كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding    كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding  Emptyالجمعة 20 ديسمبر 2019, 11:13 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Microcellular Injection Molding
Jingyi Xu
Engel Machinery
York, Pennsylvania
Contents
Foreword by Lih-sheng (Tom) Turng Vii

كتاب Microcellular Injection Molding  M_i_m_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Preface Ix
1 Introduction 1
2 Basics of Microcellular Injection Molding 12
3 Morphology of Microcellular Materials 62
4 Materials for Microcellular Injection Molding 98
5 Design of Microcellular Injection Molding 165
6 Process for Microcellular Injection Molding 227
7 Equipment and Machines for Microcellular Injection Molding 314
8 Special Processes 399
9 Modeling of Microcellular Injection Molding 458
10 Postprocessing and Property Test of Microcellular
Injection Molding 506vi Contents
11 Markets and Applications of Microcellular Injection Molding 525
12 Cost Savings for Microcellular Injection Molding 552
Nomenclature 578
Appendix a (Chapter 7) 585
Appendix B (Chapter 7) 587
Appendix C (Chapter 5) 589
Appendix D (Chapter 5) 591
Appendix E (Chapter 5) 593
Appendix F (Chapter 6) 595
Appendix G (Chapter 9) 597
Appendix H (Glossary) 600
Index
Index
A
Adaptive Pressure Control 343, 379
Accumulator 361, 365, 372, 373–377, 380
Acetal (Pom) 7, 74, 115, 116, 139, 169,
170, 172, 188, 196, 207, 297, 299,
407–408, 537, 555
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (Abs)
5, 7, 34, 67, 68, 71, 72, 78, 81, 82,
144, 148, 149, 157, 158, 161, 169,
175, 182, 184, 186, 187, 189, 196,
206, 207, 232, 233, 253–257, 260,
266, 270–272, 279–281, 289, 293, 294,
297–299, 320, 407–409, 413, 446, 455,
509, 518–520, 544, 554, 555
Adiabatic 347
Air
Cool 309, 310, 346, 520
Cylinder 387
Flow 533
Pressure 387, 453
Alloy 101, 102, 143, 144, 149, 151, 152,
156, 192, 193, 201, 224
Aluminum 131, 138, 156, 192, 207, 541
Amorphous Material 2, 34, 63, 66–68,
78, 80, 96, 99, 104, 105, 117,
120–123, 125, 149, 175, 176, 186,
190, 209, 254, 257, 272, 279, 285,
288, 295, 296, 439, 458, 470, 518
Apparent Viscosity 470
Argon (Ar) 16, 17, 27, 32, 47, 48, 63, 94,
95
Aromatic Polyamide Fi Ber (Aramid Fiber)
137
Arrhenius 23, 37, 108, 472, 497
B
Back Pressure 35, 58, 68, 93, 111, 112,
123, 146, 149–151,157, 228, 230, 231,
240, 241, 243, 249, 252, 254, 255,
257, 259–263, 265–267, 270, 277, 279,
285, 295, 296, 300–302, 320, 327,
329, 332, 339, 342–344, 361, 362,
369–373, 375, 382, 390–392, 439, 447,
495, 564, 574
Ball Valve 328, 344, 345, 350, 351, 356,
382, 383
Barrel
Modification 553
Temperature 35, 111, 112, 123, 124,
146, 147, 150–152, 249, 261
Pressure 348, 380
Barrier Properties 414
Microcellular Injection Molding, Edited by Jingyi Xu
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.608 Index
Barrier Screw 329
Batch Process 1, 5, 33, 39, 40, 42, 45, 58,
59, 63–66, 73, 79, 81, 98, 99, 106–
108, 114, 119, 121, 125, 128, 142,
159, 161, 219, 232, 269, 274, 447, 448
Beryllium Copper Alloy 193, 201
Blend 3, 59, 66, 68, 71, 101, 107, 118,
143–145, 147–149, 151–154, 156,
161, 167, 184, 189, 198, 320, 338,
359, 404, 407–409, 434, 441–442,
449, 451, 538
Blister 205, 298, 300, 301, 304, 308,
327–333, 342, 344, 345, 382
Blow Molding 10, 310, 311, 525, 529,
547, 548, 570
Blowing Agent 4, 15, 16–18, 24, 25, 31,
33, 48, 63, 66, 67, 76, 79, 93, 95, 96,
98, 99, 107,108, 119, 121, 125, 128,
131, 136, 139, 140, 149, 152, 159,
160, 227, 228, 237, 253, 254, 257,
259, 270, 279, 298, 314–317, 329,
380, 385–388, 391, 395, 399, 421–423,
434, 439–447, 449, 452, 459, 490,
507, 508, 524, 529, 538, 539,
543–545, 553, 555, 556, 571, 572
Blowout 168, 300, 301
Boltzmann Constant 37, 268, 335
Bosses 167, 171, 193, 197, 198, 411, 444,
544
Bottle 70, 113, 158, 310, 361, 365,
372–377, 441, 529, 538, 547, 548,
565, 570, 576
Brittle 104, 115, 116, 121, 128, 131, 143,
157, 161, 179, 214, 221, 260, 445
Bubble (See Also Cell) 12–14, 31, 39,
41–44, 46, 54–57, 77, 81, 153, 155,
159–161, 194, 195, 206, 207, 222–224,
247–250, 259, 268, 269, 282, 287–293,
295, 317, 322, 324, 334, 336, 337,
364, 421, 422, 428, 436, 441, 442,
447, 450, 473–479, 482, 483, 488,
490, 491, 493–495, 519, 556, 557, 566
Buckling 1, 64
Butane 93, 160, 446
Bypass Valve 379, 391
C
Calcium Carbonate 28, 29, 129, 520
Carbon Dioxide 4, 15–17, 19, 20, 25,
26, 36, 63, 108, 139, 155, 233, 238,
240, 316, 385, 386, 392, 394, 395,
439, 440, 447, 450, 454, 458, 459,
470–472, 500, 507, 525, 530, 545,
556
Carbon Fi Ber 73–76, 90, 91, 137, 139, 185
Cavity
Pressure 107, 111, 122, 123, 146, 150,
151, 186, 198, 204, 224, 254, 272,
357, 454, 472, 481, 526, 528, 535,
536, 557, 559
Temperature 485
Cell (Also See Bubble) 1, 15, 18, 43, 44,
100, 222, 223, 300, 319, 322, 384,
427, 441, 444, 451, 453, 475, 520,
521, 526, 563, 567, 571
Coalescence 108, 159, 259, 273
Density 2, 4, 5, 31, 33, 40, 47, 48,
50–52, 54, 62, 65, 70, 77, 80, 83–85,
88–90, 108, 112, 118, 121, 130–132,
134,142, 143, 154, 159, 177, 180, 188,
189, 213, 215, 219, 221, 268, 272–
274, 287, 302, 363, 416, 420, 428,
446–449, 477, 479, 483, 540, 569
Distribution 5, 53, 59, 62, 63, 68,
70–73, 78–80, 82–84, 96, 114, 165,
176, 209, 259, 262, 263, 266, 267,
324, 437, 493, 531, 538
Expansion 75, 120, 167, 200, 205, 286,
301, 304, 411, 481, 486, 488, 538,
554, 565, 568, 569
Growth 12, 13, 28, 31, 41, 53–55, 57,
59, 70, 71, 90, 92, 105, 107, 108, 120,
121, 129, 131, 134, 145, 154, 155,
159, 160, 166, 170, 204, 206, 208,
214, 227, 228, 259, 267, 269, 277,
278, 284, 286, 292, 303, 304, 306–
309, 311, 362, 363, 367, 404, 423,
433, 458, 459, 473, 474, 480, 481,
483, 484, 494, 495, 501, 502, 527,
528, 550, 555, 556, 564–566
Morphology 67, 73, 76, 140, 175, 209,
221
Nucleation 14, 31, 41, 47–54, 75, 77,
107, 108, 129, 132, 278, 363, 428,
447, 508
Pressure 359, 526
Shape 72, 79, 80, 82, 83, 120, 142, 153,
175, 176, 288, 290, 428, 530
Size 4, 6, 8, 33, 34, 36, 48, 57–59,
67–71, 74, 77–79, 82–90, 93–96, 107,index 609
109, 113, 114, 120, 122, 129, 132,
134, 137, 139–142, 149, 153, 154,
159, 165, 167, 175–180, 188, 189,
195, 209, 211, 214, 215, 219–221,
253, 255–257, 262, 263, 268, 269,
274, 277–279, 287–292, 295, 296,
305, 311, 324, 363, 406, 415, 416,
420, 423, 424, 428, 437, 447, 454,
455, 458, 459, 472, 481, 483, 490,
491, 493, 494, 501, 516–519, 526,
531, 532, 539–543, 548, 568, 569
Structure 24, 34, 35, 59, 62–72, 78–81,
83–89, 92, 93, 96, 104–107, 112–116,
118–120, 125, 128, 130, 132, 134,
138–149, 151, 153, 154, 158–161,
165, 167, 173, 174, 176–181,
183–186, 190, 198, 203–206,
214–218, 233, 238, 252–256, 259,
262–264, 267–282, 288, 293–297,
301, 302, 311, 324, 361, 364, 390,
399, 406, 414–416, 422, 423, 428,
434, 435, 437, 438, 445, 446, 449,
454, 472, 479, 481, 483, 485, 489,
508, 509, 511, 514–519, 522, 526,
530, 538, 542, 543, 547, 564, 568,
570
Viscosity 477
Volume 62, 508
Ceramic
Coating 194
Powder 546
Clamp Tonnage Reduction 7, 114, 117,
357, 369, 438, 454, 531, 544–546,
559, 562, 573, 575
Check Valve 251, 308, 327, 328, 330,
340–342, 344–346, 348, 353–356,
371–373, 375–377, 383, 384, 387,
388, 390, 394, 411, 426, 553
Chemical Blowing Agent (Cba) 24, 66,
99, 116, 136, 228, 380, 385, 399, 434,
439–446, 507, 538, 543, 553, 556,
571, 572
Chiller 206, 207, 386, 387, 396
Clarity 113, 125, 149, 319
Class a Surface 224, 296, 519, 549
Clay 54, 59, 76, 77, 128, 129, 130, 139,
140, 143
Coining 357, 359, 360, 399, 421, 432–435,
537, 538
Cold Runner 198, 207
Cold Sprue 168, 183, 198–200, 274, 286,
304, 322, 478, 565
Colorant 511, 533, 556
Color Concentrate 413, 529, 543, 556
Composite 63, 98, 99, 129, 130, 136, 142,
190, 507, 556
Compound 28, 30, 71–74, 90, 99, 117,
118, 120, 128, 129, 137, 138, 140,
143, 152, 153, 537, 546, 553, 556
Compression Ratio of Screw 260
Control System 315, 316, 348, 369, 370,
377, 383, 390, 395, 425, 429, 435,
530, 553, 564
Conventional Foam 4–9, 54, 165, 188,
209, 286, 287, 349, 540, 546, 568, 569
Copolymer 27, 38, 101, 107–109,
114–116, 118, 130, 136, 148, 152,
156, 186, 297, 433, 540, 542
Copper 156, 193, 201, 206, 207, 563
Core
Material 175, 177, 210–212, 214,
400–406, 409–420, 431, 432
Temperature 485
Viscosity 401
Cost
Analysis 11, 165, 552, 553, 558, 572
Reduction 72, 98, 107, 137, 153, 224,
410, 437, 528, 532, 534, 535, 549,
552–554, 556, 559, 560, 563, 567,
569, 571, 576
Coupling Agent 136, 138, 140, 160
Creep Resistance 106, 115, 122, 185
Critical Pressure 2, 15, 16, 24, 132, 240,
272, 279, 354
Critical Temperature 2, 15, 16, 23, 240,
475, 500
Crystalline 2, 34, 36, 38, 63, 68, 96, 99,
103–106, 108, 110, 115–117, 119, 120,
130, 137, 144, 172, 175, 186, 209,
210, 221, 224, 250, 257, 267, 284,
285, 288, 293, 296, 297, 437, 439, 440
Crystallization 34, 59, 68, 77, 104–107,
110, 113, 116, 122, 134, 137,
157–159, 161, 195, 224, 259, 284,
285, 293, 296, 297, 437, 459
Cycle Time Reduction 6, 8, 34, 35, 79, 93,
98, 107, 114–119, 238, 253, 295, 307,
367, 369, 396, 438, 454, 529–531,
533–537, 552, 555, 558, 562, 564–567,
571,575, 576610 Index
D
Deflection 127, 144, 172, 198, 358, 359
Deformation 13, 49, 63, 64, 83, 84, 144,
161, 190, 213, 249, 288–291, 338,
339, 359, 424, 496, 528
Delivery Pressure 332, 342–344, 379,
380, 391, 392
Degassing 304, 521
Design 9, 10, 13, 48, 53, 109, 110, 124,
147, 155, 156, 159, 216, 228, 231,
245, 246, 260, 307, 311, 314, 320,
323, 328, 348, 360, 369, 379–381,
388, 390–396, 415, 454, 509, 510,
532
Density
Distribution 79, 175, 185, 209, 281, 364
Reduction 76–80, 84, 90, 154, 213, 422,
443, 447, 512, 515, 516, 518
Dewar 24, 385
Dielectric 189
Dimensional Stability 110, 117, 131, 137,
139, 167, 187, 198, 225, 412, 420,
458, 526–529, 534, 535, 539, 552, 567
Dimple 300, 301
Dispersive Mixing 245, 246, 338, 339,
341
Distributive Mixing 245–247, 338, 340
Doe 285, 286
Dolphin Skin Technology 434, 435, 537,
565
Draft Angle 169–171, 173, 199, 200, 208
Drag Fl Ow 231, 240, 242, 243, 247, 248,
257, 259, 336, 337, 345
Drool 318
Dynamic Mixer 315, 338, 394, 395
E
E-glass 137, 138
Ejector
Force 208
Pin 192, 197, 198, 208, 451, 452
Speed 208
Elastic Modulus 77, 112, 124, 140, 147,
150, 185, 211
Elastomer 118, 129, 144, 148, 299, 547,
555
Elephant Surface 302
Elongation 13, 59, 87, 88, 117, 143, 161,
174, 177–181, 185, 291, 338, 339, 428
Endothermic 136, 440–445, 452
Energy
Absorption 67, 89, 184
Consumption 274, 368, 412, 573–575
Saving 7, 204, 242, 274, 360, 368, 369,
528, 559–562, 572–575
Environment 16, 24, 25, 41, 103, 106,
110, 119, 127, 128, 135, 144, 165,
166, 191, 224, 244, 316, 318, 385,
386, 437, 439, 443, 446, 521, 529,
530, 547, 555, 570
Epdm 534
Equipment
Design 34, 80, 119, 165, 242, 315, 386,
419
Ergocell® 3, 4, 394–396
Eva 152, 153, 407, 408
Exothermic 136, 440, 443, 444
Extrusion 2, 10, 31, 48, 55, 98, 99, 101,
158, 159, 234, 237, 308–311, 326,
384, 403, 448, 525,
Extruder 17, 40, 99, 130, 161, 305, 309,
314, 381–384, 410, 411, 446, 479
F
Fabric 136, 431, 528, 535, 540
Fan Gate 81, 164, 290
Fatigue
Endurance 115
Resistance 106, 161, 428, 212
Fda 556
Fiber
Distribution 91, 283, 439
Glass 5, 8, 31, 33–35, 70, 73, 76, 84, 88,
96, 174, 178–180. 184–187, 195,
209–222, 240, 253, 274, 403, 431,
478, 490, 491, 499, 554, 526, 529,
535, 538, 539, 543, 544
Orientation 8, 90, 91, 92, 185, 186, 282,
445, 529, 533, 544
Reinforced Material 74, 190, 192,
209–220, 344, 345, 406, 413, 434,
435, 437, 491, 554, 523, 535, 538,
543, 547, 549, 554
Filament 135, 137, 138
Filler 25, 28, 29–35, 49, 52, 54, 57, 67, 73,
77, 96, 105, 105, 109, 119, 120, 127,
128–136, 138–142, 160, 192, 204,
210–214, 216, 252, 253, 274, 344,index 611
363, 406, 413, 439, 452, 499, 502,
509, 520, 528, 542, 549, 554
Fim 393, 434
Flammability 99, 111, 123, 147, 150, 151,
152, 189, 523
Flat 62, 83, 106, 188, 194, 197, 436, 470,
537, 542
Flexibility 118, 126, 152, 350, 511, 534,
538, 547
Flexural
Modulus 90, 109, 124, 147, 151, 174,
177, 180–185, 212, 213, 224, 428,
437
Strength 68, 87–89, 117, 131, 140, 176–
185, 209, 213, 216, 218, 220, 221
Flow
Balance 205
Direction 63, 80–84, 91, 112, 141, 145,
179, 187, 198, 282, 283, 289, 291,
426, 427, 449
Front 195–197, 204, 205, 223, 273, 282,
284, 287, 288, 290–293, 295, 319,
364, 366, 400, 404, 422, 425, 428,
429, 436, 440, 455, 483, 487–490,
494, 495, 503, 550
Length 201, 203, 282, 405, 431, 432,
503
Rate 13, 17, 24, 115, 161, 197, 231, 237,
257, 330, 334, 343, 376, 379, 385–
392, 396, 462, 469, 533, 572
Ratio (L/t) 6, 79, 168, 203, 204, 254,
344, 357, 401, 404, 419, 431, 432,
434, 438, 455, 544, 549, 566
Friction 75, 106, 115, 194, 208, 223, 288,
292, 293, 319, 327, 359, 435, 508–
510, 549, 559, 565
G
Gas (Also See Argon, Carbon Dioxide,
And Nitrogen)
Absorption 19, 26–32, 54, 105, 128
Assist 10
Concentration 69, 104, 159, 176, 232,
259, 275–277, 470, 474, 475, 487–490,
496, 498, 500
Density 15, 17, 56
Diffusion 15–17, 19, 21, 23–25, 27, 29,
31, 33–39, 46, 53, 54, 63, 66, 105,
106, 128, 129, 232, 240, 242, 245,
246, 248–252, 255, 257, 259, 261,
262, 266, 316, 317, 326, 331, 332,
335, 336, 338–340, 379, 382, 384,
386, 393, 432, 440, 447, 473, 474,
479, 500, 521, 556
Diffusivity 23, 35–37, 53, 57, 105, 108,
159, 250, 252, 254, 259, 266, 335, 474
Dissolution 12, 13, 19, 41, 76, 139, 227,
232, 255, 316, 317, 384
Dosage 25, 26, 232, 234, 250, 257, 259,
265, 266, 267, 274, 343, 399, 437–439
Dosing 2, 3, 16, 30, 33, 35, 39, 69, 76,
98, 119, 228–235, 237–244, 249, 252–
257, 259, 266, 275, 295, 298, 301,
302, 308, 311, 315, 321, 332, 333,
342–344, 347, 388–390, 393–395, 440,
450, 501
Injector 13, 16, 228–230, 232, 233,
240–246, 254, 255, 315, 317, 332–335,
338, 344, 346, 354, 355, 369, 373,
378, 388–391, 410, 411
Permeability 128, 305, 520
Pressure 13, 14, 16, 23, 29, 30, 46–48,
52, 108, 132–134, 206, 208, 240, 242,
268, 284, 286, 291, 292, 295, 301,
303, 304, 332, 333, 342, 370, 387,
389–391, 395, 411, 420–429, 449,
451–453, 474, 476, 477, 520, 521,
526, 550, 563, 571
Pump 314, 387, 391, 392, 479, 559,
572
Saturation 29, 34, 45, 47, 48, 51, 52, 54,
63, 71, 238, 269, 470
Solubility 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 33,
46, 105, 155, 232, 249–251, 266, 269,
296, 450
Gate
Design 416, 422, 442, 503
System 37, 308, 314, 391, 396
Glass
Fiber 5, 31, 33–35, 70, 73, 74, 76, 84,
88, 90–92, 96, 107, 110–112, 114,
116, 119, 123, 137–139, 145–147, 174,
178–182, 184–187, 190, 192, 209–212,
214–222, 253, 274, 282, 285, 344,
345, 403, 406, 413, 416, 434, 437,
439, 445, 478, 490, 491, 493, 499,
509, 512–514, 516–519, 526, 529, 535,
536, 538, 539, 541, 543, 544, 549612 Index
Glass (Cont’d)
Transition Temperature 2, 37, 39, 104,
112, 165, 296, 440, 441, 447
Graphite 128, 137
Gusset 169, 170, 183, 200
H
Hardness 127, 149, 153, 191–194, 208,
224, 306, 413, 437, 452, 546, 557,
558, 564
Helium (He) 16, 17, 27, 385
Heterogeneous Nucleation 1, 2, 40,
43–46, 51, 57, 63, 67–69, 71, 73, 76,
91, 99, 105–107, 113, 118, 120, 130,
137, 141–144, 149, 154, 203, 268,
274, 363, 364, 450
High Density Polyethylene (Hdpe)
18, 20–22, 24, 28–33, 36, 38, 44,
47, 48, 51, 52, 76, 77, 94, 95, 105,
119, 131–134, 136, 137, 140, 141,
168, 169, 207, 250, 252, 310, 403,
407, 408, 440, 446, 449, 470, 471,
497–501, 509, 542, 554, 555, 561,
576
High Impact Polystyrene (Hips) 34, 51,
64, 65, 67, 68, 120, 125, 144, 149,
158, 186, 233, 253, 272, 363, 407,
408, 520
Hold (See Also Packing)
Pressure 111, 286, 320, 503
Stage 306, 307, 368
Time 90, 210, 286, 380
Homogeneous Nucleation 18, 40, 41–46,
51, 57, 99, 268, 272, 274, 278, 316,
362, 363
Hopper 3, 4, 260, 317, 329, 354, 383, 395,
396, 442
Hot
Gas Welding 508, 510
Plate Welding 507, 508, 510
Mold 106, 117, 223, 224, 288, 292, 293,
435–437
Runner 198, 199, 202, 204, 324, 419
Hvac 526, 533, 536
Hydraulic
Accumulator 365, 376, 377, 562
Back Pressure 369, 372, 564
Cylinder 319, 322, 323, 362, 373, 387,
390, 561
Design 369, 373–377, 387
Motor 317, 361, 373, 374
Pump 4, 573
System 315, 316, 360, 361, 367,
369–373, 376, 559, 564, 576
Valve 352
I
Impact
Modifier 34, 35, 128, 129, 233, 253,
556
Property 112, 124, 148, 151
Resistance 136, 141, 413, 428
Strength 89, 106–109, 113, 122, 130,
140, 144, 149, 151, 161, 176–181,
184, 185, 209, 213, 214, 218–221,
298, 428, 445, 522
Injection
Blow Molding 310, 529, 547, 570
Pressure Reduction 114, 454, 531, 536,
561
Speed 6, 44, 68, 73, 82–84, 91, 169,
187, 196, 197, 204, 251, 254, 260,
265, 267–275, 277–287, 290, 292,
295, 296, 300–302, 311, 321, 322,
324, 355, 357, 361, 362, 364–369,
375, 376, 394, 400, 403, 420, 429,
436–439, 442–444, 451, 454, 455,
461, 462, 464, 465, 479, 485, 486,
495, 503, 517, 518, 527, 530, 532,
550, 562, 564, 567, 569, 572, 573
Speed Profi Le 272, 273, 278, 282–284,
366, 367
Stage 326, 367, 567, 575
Time 12, 57, 79, 195, 204, 223, 278,
283, 284, 290, 292, 295, 308, 309,
326, 362, 366, 369, 378, 380, 383,
402, 438, 455, 464, 479, 485, 490,
494, 495, 499, 501, 531, 532, 550,
564, 566, 567, 571, 573
Velocity 270, 503
Injector 228–230, 232, 233, 238–246,
254, 255, 315, 317, 327–329,
332–346, 354, 355, 362, 369,
373–383, 385, 388, 389–392, 410,
411, 553
Insert 167, 173, 174, 192, 193, 206, 224,
431, 433, 451, 558
Insulation Property 152, 528, 539index 613
Interface 29–31, 41–45, 48, 54, 57, 68, 71,
74, 77, 78, 81–83, 85, 95, 136, 195,
219, 222, 242, 287, 288, 290, 291,
293, 295, 305, 333, 379, 380, 405,
434, 435, 447, 474, 483, 508, 538
J
Jetting 282, 366, 444
K
Kevlar 137
L
Linear Molecules 102, 159
Liquid Crystal Polymer (Lcp) 119, 297,
299, 555
Liquid
Dosing 237
Pump 386
Low Density Polyethylene (Ldpe) 33,
36, 44, 119, 142, 143, 158, 169, 207,
261, 407, 408, 555
Low Linear Density Polyethylene
(Lldpe) 33, 555
M
Machine
Design 316, 421, 457, 524, 560, 573
Material Cost 141, 144, 554
Mechanical
Property 175, 177, 178, 181, 182, 209,
210, 221, 305, 501, 527, 533
Strength 138, 177, 190, 278, 536
Melt
Flow 3, 126, 141, 282, 318, 319, 322,
336, 364, 405, 440, 441, 443, 486, 494
Flow Index 311, 465
Pressure 16, 18, 23, 168, 199, 230, 231,
241–243, 255, 265, 266, 268, 293,
303, 309, 316, 318, 322, 323, 325–
333, 342–349, 351–356, 362, 367, 369,
370, 378–381, 383, 388–392, 448, 459,
460, 465, 485, 552
Temperature 26, 29, 35, 66–68, 72, 90,
105, 111–113, 116, 117, 122–125, 136,
146, 148–151, 153, 228, 232, 241, 249,
251, 255, 260, 261, 265, 269, 270, 279,
285, 295–302, 309, 317, 328, 332, 348,
357, 363, 436, 441, 444, 446, 460, 461,
464–467, 471, 485, 490, 496, 497, 499,
511, 536, 542, 552
Viscosity 115, 116, 122, 157, 168, 190,
210, 251, 260, 269, 298, 420, 460,
502, 527, 533
Melting Point 2, 103, 105, 106, 116, 119,
120, 156, 254
Metering Section 234, 236, 238, 248, 327,
328, 341, 345
Microcellular
Blow Molding 10, 310, 311
Extrusion 10, 308–310, 498
Foam 1, 2, 4–9, 62, 67, 71, 75, 76–79,
83, 84, 87–95, 98, 99, 102, 106, 107,
109–112, 119–122, 124, 125, 127, 129,
130, 137, 139, 140, 142, 147,152, 154,
156, 160, 161, 165, 168, 177, 179,
180, 184–186, 188–190, 195, 198, 201,
205, 208–214, 216, 217, 219–222, 224,
227, 228, 255, 272, 273, 278, 281,
286–288, 290–295, 301, 303–306, 308,
309, 315–317, 326, 328, 331, 346,
348, 349, 357–359, 361, 363, 369,
381, 385, 395, 399, 404, 406, 413–
417, 420, 422, 428, 433, 434, 437,
439, 447, 452–454, 458, 473, 479,
481, 494, 506, 507, 509, 511, 512,
517, 518, 521, 523, 525, 526, 528,
529, 532, 533, 535, 543, 544, 547–
549, 553–556, 564, 565, 568–572
Injection Molding 2–5, 9–10, 12, 14,
17, 38, 40, 43, 50, 51, 55, 58–60, 63,
65–75, 77–79, 81, 83–85, 90, 92, 94,
95, 98–109, 114, 116, 118–122, 125–
129, 135, 138, 139, 143, 145, 146,
148, 153, 161, 227, 228, 232, 249,
254, 268, 300, 302, 305–311, 314–316,
318–320, 322–329, 338–340, 346, 357,
359–362, 366–370, 372, 374–378, 381,
385–387, 390, 396, 399, 406, 412,
414, 415, 419, 422, 424, 432, 438,
447, 449, 454, 455, 506, 525–528,
530, 532, 536–538, 540, 549, 550,
552, 553, 558–560, 562, 564, 565,
567, 571, 572, 576
Microstructure 4, 5, 62–65, 68–70, 73, 76,
78, 79, 81, 83, 88, 110, 114, 118, 149,
153, 155, 177, 257, 263, 266, 267,
272, 415, 416, 419, 450, 494, 540614 Index
Middle Check Valve 308, 327, 328, 340–
342, 344–346, 348, 354–356, 383, 384
Mixing Section 245–248, 257, 261, 308,
328, 331, 337, 338–342, 345, 355, 379
Mold
Cavity 145, 171, 196, 198, 199, 206,
207, 301, 303, 309, 324, 325, 357,
359, 423, 424, 426, 428, 435, 454,
478, 480, 483, 538, 557
Cooling 104, 145, 171, 173, 174, 186,
203, 205–207, 224, 285, 304, 306,
384, 410, 411, 436, 481, 563, 575
Design 59, 145, 146, 165, 166, 170,
172, 173, 190–208, 269, 285, 286,
291, 303, 304, 318, 357, 416, 418,
419–423, 436, 526, 565, 569
Filling 8, 39, 59, 63, 72, 81, 166, 168,
170–174, 195–199, 203–205, 214, 223,
228, 246, 259, 267, 269, 270, 272,
273, 277, 279–283, 285, 287, 290–293,
295–297, 299–304, 305, 307, 325, 326,
347, 358, 360, 364, 366, 367, 400,
401, 404, 406, 416–424, 426, 428,
432–434, 436, 438, 442, 448, 451,
454, 455, 458, 473, 473, 477–486,
489, 494, 495, 502, 503, 527, 529,
531, 532, 535, 542, 545, 547, 549,
550, 563, 566, 569
Material 191, 193, 207, 222, 288, 437
Temperature 66, 67, 83, 90, 96, 106,
110, 111, 116–118, 122, 123, 129,
136, 137, 146, 150, 151–154, 157,
169, 176, 194, 204, 210, 223, 314,
396, 419, 420, 429, 432, 435, 436,
444, 459, 485, 490, 503, 556, 566, 569
Venting 196, 202, 269, 422
Moldflow 459, 469, 472, 479–482, 484,
487–494, 502
Molecular Weight Distribution (Mwd)
102, 103, 159, 160
Monomer 100, 101, 121, 152
Morphology 5, 48, 60, 62–76, 78–96, 104,
107, 113, 116, 120, 121, 134, 137–
140, 149, 153, 154, 159,160, 175–177,
179, 181, 185, 186, 188, 189, 209,
213, 216, 220, 221, 259, 262, 267,
270, 272, 279, 283, 286–288, 292–294,
305, 414–417, 427, 428, 434, 435,
438, 455, 532, 538, 540, 546, 569
Mucell® 2–4, 111, 124, 152, 187, 189,
198, 224, 316, 317, 328, 395, 434,
435–438, 454, 485, 486, 502, 503,
512–519, 525, 526, 530, 532–534,
537–539, 541, 547, 553, 558, 560,
570
N
Nanoclay 54, 59, 76, 77, 129, 130, 134,
139, 141, 142, 160
Nanocomposite 54, 59, 76, 77, 99,
139–141, 163, 554
Newtonian Fl Uid 229, 331, 462, 463
Non Newtonian Fluid 462, 463
Nitrogen (N2) 4, 15–17, 20–22, 24, 25,
31–35, 38, 62, 63, 139, 155, 232,
233, 238, 240, 252, 253, 270, 279,
385, 386, 392, 394, 395, 424, 439,
440, 450, 454, 458, 459, 470, 499,
500, 507, 510, 517, 520, 530, 544,
545, 556
Nozzle
Design 319, 321, 324, 461
Nucleation (See Also Heterogeneous and
Homogeneous Nucleation)
Agent 52, 54, 126, 130, 131, 142, 553
Density 47–52, 54, 108, 447, 478, 479,
486, 490, 491, 494
O
Optifoam® 3, 4, 393–395
Opti 421, 433, 435, 437, 446, 547, 548,
570
Organic Fi Ber 135, 137, 138
Organoclay 59, 77, 143, 161
Overlapping 399, 429–432, 434, 435, 529,
537, 538
Ozone 16, 24, 439
P
Packing (Also See Hold) 67, 205
Pressure
Time 503, 564, 565, 569, 570, 573
Painting 110, 224, 437, 506, 519, 520
Parison 310, 311index 615
Part Design
Parting Line
Plasticizing
Polybutylene Terephthalate (Pbt)
Polycarbonate (Pc)  
Polycaprolactone (Pcl) 156, 159, 160,
259
Polyester 110, 113, 130, 137, 157, 158,
194, 260, 261, 299, 360, 434, 538, 539
Polyethylene (See Hdpe, Ldpe, and
Lldpe)
Polyetheretherketone (Peek) 119, 233
Polyetherimide (Pei) 126
Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet)
Polyglycolic Acid (Pga) 156
Polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (Phbv)
156, 158
Polyamide (Nylon, Pa)
Polylactic Acid (Pla) 156–158, 160, 161
Polymethyl Methacrylate (Pmma)
Post Blow
Polypropylene (Pp)
Polyphenylene Oxide (Ppo, Noryl) 144–
148, 150, 169, 183, 188, 198, 544, 555
Polyphenylene Sulphide (Pps)
Polystyrene (Ps)
Polysulfone (Psu) 126, 233, 298, 407,
408
Polyvinyl Chloride (Pvc)
Porosity 90, 188, 189, 540
Pre-closing Screw Tip 349, 353, 361
Pressure
Drop
Profile
Restriction Element 326
Process Design
R
Rapid Heat Cycle Molding (Rhcm)
Reinforced Material
Relief Valve 425, 426
Retrofit 373, 394, 395
Return on Investment (Roi)
Reversal Channel
Reversal Coining
Rheology
Rheometer
Rib Design 169, 170
Runner System 197–205
Rupture Disc
S
Scanning Electron Microscope (Sem)
Screw
Design  
Speed  
Tip  
Semi-crystalline Material  
Sequence Control 377, 378, 421
Shear
Rate  
Stress  
Thinning 272, 279, 455, 466, 468
Shrinkage  
Single Phase Solution
Sink Mark  
570
Sintered Metal 3, 192, 393, 394, 558
Skin Thickness  
540
Sprue
Bushing 199, 200, 201, 207, 318, 321
Puller 197, 200, 201
Static Mixer 320, 338, 393, 394, 396
Stress
Foaming 79, 399, 447–449, 453
Nucleation  
Structural Foam  
Supercritical Fluid (Scf)  
Super Light Injection Molding (Slim)
Super-microcellular 399, 437–439, 455,
531
Surface
Appearance 169, 204, 300, 413
Blister 301, 481
Defect 57, 194, 223, 481
Finish  
T
Talc  
Tensile
Modulus 141, 152, 208, 447,
Strength  
Thermal
Conductivity  
Cycling 435, 436
Diffusivity 90, 210
Energy 103, 104
Expansion 43, 110, 413
History 116
Insulation  
Property  
Stability 115, 126, 136, 143, 159, 259,
413
Thermodynamic Instability 14, 159, 259,
268
Thermoplastic
Elastomer (Tpe) 72, 73, 153, 413, 434,
435, 538, 546, 547
Polyurethane (Tpu) 310, 409, 413,
534, 555
Vulcanizate (Tpv) 153, 310, 546,
547
Thin Wall Molding  
Toggle 368, 369, 560, 562, 575
Tolerance  
Tooling  
Toughness  
Transition Section 327
Transmission Electron Microscopy
(Tem) 76
Troubleshooting 300
Two-closing Stage Screw Tip  
U
Ultrasonic Vibration Welding 506–514,
517–519
Unfilled Material  
Unidirectional Flow 290, 291
V
Valve Gate Design 322, 362, 416618 Index
W
Wall Thickness  
Warpage  
Water
Cooling 201, 206, 563
Foaming 446
Wear Resistance 142, 192, 331
Weight Reduction  
Weld Line 194, 224, 406, 418, 419, 429,
437, 478, 486, 487, 503
Wiping Section 244–246, 248, 326–328,
330, 332–346, 369, 378, 382
Wood
Fiber 136fi
Ller 128
Flour 128, 129
X
Xcell 222, 533, 534, 541
X-ray Diffraction 140, 141
Y
Yield Strength 109, 181, 191
Young’s Modulus 91, 124, 137, 147,
148, 151, 152, 177, 180


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