كتاب Liquid Moulding Technologies
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Liquid Moulding Technologies

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عدد المساهمات : 15950
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Liquid Moulding Technologies   كتاب Liquid Moulding Technologies Emptyالإثنين 13 أبريل 2020, 12:19 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Liquid Moulding Technologies
Resin Transfer Moulding, Structural Reaction Injection
Moulding and Related Processing Techniques
C D Rudd
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Nottingham, UK
A C Long
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Nottingham, UK
K N Kendall
Ford Scientific Research Laboratory,
Dearborn, Michigan, USA
C G E Mangin
Ford Scientific Research Laboratory,
Dearborn, Michigan,

كتاب Liquid Moulding Technologies L_m_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements . xvii
1. Introduction to Liquid Composite Moulding 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Composites Manufacturing Techniques 2
1.2.1 Hand Laminating or Wet Lay-up . 2
1.2.2 Vacuum Bagging, Vacuum Forming and
Autoclaving . 3
1.2.3 Compression Moulding . 4
1.2.4 Hot and Cold Press Moulding . 5
1.2.5 Injection Moulding . 6
1.2.6 Filament Winding 6
1.2.7 Pultrusion 7
1.2.8 Liquid Composite Moulding (LCM) 8
1.3 Process Technology 9
1.4 History 10
1.5 Selection Criteria for Automotive Manufacture 12
1.6 Automotive Applications of Liquid Moulding 13
1.6.1 Low Volume Applications 13
1.6.2 Medium Volume Applications 15
1.6.3 High Volume Applications . 16
1.6.4 Growth in Liquid Moulding Applications 16
1.6.5 Cost Considerations 19
1.7 Automotive Case Studies 19
1.7.1 Ford (US) Escort Front End Structure
(1986) 19vi Contents
1.7.2 Ford (US) Aerostar All-wheel Drive
Cross-member (1987) . 21
1.7.3 The Ford P100 Pickup Tailgate 22
1.7.4 The Ford Escort/Sierra Cosworth
Undershield . 23
1.7.5 The Ford Transit Extra High Roof
(1994) 25
1.7.6 Ford #3 Cross-member (1994) . 27
1.8 Aerospace Applications of Liquid Moulding . 28
1.8.1 Aircraft Radomes 29
1.8.2 Aircraft Propeller Blades . 31
1.8.3 RTM of Airframe Components 33
1.8.4 Other Aerospace Applications 33
1.9 Additional Transport and Industrial Applications . 34
1.9.1 Rail Transport Applications . 35
References 36
2. Process Fundamentals 38
2.1 Introduction . 38
2.2 Air Removal 38
2.3 Continuous Peripheral Venting 39
2.4 Discrete Venting . 42
2.5 Injection-compression 42
2.6 Sealed Moulds . 44
2.7 Vapour Purging 44
2.8 Vacuum Assisted Processes . 45
2.9 Vibration Assisted Processes 46
2.10 Vacuum Impregnation Methods . 47
2.11 Flexible Tool Processes . 48
2.12 Semi-rigid Tool Processes . 50
2.13 Resin Film Infusion (RFI) . 51
2.14 Practicalities . 52 Contents vii
2.15 Void Formation Mechanisms . 53
2.16 Degassing 58
2.17 Fibre Wetting 58
2.18 Sandwich Structures 59
2.18.1 Impregnation Issues 59
2.18.2 Core Movement 61
References 63
3. Resin Systems 65
3.1 Introduction . 65
3.2 Unsaturated Polyester Resins . 66
3.3 Initiator Systems . 68
3.3.1 Curing Agents . 69
3.3.2 Room Temperature Curing
Formulations . 69
3.3.3 Elevated Temperature Curing . 71
3.3.4 Mixed Initiators 73
3.3.5 Inhibitors . 74
3.3.6 Other Influences on Choice of Resin
System Formulation 75
3.3.7 Effects of Mould Temperature . 76
3.3.8 Initiation – Practicalities 77
3.3.9 Effects of Post-cure Treatments . 78
3.4 Fillers and Additives . 79
3.4.1 Mineral Fillers 79
3.4.2 Shrinkage Control Additives 82
3.5 Epoxy Resins . 84
3.6 Bismaleimide Resins 88
3.7 Vinyl Ester Resins 88
3.8 Polyurethanes and Hybrids 90
3.8.1 Polyurethanes . 90
3.8.2 Urethane Hybrids 94viii Contents
3.9 Core Materials 95
References 97
4. Reinforcement Materials 100
4.1 Introduction . 100
4.2 Fibres 100
4.2.1 Glass Fibres 101
4.2.2 Carbon Fibres . 104
4.2.3 Aramid Fibres 104
4.3 Fibre Surface Treatments 105
4.3.1 Glass Fibres 106
4.3.2 Carbon Fibres . 108
4.4 Commercially Available Reinforcements . 110
4.4.1 Chopped Strand Mat (CSM) . 110
4.4.2 Continuous Filament Random Mat
(CFRM) . 111
4.4.3 Woven Fabrics 112
4.4.4 Non-crimp Fabrics (NCFs) 115
4.4.5 Flow Enhancement Fabrics 115
4.4.6 Combination Fabrics . 117
4.4.7 Surface Tissue (Veil) . 118
4.5 Binders . 119
References 122
5. Processing Equipment . 124
5.1 Introduction . 124
5.2 Resin Injection Equipment . 124
5.2.1 Pressure Pot Injection Systems for RTM 125
5.2.2 Reciprocating Air Driven Pumps for
RTM 127
5.2.3 Gear Pumps 133
5.2.4 Hydraulic Resin Delivery Systems for
RTM 133 Contents ix
5.2.5 Hydraulic Resin Delivery Systems for
SRIM . 134
5.3 Injection and Mixing Equipment . 136
5.3.1 The Injection Nozzle . 137
5.3.2 Injection Valves . 137
5.3.3 Static Mixers . 139
5.3.4 Impingement Mix Heads . 141
5.3.5 Evaluation of Mix Quality 142
5.4 Mould Manipulation and Clamping Equipment 144
5.4.1 Hoists and Peripheral Clamps 144
5.4.2 Mould Manipulators . 145
5.4.3 Air Bag Press 146
5.4.4 Booking Press . 147
5.4.5 Shuttle Bed Press . 147
5.4.6 Carousel 148
5.4.7 Mould Manipulation for SRIM 149
References 149
6. Preform Design and Manufacture . 151
6.1 Introduction . 151
6.2 Design Considerations . 151
6.2.1 Mechanical Requirements 152
6.2.2 Processing Requirements . 155
6.3 Manufacturing Techniques 157
6.3.1 Chopped Fibre Spray-up . 158
6.3.2 Slurry Process . 160
6.3.3 Matched Mould Forming . 160
6.3.4 Braiding . 162
6.3.5 3D Weaving 166
6.3.6 Knitting 169
6.3.7 Continuous Fibre Placement . 170
6.3.8 Embroidery Techniques 172x Contents
6.4 Draping and Deformation . 173
6.4.1 Fabric Deformation Mechanisms 175
6.4.2 Kinematic Drape Modelling . 176
6.4.3 Drape Modelling Examples . 183
6.4.4 Drape Model Validation . 186
6.4.5 Effect of Deformation on Processing and
Performance . 192
6.4.6 Alternative Deformation Modelling
Approaches . 197
6.5 Nomenclature . 199
References 200
7. Materials Characterisation . 203
7.1 Introduction . 203
7.2 Reinforcement Permeability Measurement . 203
7.2.1 Introduction . 203
7.2.2 Rectilinear Testing 207
7.2.3 Radial Measurement – Constant
Pressure Testing . 209
7.2.4 Radial Measurement – Constant Flow
Rate Testing 212
7.2.5 Comparison of Test Methods 216
7.2.6 Summary . 220
7.3 Reinforcement Formability . 220
7.3.1 Simple Shear Testing 222
7.3.2 Uniaxial Tensile Testing 225
7.3.3 Hemispherical Forming . 228
7.3.4 Compaction Testing 230
7.3.5 Bending Tests . 234
7.4 Resin Characterisation . 236
7.4.1 Rheology . 237
7.4.2 Thermodynamic Wetting . 239
7.4.3 Cure Kinetics and Heat Capacity 241 Contents xi
7.4.4 Thermal Conductivity Measurement . 245
References 247
Appendix: Determination of Principal in-plane Permeabilities
from a Constant Flow Rate Impregnation Test . 251
8. Process Modelling 254
8.1 Introduction . 254
8.2 Fundamentals of Flow Modelling . 256
8.3 One-dimensional Flow . 257
8.3.1 Rectilinear Flow 257
8.3.2 Radial Flow . 259
8.3.3 Isothermal ID Flow Modelling Examples . 261
8.4 Two and Three Dimensional Flow 263
8.4.1 Generalised Equations for Isothermal
Mould Filling 263
8.4.2 Determination of the Permeability Tensor
Components 267
8.4.3 Numerical Methods for Determining the
Pressure Field . 268
8.4.4 Techniques for Flow Front
Advancement 269
8.4.5 Isothermal Flow Modelling Examples . 273
8.4.6 Non-isothermal Flow Modelling . 280
8.5 Discussion 289
8.6 Nomenclature . 291
References 292
9. Non-isothermal RTM . 294
9.1 Introduction . 294
9.2 The Thermal Cycle . 295
9.2.1 Basic Form and Processing Window 295
9.2.2 The Through-thickness Temperature
Distribution 299 xii Contents
9.3 The Pressure Cycle . 302
9.4 Pressures during Isothermal Impregnation . 302
9.5 Pressures during Non-isothermal Impregnation 302
9.6 The Post-impregnation Pressure Cycle . 304
9.6.1 Controlling Post-impregnation
Pressures 307
9.6.2 Post-impregnation Pressures and Part
Thickness 307
9.6.3 Pre-exotherm Pressure . 308
9.6.4 Effects of Resin Inlet Temperature . 308
9.7 Cycle Time Reduction during Non-isothermal RTM 309
9.8 Minimising Impregnation Time . 310
9.8.1 Resin Preheat Strategies 310
9.9 Minimising Gel and Cure Times – Phased Initiator
RTM 315
9.10 Summary 317
References 318
10. Process Monitoring and Control . 320
10.1 Introduction . 320
10.2 Thermal Monitoring Techniques 321
10.3 Thermal Monitoring during Impregnation 324
10.4 Thermal Monitoring during Gel and Cure 324
10.5 Pressure Monitoring Techniques . 326
10.6 Pressure Monitoring during Impregnation . 327
10.7 Pressure Monitoring during Gel and Cure . 329
10.8 Dielectric Monitoring . 330
10.9 Alternative Methods . 334
10.9.1 Electrochemical Monitoring . 334
10.9.2 Thermistors . 335
10.9.3 Evanescent Wave Sensing . 336
10.9.4 Acoustic Techniques . 337 Contents xiii
10.10 Data Acquisition for IPC . 338
10.11 IPC Strategies 340
10.11.1 Fill and Cure Sensing 340
10.11.2 In-process Quality Control 341
10.11.3 Process Monitoring . 341
References 343
11. Mould Design 345
11.1 Introduction . 345
11.2 Factors Influencing Mould Construction 345
11.3 Tooling Options 346
11.4 Mould Materials 347
11.4.1 Soft Tooling . 348
11.4.2 Polymer Composite Tooling 350
11.4.3 Kirksite Tooling . 352
11.4.4 Metal Spray Tooling 352
11.4.5 Ceramic Tooling 354
11.4.6 Monolithic Graphite Tooling 355
11.4.7 Nickel Shell Tooling 355
11.4.8 Monolithic Metal Tooling . 358
11.4.9 Fabricated Metal Tooling 360
11.5 Mould Design Procedures . 361
11.5.1 Thermal Design . 361
11.5.2 Flow Path Design 365
11.5.3 Mould Maintenance . 373
11.6 Shell Moulds . 378
11.6.1 Shell Mould Design . 378
11.6.2 Design Considerations for Nickel Shell
Manufacture 379
11.6.3 Supporting Framework 380
References 381xiv Contents
12. Implementation Issues . 382
12.1 Introduction . 382
12.2 Mould Release . 382
12.2.1 Internal Mould Release Agents . 384
12.2.2 External Mould Release Agents 385
12.2.3 Evaluating Release Performance . 386
12.3 Health and Safety Considerations . 391
12.3.1 Styrene Emissions 392
12.3.2 Epoxy Resins 394
12.3.3 Polyurethane Resins . 394
12.3.4 Reinforcements . 394
12.3.5 Trimming . 395
12.4 Recycling and Liquid Moulding 395
12.4.1 Mechanical Recycling . 396
12.4.2 Chemical Recycling 396
12.4.3 Thermal Recycling 398
12.4.4 Recycled Fibre Reinforcements in Liquid
Moulding . 399
References 400
13. Technical Cost Analysis Applied to LCM . 402
13.1 Introduction . 402
13.2. Methodology and Model Construction . 403
13.2.1 Introduction . 403
13.2.2 Variable Cost Elements 404
13.2.3 Fixed Cost Elements . 407
13.2.4 Summary of Fixed and Variable Costs . 412
13.2.5 Process Parameters . 412
13.2.6 Recycling and Rework Looping 413
13.2.7 Summary of Technical Cost Analysis . 418
13.3 Case Study . 419
13.3.1 Introduction . 419 Contents xv
13.3.2 The Steel Base Case 420
13.3.3 Alternative Design – RTM Crossmember . 420
13.3.4 Comparative Analysis . 421
13.4 Conclusion 422
References 423
Appendix: Supplier Information . 424
Glossary . 429
Index . 445


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