كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding
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 كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding

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عدد المساهمات : 15536
التقييم : 26138
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding    كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding  Emptyالجمعة 25 أكتوبر 2019, 10:27 pm

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Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding
Second Edition
M. Joseph Gordon, Jr.  

كتاب Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding  T_q_p_10
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Contents
Preface xvii
1. Total Quality Process Control 1
ISO 9001 / 2
Documentation / 5
Establishing Process Ownership / 5
Ideas and Methods / 13
2. Implementing Total Quality Process Control (TQPC) 15
Quality Improvement Plan / 17
Statistical Process Control (SPC) / 19
Controlling the Process / 19
Cp the Control of Operations / 20
Cpk-Centered Process Control / 23
Establishing Company Quality Objectives / 25
Customer Quality / 27
3. Managing for Success, Commitment to Quality 28
Objectives for Managing a Quality System / 28
Proactive Preventive Action / 29
Total Quality Process Control / 30
Attitude / 30vi CONTENTS
Control of Change / 32
Improvement with Control of Change / 33
Quality Decisions / 34
Principles for Quality Systems Engineering / 34
Objectives for Managing a Quality System / 34
Customer-Supplier Quality Agreements / 36
Captive Part Quality / 36
Product Quality Determination / 36
Parts to Print / 36
Form, Fit, and Function (FFF) / 39
Product Requirements / 40
Existing Mold Considerations / 40
Establishment of Responsibility / 42
Department TQPC Responsibility / 44
Program Development / 45
Estimated Piece Part Price / 46
Multifunctionality / 48
Assembly and Decorating / 48
Manufacturing Capability / 48
Computer-Integrated Manufacture (CIM) / 49
Tracking Manufacture / 52
RFID / 52
EDI / 52
Just-In-Time / 53
Control of Operations / 53
Process Control / 54
Control Charting / 54
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Accreditation / 57
Program Monitoring—Communication / 57
Communicating Quality in Business / 58
Communications / 58
Surveys / 59
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) / 61
QFD in Operation / 62
Customer Feedback / 63
Critical to Quality (CTQ) / 66
Building on TQPC, Product Manufacture / 67
Checklists / 67
Quality Circles / 69CONTENTS vii
Fishbone Analysis / 69
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis / 70
Types of FMEAs / 71
FMEA Timing / 73
Implementing an FMEA / 74
FMEA Development / 74
4. Customer Satisfaction 79
Manufacturing and Supplier Input / 80
Vendor Selection / 80
Vendor Survey / 81
Customer and Supplier Agreements / 82
Vendor Clinics / 83
Product Requirements / 83
Product Preproduction Review / 84
Contract Checklist / 84
5. Organization Responsibilities 86
Quality Operations / 89
Quality Uniformity / 91
Compliance Audits / 91
Six Sigma Introduction / 92
Procedure / 93
Quality Problems / 94
TQPC Management Operations / 96
Preventive Action / 103
6. Establishing the Limits for Quality Control 105
Preproduction Product Analysis / 108
Taguchi Methods / 108
Prototyping / 109
Mold Limits / 111
Material Selection / 114
Calculation of Plastic Part Cost / 115
Case Study of Product Cost Analysis / 116
Estimating Part Cycle Time / 116
Mold Part Cavity Estimation / 118
Mold Size Considerations / 119
Injection Molding Machine Selection / 119viii CONTENTS
Melt Generation / 121
Molding Machine Screw-type Considerations / 122
Machine Hourly Rate / 122
Machine Setup Charges / 124
Calculating Product Manufacturing Cost / 126
Material Supplier Limits / 129
Establishing Manufacturing Limits / 129
Auxiliary Equipment / 131
In-Process Inspection / 131
Establishing Total Quality Process Control / 132
Acceptable Quality Limits / 134
7. Material Selection and Handling 135
Thermosets / 136
Thermoplastics / 137
Amorphous Plastics / 137
Crystalline Plastics / 137
Classifying the Polymers / 138
Product Certification / 138
Material Specification / 140
Product Variable Specification / 143
Incoming Material Testing / 143
Material Testing Equipment / 144
Types of Tests / 144
Analyzing the Tests / 145
Differential Scanning Calorimeter / 146
Thermogravimetric / 149
Gel Chromatography / 150
Test Methods / 153
Material Safety Data Sheets / 163
Record Accuracy / 163
Bar Coding: An Aid in Total Quality Process Control / 164
Regrind Control / 165
Material Handling and Storage / 165
Regrind Usage / 166
Processing Aids / 168
8. The Mold 169
Computer-Integrated Manufacture / 170
Pre-mold Design Checklist / 172CONTENTS ix
Part Design / 172
Material Selection / 173
Shrinkage / 173
Molding Machine Capability / 173
Strength of Materials for the Mold / 174
Fluid Flow in Mold / 174
Venting the Mold / 175
Heat Transfer / 175
Thermal Conductivity / 176
Thermal Expansion of the Mold / 176
Coefficients of Friction / 176
Abrasion Resistance / 176
Corrosion Resistance / 177
Ejector System / 177
Draft and Shut-off / 177
Part Drawings and Dimensional Stackup / 179
Mold Setup / 180
Secondary Operations / 180
Maintenance/Repair/Operation / 180
Methods of Construction / 181
Tooling / 182
Processing / 182
Reviewing Existing Tooling / 182
Part Cost and Cavity Optimization / 183
Prototype Tooling / 183
Production Tooling / 184
Pricing the Tool / 190
Tool Scheduling / 192
Tool Steel Selection / 192
Selecting Materials for the Mold / 195
Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance / 195
Thermal Conductivity / 196
Cavity Forming and Finishing / 198
Electric Discharge Machining / 199
Polishing / 203
Texturing / 203
Cavity Selection / 206
Part Layout / 206
Cavity Selection Based on Molding Machine Size / 208
Mold Cavity Layout / 210x CONTENTS
Runner Systems / 212
Cavity Runner Layout / 212
Runner System Design / 212
Gating the Part / 215
Material Shrinkage / 216
Gate Location / 217
Gate Terminology / 217
Gate Types / 220
Gate Control of Weld Lines / 223
Sprues and Nozzles / 226
Sprue Pullers / 226
Sprue Bushing and Nozzle Seating / 226
Parting Lines / 228
Cavity Parting Line Location / 228
Complex Parting Line / 228
Side Core Pulls / 230
Side-Action Core Pull / 230
Delayed Side-Action Core Pull / 231
Slide Retainers / 232
Wedge Action Core Pull / 233
Core Selection / 234
Collapsible Cores / 234
Unscrewing Cores / 234
Part Ejection / 235
Positive Early Ejector Return / 237
Accelerated Ejectors / 237
Venting the Cavity / 237
Cavity Shutoff / 242
Cavity Considerations / 242
Passive Vents / 243
Porous Metal Vents / 244
Core Venting / 244
Positive Cavity Venting / 245
Blowback System / 245
Temperature Control / 245
Insulating the Mold for Temperature Control / 245
Mold Temperature Control / 246
Cavity Temperature Control / 250CONTENTS xi
Cooling Systems / 251
Cooling System Layout / 251
Core Cooling / 252
Coolant Channel Seals / 255
Mold Cooling Line Connections / 257
Mold Connection Types / 257
Cooling Time / 258
Mold Shrinkage / 259
Post-Mold Shrinkage / 261
Calculating and Estimating Part Shrinkage / 264
Determining Cavity Dimensions / 267
Hot-Runner Molds / 271
Processing for Hot-Runner Molds / 272
Mold Maintenance / 278
9. Manufacturing Equipment 285
Machinery Selection / 285
Process Control / 286
Electric Injection Molding Machines / 287
Injection Molding Machine Nomenclature and Operation / 288
Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine / 289
Injection Molding Cycle Operations / 290
Machine Selection for the Molding Cycle / 291
Resin Melt Shot Capacity / 291
Machine Melt Plasticizing Capability / 292
Injection Rate and Pressure / 293
Packing Pressure / 294
Back Pressure / 294
Time Variables and Controls / 295
Injection Molding Cycle / 295
The Injection Molding Machine / 297
The Barrel and Screw Assembly / 298
The Reciprocating Screw / 299
Nonreturn Valves / 305
Barrel Adaptor / 307
Screw Tip / 307
Nozzles / 309
Selecting Barrel Heater Conditions / 311
Pyrometer / 312xii CONTENTS
Thermocouples / 312
Mold Fit and Support / 313
Machine and Mold Clamping Systems / 313
Hydraulic Clamp / 313
Toggle Clamp / 315
Vented-Barrel Machines / 317
Maintenance of Machinery / 321
Preventive Maintenance / 321
Maintenance Checklist / 324
10. Auxiliary Equipment 326
Material Feeders and Blenders / 327
Automatic System / 328
Central Systems / 329
Material Feed to the Injection Molding Machine / 331
Material Blending at the Hopper / 332
Blending Quality Checks / 333
Color Concentrate Blending / 333
Regrind Usage / 334
Material Drying / 334
Material Drying Systems / 335
Dryer Analysis / 337
Material Drying / 339
Dryer Bed Analysis / 340
Desiccant Bed Analysis / 343
Dryer Problem Checklist / 345
Dielectric Closed-loop Moisture Analysis / 346
Microwave Dryers / 346
Plant Equipment Cooling Systems / 346
Chiller Systems / 346
Mold Temperature Controllers / 350
Chiller Types / 351
Mold Heaters / 352
Temperature Setting / 352
Maintenance Checks / 353
Granulators or Grinders / 355
Granulator Selection / 357
Press-Side Granulator / 358CONTENTS xiii
Central Granulator / 359
Granulator Problems and Maintenance / 359
Part Removal, Conveyor Systems, and Robots / 360
Conveyor and Part Separator Systems / 362
Robot Part Handling / 365
Quality Inspection Equipment / 366
Quick Mold Change / 369
QMC Requirements / 369
Key Factors / 370
Implementing QMC / 370
11. Processing 378
Production Startup for Process Control / 378
Acceptable Quality Level Limits / 379
Networking Production / 382
The Injection Molding Process / 383
Mold Startup Procedure / 384
Monitoring Mold Setup and Startup Procedures / 385
Setup Operator Responsibilities / 385
Injection Molding Startup / 389
Setting the Cycle / 392
Startup Procedure / 392
Shut-Down Procedure / 397
Other Molding Variables / 400
Plant Environment / 400
Electrical Power / 401
Cooling Systems / 401
Plant Airflow / 402
Housekeeping / 402
Pyrometers for Temperature Readings / 403
Mold Temperature Balance / 404
Resin Melt Temperature / 404
Machine Pressure Settings / 405
Fine Tuning the Cycle / 405
Control by Part Weight / 406
Regrind Effects on Part Quality / 407
Determining the Missing Variable / 408
Taguchi Problem-Solving Techniques / 410
Process Control Charting / 410xiv CONTENTS
Manufacturing Limits / 411
Control Charts / 412
Measurement-Process Control-Chart Calculations / 413
Percent and Fraction Control Charts / 422
Percentage Control Chart Formulae / 422
Control Limit Calculations for Measurement Data / 423
Maintaining Process Control / 424
Precontrol / 425
Taking Measurements / 428
Quality Maintenance / 429
Solutions to Typical Molding Problems / 429
Shot-to-Shot Variations / 429
Cavity Melt Pressure Control / 437
Controlling and Monitoring Process Variables / 440
Process Line Integration / 440
Process Line Integration Benefits / 442
Process Line Integration Scheduling / 443
Selecting a System / 444
12. Part Testing at the Machine 446
Selecting the Test / 446
Verifying Molding Conditions / 448
Destructive Tests / 448
Gardner “Ball Drop” Impact Test / 449
Nondestructive Tests / 450
Optical Comparators / 450
Stress/Strain Part Evaluation / 451
Polarized Light / 451
Aesthetic Part Checking / 452
Color Checks / 454
Testing of Plated Parts / 457
Post-Mold Shrinkage Testing / 457
Conditioned Parts / 457
13. Part Handling and Packaging 459
Planning / 459
Part Removal / 461
Part Handling and Packaging / 463CONTENTS xv
Automatic Part Packaging / 463
Robots / 465
14. Part Design Influence 467
Selecting the Correct Design Parameters / 467
Material Selection / 468
Part Design for End-Use Applications / 469
Radii / 470
Nonuniform Part Thickness / 474
Ribs for Strength and Quality / 478
Weld-Line Considerations / 480
Surface Appearance Problems / 484
Bosses / 485
Threads / 487
Undercuts / 490
Inserts / 493
Insert Loading / 495
Integral Hinges / 497
15. Assembly Techniques 499
Plan for Assembly / 499
Automated Assembly / 500
Automated Inspection / 501
Assembly Techniques / 501
Press Fits / 502
Snap Fit / 503
Welding Assemblies / 506
Hot-Plate Welding / 529
Focused Infrared Melt Fusion / 529
Cold or Hot Heading / 531
Mechanical Fasteners / 533
Adhesive and Solvent Bonding / 538
16. Decorating Considerations 543
Control of the Process / 543
Decorating Techniques / 544
Surface Preparation / 545
Molded Colors / 547
Surface Finish / 552xvi CONTENTS
Painting / 552
Paint System / 553
Part Cleanliness / 555
Part Paint Specifications / 556
Graphics / 557
Silk Screen / 558
Pad Printing / 558
Hot Stamping / 559
Heat Transfer / 562
Spray and Wipe / 562
Two-Shot Molding / 562
In-Mold Decorating / 564
Vacuum Metallizing / 565
Electroplating / 568
Flocking / 570
Gravure Decorating / 570
17. Customer and Employee Satisfaction 573
Quality Awareness / 574
Appendix A. Quality Management System (QMS) Control
of Documents Procedure 576
Appendix B. Design of Experiments (DOE): Statistical
Troubleshooting Process Screening for Reducing the
Number of Variables 579
Appendix C. Checklists 593
Appendix D. Supplier Evaluation Survey 663
Appendix E. Mold Problem Solutions 675
Appendix F. Decoration & Information Solutions 683
Glossary 692
Bibliography 731
Index


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