كتاب Metal Cutting Theory and Practice
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Metal Cutting Theory and Practice

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Metal Cutting Theory and Practice    كتاب Metal Cutting Theory and Practice  Emptyالإثنين 13 أبريل 2020, 12:38 am

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Metal Cutting Theory and Practice
Third Edition
David A. Stephenson
John S. Agapiou  

كتاب Metal Cutting Theory and Practice  M_a_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the Third Edition xv
Preface to the Second Edition xvii
Preface to the First Edition .xix
Authors xxi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Scope of the Subject 1
1.2 Historical Development .1
1.2.1 Ancient and Medieval Predecessors 1
1.2.2 Canon Boring .4
1.2.3 The Industrial Revolution and the Steam Engine 7
1.2.4 Nineteenth-Century Quantity Production Industries . 10
1.2.5 Early Scientific Studies 15
1.2.6 Twentieth-Century Mass Production 17
1.2.7 Numerical Control 20
References 22
Chapter 2 Metal-Cutting Operations 27
2.1 Introduction .27
2.2 Turning 27
2.2.1 Hard Turning 29
2.3 Boring 30
2.4 Drilling 31
2.4.1 Deep-Hole Drilling 34
2.4.2 Microdrilling 37
2.5 Reaming .37
2.6 Milling .37
2.7 Planing and Shaping 44
2.8 Broaching 45
2.9 Tapping and Threading .46
2.10 Grinding and Related Abrasive Processes 56
2.11 Roller Burnishing 64
2.12 Deburring 65
2.13 Examples .66
2.14 Problems 78
References 80
Chapter 3 Machine Tools 83
3.1 Introduction .83
3.2 Production Machine Tools .83
3.3 CNC Machine Tools and CNC-Based Manufacturing Systems 88
3.3.1 General .88
3.3.2 Types of CNC Machines 89
3.3.3 CNC-Based Manufacturing Systems .99vi Contents
3.4 Machine Tool Structures . 108
3.5 Slides and Guideways 119
3.6 Axis Drives 122
3.7 Spindles . 127
3.8 Coolant Systems 141
3.9 Tool Changing Systems . 142
3.10 Pallets 145
3.11 Energy Use in CNC-Machining Centers . 146
3.12 Examples . 147
References 150
Chapter 4 Cutting Tools 159
4.1 Introduction . 159
4.2 Cutting-Tool Materials . 159
4.2.1 Introduction 159
4.2.2 Material Properties . 159
4.2.2.1 High-Speed Steel (HSS) and Related Materials . 163
4.2.2.2 Sintered Tungsten Carbide (WC) 164
4.2.2.3 Cermets . 166
4.2.2.4 Ceramics . 167
4.2.2.5 Polycrystalline Tools . 169
4.2.2.6 Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) 170
4.2.2.7 Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) . 171
4.3 Tool Coatings . 172
4.3.1 Coating Methods 172
4.3.2 Conventional Coating Materials . 174
4.3.3 Diamond and CBN Coatings 177
4.4 Basic Types of Cutting Tools . 178
4.5 Turning Tools . 179
4.5.1 Indexable Inserts 179
4.5.2 Groove Geometry (Chip Breaker) 183
4.5.3 Edge Preparations 183
4.5.4 Wiper Geometry . 185
4.5.5 Insert Clamping Methods . 185
4.5.6 Tool Angles 186
4.5.7 Thread Turning Tools . 187
4.5.8 Grooving and Cutoff Tools . 188
4.5.9 Form Tools . 189
4.6 Boring Tools 190
4.6.1 Single Point Boring Tools . 190
4.6.2 Multipoint Boring Tools . 196
4.7 Milling Tools . 196
4.7.1 Types of Milling Cutters 197
4.7.2 Cutter Design 200
4.7.3 Milling Inserts and Edge Clamping Methods 208
4.8 Drilling Tools 209
4.8.1 Twist Drill Structural Properties 211
4.8.2 Twist Drill Point Geometries . 214
4.8.3 Spade and Indexable Drills 223Contents vii
4.8.4 Subland and Step Drills 227
4.8.5 Multi-Tip (Deep Hole) Drills 228
4.8.6 Other Types of Drills 233
4.8.7 Chip Removal .234
4.8.8 Drill Life and Accuracy .237
4.8.9 Hole Deburring Tools . 239
4.9 Reamers .242
4.9.1 Types of Reamers .243
4.9.2 Reamer Geometry 244
4.10 Threading Tools .246
4.10.1 Taps 246
4.10.2 Thread Mills . 253
4.11 Grinding Wheels . 255
4.11.1 Abrasives 255
4.11.2 Bonds 257
4.11.3 Wheel Grades and Grit Sizes . 257
4.11.4 Operational Factors 259
4.12 Microsizing and Honing Tools 260
4.13 Burnishing Tools .263
4.14 Examples .263
4.15 Problems 274
References 275
Chapter 5 Toolholders and Workholders 281
5.1 Introduction . 281
5.2 Toolholding Systems . 281
5.2.1 General . 281
5.2.2 Modular and Quick-Change Toolholding Systems 284
5.3 Toolholder/Spindle Connections .290
5.3.1 General .290
5.3.2 Conventional Tapered “CAT-V” Connection .295
5.3.3 Face-Contact CAT-V Interfaces .303
5.3.4 HSK Interface .309
5.3.5 Proprietary Interfaces . 314
5.3.6 Quick-Change Interfaces (Toolholders/Adapters) 316
5.3.7 Toolholders for Turning Machines . 322
5.3.8 Evaluation and Comparison of Toolholder/Spindle Interface 323
5.4 Cutting Tool Clamping Systems 328
5.4.1 Milling Cutter Drives . 328
5.4.2 Side-Lock-Type Chucks 330
5.4.3 Collet Chucks . 331
5.4.4 Hydraulic Chucks . 336
5.4.5 Milling Chucks . 338
5.4.6 Shrink-Fit Chucks . 339
5.4.7 Proprietary Chucks . 341
5.4.8 Tapping Attachments .344
5.4.9 Reaming Attachments 345
5.4.10 Comparison of Cutting Tool Clamping Systems 345
5.5 Balancing Requirements for Toolholders 358viii Contents
5.6 Fixtures 362
5.6.1 General . 362
5.6.2 Types of Fixtures 364
5.6.3 Fixture Analysis . 370
5.7 Examples . 373
5.8 Problems 387
References 387
Chapter 6 Mechanics of Cutting . 393
6.1 Introduction . 393
6.2 Measurement of Cutting Forces and Chip Thickness . 393
6.3 Force Components . 395
6.4 Empirical Force Models 401
6.5 Specific Cutting Power 402
6.6 Chip Formation and Primary Plastic Deformation .404
6.7 Tool–Chip Friction and Secondary Deformation 412
6.8 Shear Plane and Slip-Line Theories for Continuous Chip Formation 416
6.9 Shear Plane Models for Oblique Cutting .420
6.10 Shear Zone Models 422
6.11 Minimum Work and Uniqueness Assumptions .425
6.12 Finite Element Models .426
6.13 Discontinuous Chip Formation . 431
6.14 Built-Up Edge Formation 434
6.15 Examples . 436
6.16 Problems 438
References 439
Chapter 7 Cutting Temperatures .449
7.1 Introduction .449
7.2 Measurement of Cutting Temperatures .449
7.2.1 Tool–Work Thermocouple Method and Related Techniques .449
7.2.2 Conventional Thermocouple Methods . 453
7.2.3 Metallurgical Methods . 454
7.2.4 Infrared Methods 454
7.2.5 Other Methods 456
7.3 Factors Affecting Cutting Temperatures . 456
7.4 Analytical Models for Steady-State Temperatures 457
7.5 Finite Element and Other Numerical Models .463
7.6 Temperatures in Interrupted Cutting .467
7.7 Temperatures in Drilling .469
7.8 Thermal Expansion . 471
7.9 Examples . 472
7.10 Problem 476
References 476
Chapter 8 Machining Process Analysis 483
8.1 Introduction .483
8.2 Turning 484
8.3 Boring 486Contents ix
8.4 Milling .487
8.4.1 Face Milling 489
8.4.2 End Milling .490
8.4.3 Ball End Milling 494
8.5 Drilling 494
8.6 Force Equations and Baseline Data .502
8.7 Process Simulation Application Examples 507
8.8 Finite Element Analysis for Clamping, Fixturing, and Workpiece
Distortion Applications . 512
8.9 Finite Element Application Examples . 514
8.10 Examples . 519
8.11 Problems 524
References 525
Chapter 9 Tool Wear and Tool Life . 529
9.1 Introduction . 529
9.2 Types of Tool Wear 530
9.3 Measurement of Tool Wear . 537
9.4 Tool Wear Mechanisms . 538
9.5 Tool Wear: Material Considerations 541
9.6 Tool Life Testing 548
9.7 Tool Life Equations .549
9.8 Prediction of Tool Wear Rates . 551
9.9 Tool Fracture and Edge Chipping . 554
9.10 Drill Wear and Breakage . 556
9.11 Thermal Cracking and Tool Fracture in Milling 560
9.12 Tool Wear Monitoring . 561
9.13 Examples . 562
9.14 Problems 568
References 569
Chapter 10 Surface Finish, Integrity, and Flatness . 575
10.1 Introduction . 575
10.2 Measurement of Surface Finish . 576
10.2.1 Stylus Measurements . 576
10.2.2 Other Methods . 581
10.3 Surface Finish in Turning and Boring . 582
10.4 Surface Finish in Milling 586
10.5 Surface Finish in Drilling and Reaming .590
10.6 Surface Finish in Grinding 590
10.7 Residual Stresses in Machined Surfaces .592
10.8 White Layer Formation .594
10.9 Surface Burning in Grinding . 595
10.10 Measurement of Surface Flatness .597
10.11 Surface Flatness Compensation in Face Milling .599
10.11.1 Tool Path Direction Compensation .600
10.11.2 Depth of Cut Compensation 603
10.11.3 Tool Feed Compensation .605x Contents
10.11.4 Spindle-Part Tilt Compensation 606
10.11.5 Surface Flatness Compensation Methods Characteristics 608
10.12 Examples .609
10.13 Problems 618
References 618
Chapter 11 Machinability of Materials . 623
11.1 Introduction . 623
11.2 Machinability Criteria, Tests, and Indices 623
11.3 Chip Control 627
11.4 Burr Formation and Control 633
11.5 Machinability of Engineering Materials . 638
11.5.1 Magnesium Alloys . 638
11.5.2 Aluminum Alloys 640
11.5.3 Metal Matrix Composites 642
11.5.4 Copper Alloys 643
11.5.5 Cast Iron 644
11.5.6 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels .647
11.5.7 Stainless Steels 650
11.5.8 Powder Metal (P/M) Materials 652
11.5.9 Titanium Alloys . 653
11.5.10 Nickel Alloys .654
11.5.11 Depleted Uranium Alloys 656
References 657
Chapter 12 Machining Dynamics .665
12.1 Introduction .665
12.2 Vibration Analysis Methods 665
12.3 Vibration of Discrete (Lumped Mass) Systems .666
12.3.1 Single Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) Systems 668
12.3.2 Multiple Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) Systems . 673
12.4 Types of Machine Tool Vibration 678
12.5 Forced Vibration 680
12.6 Self-Excited Vibrations (Chatter) 683
12.6.1 Regenerative Chatter, Prediction of Stability Charts (Lobes) .684
12.6.2 Tlusty’s Theory 687
12.6.3 Shear Plane Method .694
12.6.4 Other Methods .695
12.6.5 Nonregenerative Chatter, Mode Coupling .698
12.7 Chatter Prediction 700
12.7.1 Experimental Machine Tool Vibration Analysis . 701
12.7.2 Measurement of Transfer Functions 702
12.8 Vibration Control .706
12.8.1 Stiffness Improvement .706
12.8.2 Isolation .707
12.8.3 Damping and Dynamic Absorption 707
12.8.4 Tool Design 709
12.8.5 Variation of Process Parameters 709Contents xi
12.9 Active Vibration Control . 710
12.10 Examples . 716
12.11 Problems 739
References 743
Chapter 13 Machining Economics and Optimization 751
13.1 Introduction . 751
13.2 Role of a Computerized Optimization System 753
13.3 Economic Considerations 755
13.4 Optimization of Machining Systems: Basic Factors . 756
13.5 Optimization of Machining Conditions 757
13.6 Formulation of the Optimization Problem 758
13.6.1 Formulation of Objective Function 758
13.6.2 Constraints 761
13.6.3 Problem Statement . 763
13.7 Optimization Techniques 764
13.7.1 Single-Pass Operation 764
13.7.2 Multipass Operation .764
13.7.3 Single-Station Multifunctional System (SSMS) . 765
13.7.4 Multistage Machining System 765
13.7.5 Cutting Tool Replacement Strategies . 766
13.7.6 Cutting Tool Strategies for Multifunctional Part
Configurations . 767
13.8 Examples . 768
13.9 Problems 776
References 777
Chapter 14 Cutting Fluids . 783
14.1 Introduction . 783
14.2 Types of Cutting Fluids .784
14.2.1 Neat Oils .784
14.2.2 Water-Based Fluids 784
14.2.3 Gaseous Fluids . 786
14.2.4 Air–Oil Mists (Aerosols) 787
14.2.5 Cryogenic Fluids 788
14.3 Coolant Application 788
14.4 Filtering . 789
14.5 Condition Monitoring and Waste Treatment .794
14.6 Health and Safety Concerns 795
14.6.1 Toxicity .796
14.6.2 Dermatitis .796
14.6.3 Respiratory Disorders .796
14.6.4 Microbial Infections .796
14.6.5 Cancer 797
14.7 Dry and Near-Dry Machining Methods 797
14.8 Test Procedure for Cutting Fluid Evaluation . 798
References 798xii Contents
Chapter 15 Minimum Quantity Lubrication .803
15.1 Introduction .803
15.2 MQL System Types .803
15.2.1 External and Internal Mist Delivery 804
15.2.2 One- and Two-Channel MQL Systems 805
15.3 MQL Oils .809
15.4 Machine Tools for MQL 810
15.5 MQL Cutting Tools . 812
15.6 Thermal Management and Dimensional Control 817
15.7 Air and Chip Handling 818
15.8 MQL Research Areas 819
15.8.1 Hard Alloy Machining and Grinding . 819
15.8.2 Alternative Carrying Gases and Cooling Strategies 820
15.8.3 MQL Process Modeling .820
15.8.4 Oil Additives and Ionic Fluids . 821
References 822
Chapter 16 Accuracy and Error Compensation of CNC Machining Systems 827
16.1 Introduction .827
16.2 Machine Tool Errors 828
16.3 Machine Tool Accuracy Characterization . 837
16.4 Machine Tool Performance Evaluation . 839
16.5 Method for Compensating the Dimensional Accuracy of CNC
Machining System .865
16.5.1 Error Reduction and Compensation Strategies 865
16.5.2 Error Modeling Methods 872
16.5.3 Error Compensation Offset Methods .877
16.6 Examples .882
References 889
Chapter 17 Gear Machining .897
17.1 Introduction .897
17.2 Gear Types and Geometry .897
17.2.1 Gear Types .897
17.2.2 Gear Geometry and Accuracy Classes .898
17.3 Tooth Machining Methods for Parallel Axis Gears 900
17.3.1 Broaching . 901
17.3.2 Form Milling 904
17.3.3 Hobbing 905
17.3.4 Shaping .907
17.3.5 Form Grinding from the Solid .909
17.4 Bevel and Hypoid Gear Machining .909
17.4.1 Peripheral Milling 910
17.4.2 Face Milling . 912
17.4.3 Face Hobbing 913
17.5 Five-Axis Machining of Gears 914
17.5.1 Parallel Axis Gears 915
17.5.2 Bevel Gears 916Contents xiii
17.6 Gear Tooth Finishing Methods 917
17.6.1 Shaving . 917
17.6.2 Skiving (Hard Finishing) . 919
17.6.2.1 Skiving: Hard Recutting Processes 919
17.6.2.2 Skiving: Other Processes 920
17.6.3 Grinding .920
17.6.3.1 Form Grinding 921
17.6.3.2 Indexing Generating Grinding .922
17.6.3.3 Continuous Generating Grinding .923
17.6.4 Honing 924
17.6.5 Lapping .925
References 926
Index 933


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