Table A-5E Properties of Building Materials 890
Table A-6E Properties of Insulating Materials 892
Table A-7E Properties of Common Foods 893
Table A-8E Properties of Miscellaneous
Materials 895
Table A-9E Properties of Saturated Water 896
Table A-10E Properties of Saturated
Refrigerant-134a 897
Table A-11E Properties of Saturated Ammonia 898
Table A-12E Properties of Saturated Propane 899
Table A-13E Properties of Liquids 900
Table A-14E Properties of Liquid Metals 901
Table A-15E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure 902
Table A-16E Properties of Gases at 1 atm
Pressure 903
Table A-17E Properties of the Atmosphere at
High Altitude 905
A P P E N D I X 3
INTRODUCTION TO EES 907
INDEX 921Chapter O N E
BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER 1
Example 1-1 Heating of a Copper Ball 10
Example 1-2 Heating of Water in an
Electric Teapot 14
Example 1-3 Heat Loss from Heating Ducts
in a Basement 15
Example 1-4 Electric Heating of a House at
High Elevation 16
Example 1-5 The Cost of Heat Loss through
a Roof 19
Example 1-6 Measuring the Thermal Conductivity
of a Material 23
Example 1-7 Conversion between SI and
English Units 24
Example 1-8 Measuring Convection Heat
Transfer Coefficient 26
Example 1-9 Radiation Effect on
Thermal Comfort 29
Example 1-10 Heat Loss from a Person 31
Example 1-11 Heat Transfer between
Two Isothermal Plates 32
Example 1-12 Heat Transfer in Conventional
and Microwave Ovens 33
Example 1-13 Heating of a Plate by
Solar Energy 34
Example 1-14 Solving a System of Equations
with EES 39
Chapter T W O
HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION 61
Example 2-1 Heat Gain by a Refrigerator 67
Example 2-2 Heat Generation in a
Hair Dryer 67
Example 2-3 Heat Conduction through the
Bottom of a Pan 72
Example 2-4 Heat Conduction in a
Resistance Heater 72
Example 2-5 Cooling of a Hot Metal Ball
in Air 73
Example 2-6 Heat Conduction in a
Short Cylinder 76
Example 2-7 Heat Flux Boundary Condition 80
Example 2-8 Convection and Insulation
Boundary Conditions 82
Example 2-9 Combined Convection and
Radiation Condition 84
Example 2-10 Combined Convection, Radiation,
and Heat Flux 85
Example 2-11 Heat Conduction in a
Plane Wall 86
Example 2-12 A Wall with Various Sets of
Boundary Conditions 88
Example 2-13 Heat Conduction in the Base Plate
of an Iron 90
Example 2-14 Heat Conduction in a
Solar Heated Wall 92
Example 2-15 Heat Loss through a
Steam Pipe 94
Example 2-16 Heat Conduction through a
Spherical Shell 96
Example 2-17 Centerline Temperature of a
Resistance Heater 100
Example 2-18 Variation of Temperature in a
Resistance Heater 100
Example 2-19 Heat Conduction in a Two-Layer
Medium 102
T A B L E O F E X A M P L E S
xiiiCONTENTS
xiv
Example 2-20 Variation of Temperature in a Wall
with k(T) 105
Example 2-21 Heat Conduction through a Wall
with k(T) 106
Chapter T H R E E
STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION 127
Example 3-1 Heat Loss through a Wall 134
Example 3-2 Heat Loss through a
Single-Pane Window 135
Example 3-3 Heat Loss through
Double-Pane Windows 136
Example 3-4 Equivalent Thickness for
Contact Resistance 140
Example 3-5 Contact Resistance of
Transistors 141
Example 3-6 Heat Loss through a
Composite Wall 144
Example 3-7 Heat Transfer to a
Spherical Container 149
Example 3-8 Heat Loss through an Insulated
Steam Pipe 151
Example 3-9 Heat Loss from an Insulated
Electric Wire 154
Example 3-10 Maximum Power Dissipation of
a Transistor 166
Example 3-11 Selecting a Heat Sink for a
Transistor 167
Example 3-12 Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from
Steam Pipes 168
Example 3-13 Heat Loss from Buried
Steam Pipes 170
Example 3-14 Heat Transfer between Hot and
Cold Water Pipes 173
Example 3-15 Cost of Heat Loss through Walls
in Winter 174
Example 3-16 The R-Value of a Wood
Frame Wall 179
Example 3-17 The R-Value of a Wall with
Rigid Foam 180
Example 3-18 The R-Value of a Masonry Wall 181
Example 3-19 The R-Value of a Pitched Roof 182
Chapter F O U R
TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION 209
Example 4-1 Temperature Measurement by
Thermocouples 214
Example 4-2 Predicting the Time of Death 215
Example 4-3 Boiling Eggs 224
Example 4-4 Heating of Large Brass Plates
in an Oven 225
Example 4-5 Cooling of a Long Stainless Steel
Cylindrical Shaft 226
Example 4-6 Minimum Burial Depth of Water
Pipes to Avoid Freezing 230
Example 4-7 Cooling of a Short Brass
Cylinder 234
Example 4-8 Heat Transfer from a Short
Cylinder 235
Example 4-9 Cooling of a Long Cylinder
by Water 236
Example 4-10 Refrigerating Steaks while
Avoiding Frostbite 238
Example 4-11 Chilling of Beef Carcasses in a
Meat Plant 248
Chapter F I V E
NUMERICAL METHODS IN
HEAT CONDUCTION 265
Example 5-1 Steady Heat Conduction in a Large
Uranium Plate 277
Example 5-2 Heat Transfer from
Triangular Fins 279
Example 5-3 Steady Two-Dimensional Heat
Conduction in L-Bars 284
Example 5-4 Heat Loss through Chimneys 287
Example 5-5 Transient Heat Conduction in a Large
Uranium Plate 296
Example 5-6 Solar Energy Storage in
Trombe Walls 300
Example 5-7 Transient Two-Dimensional Heat
Conduction in L-Bars 305Chapter S I X
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTION 333
Example 6-1 Temperature Rise of Oil in a
Journal Bearing 350
Example 6-2 Finding Convection Coefficient from
Drag Measurement 360
Chapter S E V E N
EXTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION 367
Example 7-1 Flow of Hot Oil over a
Flat Plate 376
Example 7-2 Cooling of a Hot Block by Forced Air
at High Elevation 377
Example 7-3 Cooling of Plastic Sheets by
Forced Air 378
Example 7-4 Drag Force Acting on a Pipe
in a River 383
Example 7-5 Heat Loss from a Steam Pipe
in Windy Air 386
Example 7-6 Cooling of a Steel Ball by
Forced Air 387
Example 7-7 Preheating Air by Geothermal Water
in a Tube Bank 393
Example 7-8 Effect of Insulation on
Surface Temperature 402
Example 7-9 Optimum Thickness of
Insulation 403
Chapter E I G H T
INTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION 419
Example 8-1 Heating of Water in a Tube
by Steam 430
Example 8-2 Pressure Drop in a Pipe 438
Example 8-3 Flow of Oil in a Pipeline through
a Lake 439
Example 8-4 Pressure Drop in a Water Pipe 445
Example 8-5 Heating of Water by Resistance
Heaters in a Tube 446
Example 8-6 Heat Loss from the Ducts of a
Heating System 448
Chapter N I N E
NATURAL CONVECTION 459
Example 9-1 Heat Loss from Hot
Water Pipes 470
Example 9-2 Cooling of a Plate in
Different Orientations 471
Example 9-3 Optimum Fin Spacing of a
Heat Sink 476
Example 9-4 Heat Loss through a Double-Pane
Window 482
Example 9-5 Heat Transfer through a
Spherical Enclosure 483
Example 9-6 Heating Water in a Tube by
Solar Energy 484
Example 9-7 U-Factor for Center-of-Glass Section
of Windows 496
Example 9-8 Heat Loss through Aluminum Framed
Windows 497
Example 9-9 U-Factor of a Double-Door
Window 498
Chapter T E N
BOILING AND CONDENSATION 515
Example 10-1 Nucleate Boiling Water
in a Pan 526
Example 10-2 Peak Heat Flux in
Nucleate Boiling 528
Example 10-3 Film Boiling of Water on a
Heating Element 529
Example 10-4 Condensation of Steam on a
Vertical Plate 541
Example 10-5 Condensation of Steam on a
Tilted Plate 542
Example 10-6 Condensation of Steam on
Horizontal Tubes 543
Example 10-7 Condensation of Steam on
Horizontal Tube Banks 544
Example 10-8 Replacing a Heat Pipe by a
Copper Rod 550
Chapter E L E V E N
FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL RADIATION 561
Example 11-1 Radiation Emission from a
Black Ball 568
Example 11-2 Emission of Radiation from
a Lightbulb 571
Example 11-3 Radiation Incident on a
Small Surface 576
Example 11-4 Emissivity of a Surface
and Emissive Power 581
Example 11-5 Selective Absorber and
Reflective Surfaces 589
Example 11-6 Installing Reflective Films
on Windows 596
Chapter T W E L V E
RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 605
Example 12-1 View Factors Associated with
Two Concentric Spheres 614
Example 12-2 Fraction of Radiation Leaving
through an Opening 615
Example 12-3 View Factors Associated with
a Tetragon 617
Example 12-4 View Factors Associated with a
Triangular Duct 617
Example 12-5 The Crossed-Strings Method for
View Factors 619
Example 12-6 Radiation Heat Transfer in a
Black Furnace 621
Example 12-7 Radiation Heat Transfer between
Parallel Plates 627
Example 12-8 Radiation Heat Transfer in a
Cylindrical Furnace 630
Example 12-9 Radiation Heat Transfer in a
Triangular Furnace 631
Example 12-10 Heat Transfer through a Tubular
Solar Collector 632
Example 12-11 Radiation Shields 638
Example 12-12 Radiation Effect on Temperature
Measurements 639
Example 12-13 Effective Emissivity of
Combustion Gases 646
Example 12-14 Radiation Heat Transfer in a
Cylindrical Furnace 647
Example 12-15 Effect of Clothing on Thermal
Comfort 652
Chapter T H I R T E E N
HEAT EXCHANGERS 667
Example 13-1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of
a Heat Exchanger 675
Example 13-2 Effect of Fouling on the Overall Heat
Transfer Coefficient 677
Example 13-3 The Condensation of Steam in
a Condenser 685
Example 13-4 Heating Water in a Counter-Flow
Heat Exchanger 686
Example 13-5 Heating of Glycerin in a Multipass
Heat Exchanger 687
Example 13-6 Cooling of an
Automotive Radiator 688
Example 13-7 Upper Limit for Heat Transfer
in a Heat Exchanger 691
Example 13-8 Using the Effectiveness–
NTU Method 697
Example 13-9 Cooling Hot Oil by Water in a
Multipass Heat Exchanger 698
Example 13-10 Installing a Heat Exchanger to Save
Energy and Money 702
Chapter F O U R T E E N
MASS TRANSFER 717
Example 14-1 Determining Mass Fractions from
Mole Fractions 727
Example 14-2 Mole Fraction of Water Vapor at
the Surface of a Lake 728
Example 14-3 Mole Fraction of Dissolved Air
in Water 730
Example 14-4 Diffusion of Hydrogen Gas into
a Nickel Plate 732Example 14-5 Diffusion of Hydrogen through a
Spherical Container 735
Example 14-6 Condensation and Freezing of
Moisture in the Walls 738
Example 14-7 Hardening of Steel by the Diffusion
of Carbon 742
Example 14-8 Venting of Helium in the Atmosphere
by Diffusion 751
Example 14-9 Measuring Diffusion Coefficient by
the Stefan Tube 752
Example 14-10 Mass Convection inside a
Circular Pipe 761
Example 14-11 Analogy between Heat and
Mass Transfer 762
Example 14-12 Evaporative Cooling of a
Canned Drink 765
Example 14-13 Heat Loss from Uncovered Hot
Water Baths 766
Chapter F I F T E E N
COOLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 785
Example 15-1 Predicting the Junction Temperature
of a Transistor 788
Example 15-2 Determining the Junction-to-Case
Thermal Resistance 789
Example 15-3 Analysis of Heat Conduction in
a Chip 799
Example 15-4 Predicting the Junction Temperature
of a Device 802
Example 15-5 Heat Conduction along a PCB with
Copper Cladding 804
Example 15-6 Thermal Resistance of an Epoxy
Glass Board 805
Example 15-7 Planting Cylindrical Copper Fillings
in an Epoxy Board 806
Example 15-8 Conduction Cooling of PCBs by a
Heat Frame 807
Example 15-9 Cooling of Chips by the Thermal
Conduction Module 812
Example 15-10 Cooling of a Sealed
Electronic Box 816
Example 15-11 Cooling of a Component by
Natural Convection 817
Example 15-12 Cooling of a PCB in a Box by
Natural Convection 818
Example 15-13 Forced-Air Cooling of a
Hollow-Core PCB 826
Example 15-14 Forced-Air Cooling of a Transistor
Mounted on a PCB 828
Example 15-15 Choosing a Fan to Cool
a Computer 830
Example 15-16 Cooling of a Computer
by a Fan 831
Example 15-17 Cooling of Power Transistors on
a Cold Plate by Water 835
Example 15-18 Immersion Cooling of
a Logic Chip 840
Example 15-19 Cooling of a Chip by Boiling 840  


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