كتاب Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application
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 كتاب Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application    كتاب Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application  Emptyالأحد 01 مارس 2020, 5:09 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application
Harald Naunheimer, Bernd Bertsche, Joachim Ryborz, Wolfgang Novak
In Collaboration with Peter Fietkau
Second Edition
With 487 Figures and 85 Tables

كتاب Automotive Transmissions - Fundamentals, Selection, Design and Application  A_t_f_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
Terms and Symbols XVII
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Preface .1
1.2 History of Automotive Transmissions .7
1.2.1 Basic Innovations 7
1.2.2 Development of Vehicles and Drive Units 9
1.2.3 Stages in the Development of Automotive Transmissions 10
1.2.4 Development of Gear-Tooth Systems and other
Transmission Components 20
1.2.5 Development of Torque Converters and Clutches .23
1.2.6 Investigation of Phenomena: Transmission Losses and
Efficiency 24
1.2.7 Historical Overview 26
2 Overview of the Traffic – Vehicle – Transmission System 28
2.1 Fundamental Principles of Traffic and Vehicle Engineering .28
2.1.1 The Significance of Motor Vehicles in our Mobile World 30
2.1.2 Trends in Traffic Engineering .34
2.1.3 Passenger and Goods Transport Systems 36
2.1.4 Alternative Transport Concepts .40
2.2 The Market and Development Situation for Vehicles, Gearboxes
and Components 41
2.2.1 Market Situation and Production Figures 41
2.2.2 Development Situation 46
2.3 Basic Elements of Vehicle and Transmission Engineering .46
2.3.1 Systematic Classification of Vehicles and Vehicle Use 47
2.3.2 Why do Vehicles Need Gearboxes? 49
2.3.3 Main and Auxiliary Functions of Vehicle Transmissions,
Requirements Profile .51
2.3.4 Interrelations: Direction of Rotation, Transmission Ratio,
Torque .52
2.3.5 Road Profiles, Load Profiles, Typical Vehicle Use and
Driver Types 56
2.4 Fundamental Performance Features of Vehicle Transmissions .58
2.4.1 Service Life and Reliability of Transmissions 58
2.4.2 Centre Distance Characteristic Value 60X Contents
2.4.3 Gearbox Mass Characteristic Value 62
2.4.4 Gearbox Cost Characteristic Value . 64
2.4.5 Gearbox Noise . 65
2.4.6 Gearbox Losses and Efficiency . 66
2.5 Trends in Transmission Design . 67
3 Mediating the Power Flow . 73
3.1 Power Requirement . 73
3.1.1 Wheel Resistance 73
3.1.2 Adhesion, Dynamic Wheel Radius and Slip . 75
3.1.3 Air Resistance . 77
3.1.4 Gradient Resistance . 79
3.1.5 Acceleration Resistance 80
3.1.6 Total Driving Resistance . 81
3.1.7 Efficiency Map 82
3.2 Diversity of Prime Movers 85
3.2.1 Overview . 86
3.2.2 Electric Drive with Electric Energy Accumulator . 87
3.2.3 Electric Drive with Fuel Cell 87
3.2.4 Hybrid Drive . 89
3.3 Power Output, Combustion Engine Characteristic 93
3.3.1 Torque/Engine Speed Characteristic . 95
3.3.2 Engine Spread, Throttle Map 97
3.3.3 Consumption Map . 98
4 Power Conversion: Selecting the Ratios . 100
4.1 Powertrain . 101
4.2 Total Ratio and Overall Gear Ratio . 102
4.2.1 Overall Gear Ratio iG,tot . 103
4.2.2 Selecting the Largest Powertrain Ratio iA,max 104
4.2.3 Selecting the Smallest Powertrain Ratio iA,min . 105
4.2.4 Final Ratio . 109
4.3 Selecting the Intermediate Gears . 109
4.3.1 Velocity/Engine-Speed Diagram . 110
4.3.2 Geometrical Gear Steps . 111
4.3.3 Progressive Gear Steps 111
4.4 Ratio Variation in Continuously Variable Transmissions . 113
5 Matching Engine and Transmission . 115
5.1 Traction Diagram . 117
5.1.1 Deriving a Traction Diagram (Example) . 119
5.1.2 Engine Braking Force . 120
5.1.3 Geared Transmission with Dry Clutch 123
5.1.4 Geared Transmission with Torque Converter . 123
5.2 Vehicle Performance . 126
5.2.1 Maximum Speed . 126Contents XI
5.2.2 Climbing Performance 127
5.2.3 Acceleration Performance .128
5.3 Fuel Consumption 128
5.3.1 Calculating Fuel Consumption (Example) 129
5.3.2 Determining Fuel Consumption by Measurement .131
5.3.3 Reducing Fuel Consumption .133
5.3.4 Continuously Variable Transmissions .134
5.4 Emissions .134
5.5 Dynamic Behaviour of the Powertrain, Comfort .138
6 Vehicle Transmission Systems: Basic Design Principles .140
6.1 Arrangement of the Transmission in the Vehicle 140
6.1.1 Passenger Cars 140
6.1.2 Commercial Vehicles 143
6.1.3 All-Wheel Drive Passenger Cars .146
6.1.4 Transverse and Longitudinal Dynamics with All-Wheel
Drive 150
6.2 Transmission Formats and Designs .151
6.2.1 Transmission Format .152
6.2.2 Transmission Design .153
6.3 Basic Gearbox Concept .154
6.3.1 Shifting with Power Interruption .155
6.3.2 Shifting without Power Interruption 156
6.3.3 Continuously Variable Transmissions without Power
Interruption 157
6.4 Gear Sets with Fixed Axles, Countershaft Transmissions and
Epicyclic Gears 158
6.5 Solution Principles for Part Functions, Evaluation 160
6.5.1 Reverse Gear as Example 161
6.6 Passenger Car Transmissions .163
6.6.1 Manual Passenger Car Transmissions (MT) .164
6.6.2 Automated Manual Passenger Car Transmissions (AMT) 169
6.6.3 Dual Clutch Passenger Car Transmissions (DCT) 172
6.6.4 Automatic Passenger Car Transmissions (AT) .174
6.6.5 Passenger Car Hybrid Drives 182
6.6.6 Continuously Variable Passenger Car Transmissions (CVT) 186
6.7 Commercial Vehicle Transmissions 189
6.7.1 Manual Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (MT) .192
6.7.2 Automated Manual Commercial Vehicle Transmissions
(AMT) .207
6.7.3 Commercial Vehicle Torque Converter Clutch
Transmissions (TCCT) 213
6.7.4 Automatic Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (AT) .215
6.7.5 Commercial Vehicle Hybrid Drives 216
6.7.6 Continuously Variable Commercial Vehicle Transmissions
(CVT) 219XII Contents
6.8 Final Drives . 222
6.8.1 Axle Drives for Passenger Cars 223
6.8.2 Axle Drives for Commercial Vehicles 225
6.8.3 Differential Gears and Locking Differentials 227
6.8.4 Hub Drives for Commercial Vehicles . 232
6.8.5 Transfer Gearboxes . 233
6.9 Power Take-Offs . 234
7 Design of Gearwheel Transmissions for Vehicles 237
7.1 Gearwheel Performance Limits . 237
7.1.1 Causes and Types of Damage . 239
7.1.2 Calculating the Tooth Root Load Capacity . 243
7.1.3 Calculating the Pitting Load Capacity . 245
7.1.4 Calculating the Scuffing Load Capacity 246
7.2 Estimating Centre Distance . 247
7.3 Estimating Face Widths . 249
7.4 Operational Fatigue Strength and Service Life 250
7.4.1 The W?hler Curve . 252
7.4.2 Load Profile and Counting Procedure . 254
7.4.3 Damage Accumulation Hypothesis . 257
7.5 Developing Low-Noise Transmissions 264
7.5.1 Transmission Noise and Its Causes . 265
7.5.2 How Noise Reaches the Ear 269
7.5.3 Assessment Criteria . 270
7.5.4 Countermeasures . 274
8 Specification and Design of Shafts 278
8.1 Typical Requirements in Vehicle Transmissions 278
8.1.1 Configuration of Shafts in Vehicle Transmissions 278
8.1.2 Designing for Stress and Strength . 279
8.1.3 Deflection 280
8.1.4 Vibration Problems . 280
8.2 General Design Guidelines 281
8.3 Transmission Drive Shaft Strength Design . 283
8.3.1 Loading . 283
8.3.2 Bearing Reactions . 286
8.3.3 Spatial Beam Deflection . 286
8.3.4 Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams . 287
8.3.5 Critical Cross-Section . 289
8.3.6 Stresses 290
8.3.7 Preliminary Specification of the Shaft Diameter . 293
8.3.8 Designing for Endurance Strength 294
8.3.9 Designing for Operational Fatigue Strength . 294
8.3.10 Common Shaft Materials 296
8.4 Calculating Deformation . 296
8.5 Flow Chart for Designing Transmission Shafts . 297Contents XIII
9 Gearshifting Mechanisms 300
9.1 Systematic Classification of Shifting Elements .302
9.1.1 Shifting Elements for Transmissions with Power
Interruption 303
9.1.2 Shifting Elements for Transmissions without Power
Interruption 306
9.1.3 Shift-by-Wire 309
9.2 Layout and Design of Synchronizers .310
9.2.1 Synchronizer Functional Requirements 310
9.2.2 The Synchronizing Process .316
9.2.3 Design of Synchronizers .321
9.2.4 The Tribological System of Synchronizers .334
9.2.5 Engineering Designs .336
9.2.6 Alternative Transmission Synchronizers .342
9.2.7 Detail Questions 343
9.3 Layout and Design of Multi-Plate Clutches .344
9.3.1 Multi-Plate Clutch Requirements 346
9.3.2 The Shifting Process 346
9.3.3 Design of Multi-Plate Clutches .350
9.3.4 Tribological System of Multi-Plate Clutches 355
9.3.5 Engineering Designs .358
9.3.6 Detail Questions 363
9.4 Parking Locks 365
9.4.1 Mechanically Activated Parking Locks .366
9.4.2 Electrically Activated Parking Locks 368
9.4.3 Detail questions .369
10 Moving-Off Elements .371
10.1 Dry Clutches 374
10.1.1 Structure of Dry Clutches 374
10.1.2 Design of Dry Clutches .385
10.1.3 Dry Multi-Plate Clutches .387
10.2 Wet Clutches 388
10.3 Dual Clutches 390
10.4 Hydrodynamic Clutches and Torque Converters .393
10.4.1 Principles .394
10.4.2 Hydrodynamic Clutches and their Characteristic Curves 397
10.4.3 Torque Converters and their Characteristic Curves .399
10.4.4 Engine and Torque Converter Working Together .401
10.4.5 Practical Design of Torque Converters .406
10.4.6 Engineering Designs .406
10.4.7 Design Principles for Increasing Efficiency 410
11 Design and Configuration of Further Design Elements 420
11.1 Bearings .420
11.1.1 Selecting Rolling Bearings 421XIV Contents
11.1.2 Rolling Bearing Design . 423
11.1.3 Design of Rolling Bearings . 426
11.1.4 Plain Bearings – Bearing Bushes and Thrust Washers 428
11.2 Lubrication of Gearboxes, Gearbox Lubricants 431
11.2.1 Bearing Lubrication 432
11.2.2 Principles of Lubricating Gearwheel Mechanisms 432
11.2.3 Selecting the Lubricant . 435
11.2.4 Selecting Lubricant Characteristics . 436
11.2.5 Lifetime Lubrication in Vehicle Gearboxes 440
11.2.6 Testing the Scuffing Resistance of Gearbox Lubricants . 440
11.3 Oil Supply and Oil Pumps . 442
11.3.1 Oil Supply . 442
11.3.2 Oil Pumps 445
11.3.3 Detail Questions 451
11.4 Gearbox Housing . 453
11.4.1 Gearbox Housing Design 453
11.4.2 Venting Gearboxes 456
11.5 Gearbox Sealing 460
11.5.1 Seals for Static Components . 460
11.5.2 Seals for Rotating Components . 464
11.5.3 Seals for Reciprocating Round Components . 466
11.5.4 Practical Examples 467
11.5.5 Final Inspection for Detecting Leakage 468
11.6 Vehicle Continuous Service Brakes 469
11.6.1 Definitions . 470
11.6.2 Engine Braking Systems . 471
11.6.3 Retarders . 472
11.6.4 Actuation and Use . 478
12 Typical Designs of Vehicle Transmissions 479
12.1 Passenger Car Transmissions 479
12.1.1 Manual Passenger Car Transmissions (MT) . 481
12.1.2 Automated Manual Passenger Car Transmissions (AMT) 494
12.1.3 Dual Clutch Passenger Car Transmissions (DCT) 498
12.1.4 Automatic Passenger Car Transmissions (AT) . 503
12.1.5 Passenger Car Hybrid Drives 511
12.1.6 Continuously Variable Passenger Car Transmissions (CVT) . 514
12.2 Commercial Vehicle Transmissions 520
12.2.1 Manual Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (MT) . 521
12.2.2 Automated Manual Commercial Vehicle Transmissions
(AMT) . 530
12.2.3 Commercial Vehicle Torque Converter Clutch
Transmissions (TCCT) 538
12.2.4 Automatic Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (AT) . 542
12.2.5 Commercial Vehicle Hybrid Drives 546Contents XV
12.2.6 Continuously Variable Commercial Vehicle Transmissions
(CVT) 547
12.3 Final Drives .548
12.3.1 Axle Drives for Passenger Cars .549
12.3.2 Axle and Hub Drives for Commercial Vehicles 551
12.3.3 Differential Gears and Locking Differentials 555
12.4 All-Wheel Drives, Transfer Gearboxes .560
13 Electronic Transmission Control 573
13.1 Networked Systems .573
13.2 Electronic Transmission Control Unit (TCU) 574
13.2.1 TCU Structure .575
13.2.2 Operating Conditions and Construction Technologies 576
13.3 Control Systems .577
13.3.1 Transmission Actuator 579
13.3.2 Clutch Actuator .579
13.3.3 Transmission Control Functions .580
13.3.4 Software 584
13.3.5 Further Examples of Transmission Control Systems 585
13.4 Transmission Calibration with Vehicle-Specific Software Data
Input .587
14 Computer-Aided Transmission Development 589
14.1 Principles and Tools 590
14.2 Driving Simulation 594
14.2.1 Simulation of Vehicle Longitudinal Dynamics .595
14.2.2 Route Data Set, Route Data Acquisition .599
15 The Automotive Transmission Development Process 600
15.1 Product Life Cycle .601
15.2 Product Strategy, Product Planning .603
15.3 Release Stages in the Product Development Process .604
15.4 The Design Process and Systematic Design 606
16 Transmission Manufacturing Technology 615
16.1 Process Chains for Steel Part Processing .616
16.1.1 Soft Machining Methods .617
16.1.2 Heat Treatment Methods .617
16.1.3 Hard Machining Methods 617
16.2 Process Chains for Cast Part Processing 618
16.2.1 Casting Methods 619
16.2.2 Machining Cast Parts 620
16.3 Process Chains for Gear Machining 621
16.3.1 Soft Machining Methods .621
16.3.2 Hard Machining Methods 623
16.4 Process Chains for Sheet Metal Machining .623XVI Contents
16.4.1 Sheet Separation 624
16.4.2 Sheet Forming . 625
16.5 Manufacturing and Factory Management 626
16.5.1 Work Preparation and Planning 626
16.5.2 Production Systems . 626
16.5.3 Statistical Process Control in Manufacture . 627
17 Reliability and Testing of Automotive Transmissions . 631
17.1 Principles of Reliability Theory 632
17.1.1 Definition of Reliability 632
17.1.2 Statistical Description and Representation of the Failure
Behaviour of Components . 633
17.1.3 Mathematical Description of Failure Behaviour using the
Weibull Distribution 636
17.1.4 Reliability with Systems . 641
17.1.5 Availability of Systems . 642
17.2 Reliability Analysis of Vehicle Transmissions 643
17.2.1 System Analysis 644
17.2.2 Qualitative Reliability Analysis 646
17.2.3 Quantitative Reliability Analysis 648
17.3 Testing to Ensure Reliability . 651
17.3.1 Classifying Vehicle Transmission Test Programs . 653
17.3.2 Test Benches for the Test Programs 656
17.3.3 Simulation during Bench Testing 658
References 661
Index of Companies/Transmissions . 695
Index of Names 698
Subject Index . 699
About the Authors


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