كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding
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 كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding    كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding  Emptyالإثنين 21 أكتوبر 2019, 10:55 am

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Practical Guide to Injection Moulding
Edited by Vannessa Goodship  

كتاب Practical Guide to Injection Moulding  P_g_t_15
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Contents
Preface iii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Big Picture 1
1.2 Introduction to Injection Moulding 1
1.3 The Injection Moulding Process 3
1.3.1 Piston Injection Unit 3
1.3.2 Reciprocating Screw Machine 4
1.3.3 Breaking Down the Injection Moulding Cycle 5
1.3.3.1 Plastication 5
1.3.3.2 Filling 5
1.3.3.3 Packing and Solidification 6
1.4 Comparison with Other Moulding Methods 6
1.4.1 Extrusion 6
1.4.2 Compression Moulding 7
1.4.3 Transfer Moulding 7
1.4.4 Blow Moulding 8
1.4.5 Film Blowing 9
1.4.6 Intrusion Moulding 10
1.4.7 Injection-Compression Moulding 10
1.5 Conclusion 11
Further Reading 11
2 Introduction to Plastics 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Structure and Typical Properties of Polymers 14
2.3 Formation of Macromolecules 14
2.4 Molecular Weight 16
2.5 Plastics 16
2.5.1 Thermoplastic 16
2.5.2 Thermosets 17
2.5.3 Elastomers 18
2.5.3.1 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 18
2.5.4 The Formulation of Plastics 19
2.5.5 The Binding Structure of Plastics 20
2.6 The Effects of Processing on Thermoplastics 20
2.6.1 Rheology 20
2.6.2 Heat and Heat Transfer 21
2.6.3 Physical and Chemical Change 21
2.6.4 Fountain Flow 22
2.7 Conclusion 23
3 Injection Moulding Machinery 25
3.1 Injection Units 25
3.2 Piston (Plunger) Injection Unit 26
3.3 Reciprocating Screw Piston Injection Unit 26
3.3.1 Shot Capacity 26
3.3.2 Plasticising Capacity 26
3.3.3 The Feeding Hopper 27
3.3.4 The Injection Cylinder 27
3.4 Selection of the Injection Unit 28
3.5 L/D Ratio 29
3.5.1 Mixing Screws for Additives and Fast Cycling Machines 31
3.5.1.1 Mixing Elements 31
3.5.1.2 Extended Plasticising Cylinder 31
3.5.2 Non-Return Valve 32
3.6 General Information on Wear and Tear 33
3.7 Unit Hardening Treatment 33
3.8 The Nozzle 34
3.9 Clamping Units 37
3.9.1 Differential Piston System 38
3.9.2 Mould Weights 38
3.10 Selection of the Clamping Unit 40
3.11 Mould Clamping Force 41
3.11.1 Mould Clamping Force Level 41
3.11.2 Mould Clamping Force and Mould Rigidity 413.11.3 Setting Mould Closing and Clamping Force 41
3.11.3.1 Mould Closing Force 41
3.11.3.2 Clamping Force 42
3.11.3.3 Second Clamping Force 42
3.12 Data for Mould Closing Force 42
3.13 Other Considerations 45
3.14 International Standard for the Designation of Injection Moulding Machines 45
4 Injection Mould Tooling Basics 47
4.1 Types of Moulds 47
4.1.1 Two-Plate Mould 47
4.1.2 Stripper Mould 47
4.1.3 Slide Mould 48
4.1.4 Three-Plate Mould 49
4.2 The Feed System 49
4.2.1 Introduction 49
4.2.2 Runner System 51
4.2.3 Runner Shape 51
4.2.4 Runner Layout 52
4.2.4.1 Standard Runner 53
4.2.4.2 Cold Runner 53
4.2.4.3 Hot Runner 53
4.3 Gate Design 57
4.3.1 Sprue Gate 57
4.3.2 Restricted Gate 57
4.3.3 Side or Edge Gate 58
4.3.4 Flash Gate 58
4.3.5 Fan Gate 58
4.3.6 Tab Gate 59
4.3.7 Diaphragm Gate 59
4.3.8 Spider Gate 59
4.3.9 Ring Gate 60
4.3.10 HOT TIP Gating 60
4.4 Mould Temperature Control 61
4.5 Ejection Systems 63
4.6 Venting 64
4.7 Conclusion 64
Further Reading 65
5 Process Control Systems 67
5.1 Introduction 67
5.2 Explanation of the Different Concepts in Control and Regulation Technology 67
5.2.1 Pump 67
5.2.2 Motor 67
5.2.3 Cylinder 67
5.2.4 Directional Valves 68
5.2.5 Pressure Valves 70
5.2.6 Flow-Regulator Valves 70
5.2.7 Location and Setting of Proportional Valves 71
5.2.7.1 Valve Bodies 71
5.2.7.2 Function of the Volume Proportional Valve 71
5.2.7.3 Function of the Pressure Proportional Valve 72
5.2.8 Check Valves 73
5.2.9 Receivers 73
5.3 General Information Concerning Control Units, Regulators,
Position Regulation and Injection Process Regulation 74
5.3.1 Control Unit 74
5.3.2 Regulator 74
5.3.3 Screw with Position Regulator 74
5.3.4 Injection Process Regulation 75
5.4 The User Interface 77
5.4.1 Multitronica Control Unit – Standard Equipment 77
5.4.2 Dialogica Control Unit – Standard Equipment 78
5.4.3 Selogica Control Unit – Standard Equipment 786 Processing Amorphous and Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics 81
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 Amorphous Plastics 82
6.2.1 Overview and Common Properties 82
6.2.2 Standard Polystyrene (PS) Homopolymer 83
6.2.3 Styrene Copolymers 83
6.2.4 Modified Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO mod.) 84
6.2.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 85
6.2.6 Cellulose Materials 86
6.2.7 Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) 86
6.2.8 Polycarbonate (PC) 87
6.2.9 Polyacrylates (PAR, PAE, APE, PEC) 88
6.2.10 Polysulfones 91
6.2.11 Polyetherimide (PEI) 91
6.2.12 Polyamide Imide (PAl) 92
6.3 Semi-Crystalline Plastics 93
6.3.1 Overview and Common Properties 93
6.3.2 Polyethylene (PE) 94
6.3.3 Polypropylene (PP) 95
6.3.4 Polyamide (PA) 96
6.3.5 Polyacetals (POM) 98
6.3.6 Polyterephthalates (Linear Polyesters) 99
6.3.7 Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 100
6.3.8 Polyfluoroolefins 100
6.3.9 Polyacrylic Acid (PAA) 101
6.3.10 Polyphthalamide (PPA) 102
6.3.11 Polyaryl Ether Ketones (PAEK) 103
6.3.12 Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCP) 104
6.4 Conclusion 105
7 Processing Thermoset, LSR and Ceramic Materials 107
7.1 Thermosets 107
7.1.1 Overview and Common Properties 107
7.1.2 Materials for Screw Injection Moulding Machines 107
7.1.3 Processing Procedures for Thermoset Plastics 108
7.1.3.1 Compression Moulding 108
7.1.3.2 Injection Moulding 108
7.1.4 Screw Injection Machine for Thermosets 109
7.1.5 Mould 109
7.1.6 Guide Values for Cylinder and Mould Temperature Settings 109
7.1.7 The Injection Unit for Granulated Thermosets 111
7.1.8 The Injection Unit for Processing Moist Polyester 111
7.1.9 Nozzle Temperature (if nozzle heating is applied) 111
7.1.10 Common Thermoset Materials: Properties and Applications 112
7.1.10.1 Phenol-Formaldehyde Compounds (PF) 112
7.1.10.2 Urea-Formaldehyde Compounds (UF) 112
7.1.10.3 Melamine-Formaldehyde Compounds (MF, MP) 113
7.1.10.4 Unsaturated Polyester (UP, DAP) 114
7.1.10.5 Epoxy Compounds (EP) 114
7.2 Elastomer Injection Moulding Compounds 115
7.2.1 Processing Procedures for Elastomeric Materials 115
7.2.1.1 Compression Moulding 115
7.2.1.2 Injection Moulding 116
7.2.1.3 Injection Moulding Machines for Rubber Compounds 116
7.2.1.4 Peripheral Device 116
7.2.1.5 Mould 116
7.2.2 Silicone Elastomers - Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) Systems 116
7.2.2.1 Classification 117
7.2.2.2 Crosslinking 117
7.2.2.3 Processing of Two-Component LSR 118
7.2.2.4 Advantages of Processing LSR Materials 118
7.2.2.5 Injection Process 118
7.2.2.6 Configuration of Injection Moulding Machines and Processing Data 118
7.2.2.7 Specific Properties 119
7.2.2.8 Crosslinking Reaction 120
7.2.2.9 Structural Viscosity 120
7.2.2.10 Vulcanisation 1217.2.2.11 Internal Mould Pressure 121
7.2.2.12 Shrinkage 122
7.2.2.13 Tempering 122
7.2.2.14 Preparation of LSR 122
7.2.3 Processing Components for LIM 122
7.2.3.1 Dosing Equipment for LSR 122
7.2.3.2 Machine Technology 124
7.2.3.3 Injection Unit 124
7.2.3.4 Cylinder Module 124
7.2.3.5 Non-Return Valve 125
7.2.3.6 Auxiliary Heating Control Circuits 126
7.2.3.7 Interface for Brush and Cleaner Units 126
7.2.3.8 Handling Interface 126
7.2.3.9 User-Programmable Inputs/Outputs 126
7.2.3.10 Air Blast Equipment with Pressure Reducer 126
7.2.3.11 Control Unit for Vacuum Pump 126
7.2.3.12 Hydraulic/Pneumatic Cold Runner Control 127
7.2.3.13 Protective Screens Made of PC 127
7.2.3.14 Simple Cold Runner Nozzle 127
7.2.3.15 Cold Runner Head 127
7.2.3.16 Mould Technology 128
7.2.4 Application of LSR Parts in Food Production 132
7.2.5 Summary 133
7.3 Processing of Ceramic and Metal Powder Materials 134
7.3.1 Introduction 134
7.3.2 Binder 135
7.3.3 Processing 136
7.3.3.1 Compression Moulding 136
7.3.3.2 Injection Moulding 136
7.3.4 Configuration of Injection Moulding Machines 137
7.3.5 The Process Requirements 137
7.3.5.1 Debinding and Sintering 137
7.4 A Growing Market for Moulders 138
8 Guide Values and Processing Instructions for the Most
Important Thermoplastic Injection Moulding Compounds 139
8.1 Pre-Drying Material 139
8.2 Examples of Moulding Parameters of Selected Materials 139
8.3 Injection Moulding Process Parameters and Quality of Moulded Parts 140
8.4 Injection and Mould Cavity Pressure 143
8.5 Injection Pressure and Injection Time 146
8.6 General Information on Filling Speed 146
8.6.1 Initial Injection Speed 146
8.7 Filling Speed and Orientation 146
8.8 Effects of Too High Filling Speed 147
8.9 Setting the Initial Injection Speed 148
8.10 Plasticising 148
8.10.1 Compound Temperature 148
8.10.2 Cylinder Temperatures 149
8.10.3 Nozzle Temperature 149
8.10.4 Temperature Profile Guideline for Plasticising Cylinder 150
8.10.5 Recommended Temperatures for Cylinder and Mould 151
8.10.6 Measuring the Compound Temperature 153
8.10.7 Screw Speed 153
8.10.8 Back Pressure 154
8.11 The Injection Stage 154
8.11.1 Filling to Packing 154
8.11.2 The Mould 157
8.11.2.1 Mould Temperature: General Information 157
8.11.2.2 Level of Mould Temperature 157
8.11.2.3 Uniformity of Mould Temperatures 158
8.11.2.4 Mould Temperature Patterns 158
8.11.2.5 Temperature Control Devices 159
8.11.2.6 Matching Temperature Control Units and Mould Maintenance 160
8.11.2.7 Measuring the Mould Temperature - Checking the Uniformity
of the Mould Temperature Control 160
8.12 Recommended Values for Holding Pressure Time and Remaining Cooling Time 1618.13 Cycle Time 161
8.14 Setting the Injection Moulding Machine 162
9 Troubleshooting 163
9.1 Introduction 163
9.2 Troubleshooting Guide 163
9.2.1 Detection and Classification of Defects 163
9.2.2 Flow Charts for Troubleshooting 164
9.2.3 Sink Marks 183
9.2.4 Streaks 184
9.2.4.1 Burnt Streaks (Brown or Silver) 186
9.2.4.2 Moisture Streaks 186
9.2.4.3 Colour Streaks 187
9.2.4.4 Air Streaks/Air Hooks 187
9.2.4.5 Glass Fibre Streaks 188
9.2.5 Gloss/Gloss Differences 189
9.2.6 Weld Line (Visible Notch or Colour Change) 191
9.2.7 Jetting 191
9.2.8 Diesel Effect (Burns) 192
9.2.9 Record Grooves Effect 193
9.2.10 Stress Whitening/Stress Cracks 194
9.2.11 Incompletely Filled Parts 195
9.2.12 Oversprayed Parts (Flashes) 196
9.2.13 Visible Ejector Marks 197
9.2.14 Deformation During Demoulding 198
9.2.15 Flaking of the Surface Layer 198
9.2.16 Cold Slugs/Cold Flow Lines 199
9.2.17 Entrapped Air (Blister Formation) 200
9.2.18 Dark Spots 201
9.2.19 Dull Spots Near the Sprue 202
9.3 Data Acquisition Record 202
9.3.1 Using the Data Acquisition Record 202
9.3.2 Data Acquisition Record for Optimising Moulded Parts 203
9.3.2.1 Moulded Part Data 203
9.3.2.2 Machine Settings and Defect Evaluation 203
9.4 Case Studies of Injection Moulded Components 204
9.4.1 Threaded Connecting Sleeves for Ink Drafting Apparatus 204
9.4.2 Meter Cases 205
9.4.3 Wristwatch Glass 205
9.4.4 Alarm Clock Glass 206
9.4.5 Glass Cover for Digital Gauge 206
9.4.6 Plug Boards with Insert Pins 207
9.4.7 Hair Slides 208
9.4.8 Toothbrush Components 208
9.4.9 Screw Cap with Conical Nipple 209
9.4.10 Switch Housing 210
9.4.11 Battery Housing 210
10 Advanced Processing Techniques 213
10.1 Introduction 213
10.2 Multi-Component Moulding 213
10.2.1 Co-Injection Moulding 213
10.2.2 Bi-Injection Moulding 214
10.2.3 Interval Injection Moulding 214
10.3 Assisted Moulding 214
10.4 Multi-Shot Moulding 214
10.5 Over-Moulding 214
10.6 Business Trends 214
10.7 Material Selection 215
10.8 Process Technology 217
10.8.1 Multi-Component Injection Moulding 217
10.8.2 Co-Injection Moulding 217
10.8.2.1 Material Selection for Co-Injection Moulding 218
10.8.2.2 Process Sequence 218
10.8.2.3 Co-Injection Moulding: Different Techniques 219
10.8.2.4 Part Design and Tooling Requirements for Co-Injection Moulding 223
10.8.2.5 Rheology and Mould Filling: Why and How Co-Injection Moulding Works 22310.8.2.6 Immiscible Materials Research in Co-Injection Moulding 227
10.8.2.7 Setting Optimum Parameters 228
10.8.2.8 Co-Injection Moulding Application Case Studies 228
10.8.2.9 Recycling and Legislation 228
10.8.2.10 Discussion and Conclusions 229
10.8.3 Bi-Injection 229
10.8.4 Interval Injection Moulding 229
10.9 Assisted Moulding 231
10.9.1 Gas Injection Moulding Technology (GIT) 231
10.9.1.1 Process Technology 231
10.9.1.2 Patent Situation 231
10.9.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of GIT 232
10.9.1.4 Process Variations in the Application of Gas Injection Moulding Technology 232
10.9.1.5 Systems Technology for the Implementation of Gas Injection Technology 237
10.9.1.6 Configuration Guidelines for GIT Moulding 238
10.9.1.7 KoolGas™ 240
10.9.2 Water Assisted Injection Moulding (WAIM) 241
10.10 Multi-Shot Moulding 241
10.10.1 Machine Technology 242
10.10.1.1 Injection Unit Configurations 242
10.10.2 Core Back Moulding 244
10.10.3 Rotating Tool 245
10.10.4 Transfer Moulding 246
10.10.5 Multi-Shot with a Single Injection Unit 247
10.10.6 Materials for Muti-Shot Moulding 247
10.10.6.1 Material Selection for Multi-Shot Moulding 247
10.10.6.2 Material Process Order 247
10.10.6.3 Using Thermoset Materials 247
10.10.6.4 Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) 248
10.10.6.5 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs) 248
10.10.7 Multi-Shot Application Case Studies 249
10.10.7.1 Trio Knob 249
10.10.7.2 Stanley Screwdriver 249
10.10.8 Limitations to Multi-Shot 249
10.11 Over-Moulding 250
10.11.1 Insert Moulding 250
10.11.2 Lost Core Moulding 250
10.12 The Future? 250
References 251
Further Reading 251
Appendix 1 Abbreviations and Acronyms 253
Appendix 2 Trade Names, Specific Weight and Suppliers of Some Plastic Materials 257
Index  


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