كتاب Complete Part Design Handbook - For Injection Molding of Thermoplastics
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 كتاب Complete Part Design Handbook - For Injection Molding of Thermoplastics

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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Complete Part Design Handbook - For Injection Molding of Thermoplastics
E. Alfredo Campo  

كتاب Complete Part Design Handbook - For Injection Molding of Thermoplastics  C_p_d_10
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Subject Index 855
Subject Index
A
abrasion resistance testing
(ASTM D-1044) 740
abrasive wear 361
ABS (acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene) 2, 6
advantages 8
disadvantages and limitations 8
general properties of 7
typical applications 8
accelerated weathering testing
(ASTM G 23) 821
acetal (POM, polyacetal) 9
acetal homopolymer bearing
to acetal homopolymer shaft 361
to aluminum shaft 361
to nylon 6/6 shaft 361
to steel shaft 360
acrylamate 109
– acrylesterol 110
acrylesterol 109
acrylic (PMMA) 418
high impact 13
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS) 2, 6
additive deposits 674
adhesive
application and curing methods
425
for acetal, polyacetal (POM) 422
for copolyester (TPE) 423
for other thermoplastic polymers
423
for polyamide (PA) 422
for polyethylene terephthalate
(PET) 423
surface preparation 424
– abrasion 424
– chemical etching 424
– corona discharge 424
– degreasing cleaning 424
– flame treatment 424
– plasma treatment 424
ultra violet curable 421
adhesive bonding 416
acrylic (PMMA) 418
advantages 416
aging 420
anaerobics 418
– advantages 418
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
– disadvantages 419
– liquid form 418
cyanoacrylates 419
– advantages 419
– liquid form 419
cyanoadrylates
– disadvantages 419
epoxy (EP) 416
– advantages 417
– disadvantages 417
– liquid paste form 416
flexibility 420
joint design for 425
other assembly considerations 420
PMMA
– advantages 418
– disadvantages 418
– liquid paste form 418
selection 420
temperature 420
TPU
– advantages 417
– disadvantages 417
– liquid paste solvent-based form
417
urethane (TPU) 417
adhesive concerns 419
adhesive families 416
adhesive wear 361
allocated direct investment (ADI)
844
alloy steels
AISI 4340 566
nitralloy 135M 566
prehardened AISI 4130 565
prehardened AISI 4140 565
prehardened AISI 4150 565
allyl alcohol 85
anaerobics 418
angled pin slides 718
angle of twist 207
anhydride 85, 99
annealing 541
apparent modulus 130
appearance of product 119
arc ignition 788
arc resistance testing (ASTM D-495)
801
area centroid 150
area moment 150
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
of inertia 153
aromatic diamines 90
aromatic polyesteramide elastomers
(PESA) 76
aromatic polyesters 25
ASA
typical applications 54
assembly methods 405
assumptions 163
atactic PP 46
automation 837
auxiliary equipment 837
B
bacteria resistance testing
(ASTM G 22) 829
balanced geometrical configuration
547
banana gate 662
Barcol hardness testing
(ASTM D-2583) 739
beam
behavior of 158
bending moment 159
compound loads 184
concentrated end load 184
cross section shearing stresses
166
equally distributed load 184
equilibrium shearing stresses 166
loaded by lateral forces 170
loaded by transverse forces 164
maximum deflection 173
neutral surface of 158
normal stresses in 159
shearing stress 164, 167
simply supported 168, 174
– concentrated center load 174,
181
– couple loaded at one end 176
stress analysis of 158
beam deflection 168
analysis 168
bending moment 178
by double integration method
169
equations 186
fiber glass 146
moment area method 178
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –856 Subject Index
superposition method 183
bearing
polyimide 366
reinforced Kevlar® 375
TFE composite 373
bearing materials operating limits
364
behavior of thermoplastics
effects of temperature 137
Belleville spring washer 388, 391
from acetal homopolymer 389
loading rate 392
long-term loading characteristics
392
bending moment 159
bevel gears 259
nonparallel and intersecting shafts
259
bis(3-aminopropyl)-
polyoxytetramethylene glycol 75
bis(4-maleimidodiphenyl)methane
(MDA BMI) 97
bismaleimide (BMI) 97
advantages 98
disadvantages and limitations 98
typical applications 98
bisphenols 89
blind hole 239
counterbored 239
protruding 239
bonding
adhesive 413
solvent 413
boss 429
injection molded 222
inside diameter 430
outside diameter 430
boss dimensions for metal insert
encapsulation 242
boss wall thickness for metal inserts
240
bottom clamping plate 581
BPA epoxy 112
advantages 113, 114
disadvantages and limitations
114
general properties of 112
typical applications 114
breaking strength 129
brittleness temperature
(ASTM D-746) 768
burn marks 673
1,4-butanediol 72
butyl glycidyl ethe 93
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
C
calcium carbonate 516
cantilever beam 162
bending moment 162
free end, concentrated load 179
initial modulus of elasticity 381
load at the free end 171
maximum deflection 174
stress-strain curve 381
uniformly distributed load 174,
180
cantilever beam spring 379
design analysis 381
cantilever latch
design and material considerations
454
tapered cross section 455
uniform cross section 454
cantilever latch beam
assembly force 453
coefficient of friction 453
permissible deflection 452
cantilever spring
acetal homopolymer 382
applications 385
empirical data 382
capillary rheometer melt viscosity
testing (ASTM D-1703) 782
capital equipment 833
caprolactam 75
carbon arc light (ASTM D-1499)
823
cashew gate 662
cavity insert 698
sidewall strength 699
surface contact area (shut off) 714
cavity plate 580
celluloid 2, 88
cellulose acetate 2
α-cellulose fillers 87
cellulose nitrate 88
cellulosic acetate (CA) 88
cellulosic butyrate (CAB) 88
cellulosic ester 88
advantages 88
disadvantages and limitations 89
typical applications 89
cellulosic proprionate (CAP) 88
centroid 150, 155
chain extender 104
chamfer edges 715
Charpy impact testing
(ASTM D-256) 755
chemical resistance 520
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
chip impact testing 755
chlorinated polyolefins 69
chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) 40,
42
circular tooth thickness 300
clamping force
calculations 835
coefficient of friction
(ASTM D-1894) 742, 743
effects of lubricants 744
self lubricated additives 744
coefficient of linear thermal
expansion 135, 245
testing 776
cold drawing 122
cold forged inserts
types of materials used 243
cold forged metal inserts for
encapsulation 243
cold heading 405
force required to form head 408
procedure and equipment 406
rate and type of loading 408
relaxation of stud and head 408
shaft geometry 407
strength of cold headed joints
408
cold runner
cross section 646
dimensions 647
flow tab 654
layout 646
sprue 639
system 639
venting 687
column
axially loaded in pinned ends 191
base fixed and free end axially
loaded 191
central-supported, axial loaded,
both ends fixed 190
eccentrically loaded 188
loading cases 193
long slender 188
pinned ends, axial loaded 189
slenderness ratio 188
structural analysis 188
comparative track index testing
(ASTM D-3638/UL 746 A) 804
composite areas 152
compression curves 129
compression properties 733
compressive strength testing
(ASTM D-695) 733
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 857
apparatus 734
conditioning 734
test specimens 734
continuous elongation 122
cooling
core insert 632
core valve ejector 637
mold cavity 630
mold cavity insert 631
mold plate 629
copolyester thermoplastic elastomer
71
core pin 716
core surface temperatures 720
corrosion 673
corrosive wear 361
cost analysis
basic method 841
graph method 842
molded products 841
cost of sales 845
crazing 512
creep 139, 730, 761
behavior 138
modulus 764
– tests 773
rupture 765
– tests 773
test 730
under long-term load 139
crossed axial helical gears 262
cross linker 104
cross section 155
area 156
crown gears 260
crystallization rate 515
cyanate 89
advantages 91
characteristics 90
disadvantages and limitations 91
general properties of 89
typical applications 92
cyanate esters 89
cyanoacrylates 419
cycloaliphatics 92
cylindrical worm gears 261
D
DAP
advantages 86
disadvantages and limitations 86
general properties of 85
typical applications 87
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
deflection
maximum 148
degradation 522
mechanical 522
microbial 523
radiation 522
density gradient testing
(ASTM D-1505) 750
designer check list 119
design factors 119
diallyl phthalate (DAP) 86
diallyl phthalate/isophthalate
(DAP, DAIP) 85
diamine 97
dibasic acids 99
dielectric constant 797, 798, 799
frequency 799
humidity 799
procedure 800
specimen 800
temperature 799
voltage 799
weathering 799
dielectric constant testing
(ASTM D-150) 797
dielectric strength testing
(ASTM D-149) 795
short-time test 795
step-by-step test 795
diglycidylether 90
dihydric alcohols 99
dimer acid 75
diphenyl-methane-diisocyanate
(MDI) 104
diphenylmethane-4 109
4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate
58
direct investment (DI) 844
dissipation factor 798
testing (ASTM D-150) 800
double enveloping worm gears
261
double helical gears 259
double integration procedure 169
draft angles 715
draft walls 547
drawn-eyelet 239
drawn-pin 239
drawn-shell 239
drop weight impact testing
(ASTM D-3029) 756
dry-as-molded 136
durometer hardness testing
(ASTM D-2240) 739
– – – – – – – – – – – – – –
E
economic factors 119
edge gate critical dimensions 656
effects of the environment 521
ejection surface area 548
ejection systems 610
ejector blades 717
ejector guide posts and bushings 717
ejector housing 580
ejector pins 581
ejector plate 581, 611
assembly 611
return 717
ejector retainer plate 581
ejector sleeves 611, 717
ejector system 550
elastic limit 126
elastic properties 127
elastic ranges 127
elastomeric alloy thermoplastic
vulcanized (TPV) 57, 65
electrical insulation properties 792
electrical lead inserts for
encapsulation 253
electrical properties
comparison of 809
testing 784
electrical resistance properties 792
electrofusion 408
fitting (SEF) 409
electromagnetic welding 458
advantages 458
applications 458
coil design 460
coils in series or parallel 463
combination coils 462
disadvantages 458
general design considerations 460
hairpin coils 462
joint design 463
materials used for the coils 461
multi-turn coils 462
pancake coils 462
process 459
single turn coils 461
split coils 462
types of coils 461
welding gasket 464
element moment 150
elongation at break 130
encapsulation 239
differential shrinkage effects 244
insert preparation 255
of reinforced metal inserts 253
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –858 Subject Index
environmental requirements 119
environmental resistance 520
EP
advantages 93
disadvantages and limitations 94
general properties of 92
typical applications 94
epichlorohydrin 92
epoxidized butanol 93
epoxidized long chain mono alcohols
93
epoxidized phenols 92
epoxy (EP) 92, 416
ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer
rubber (EPDM) 62
ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR)
62
ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene
(ECTFE) 40, 42
ethylene ethyl acrylate (EEA) 38
ethylene interpolymers 69
ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA) 38
ethylene N-butyl acrylate (ENBA)
38
ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)
40, 41
ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) 37
advantages 38
disadvantages and limitations 39
general properties of 37
typical applications 39
evacuation time 696
extensometer 123
external ring gate 658
F
face gears 260
falling weight impact testing 757
fan edge gate 657
fatigue 761, 766
feather edges 547
fiber glass orientation
flexural modulus 519
tensile stress 518
fiber glass reinforcement limitations
517
fiber reinforced resins
isotropic warpage of 517
fiber reinforcements
types of 516
– carbon 516
– glass 516
– high tensile organic fibers 516
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
– inorganic 516
film edge gate 659
fixing clip spring applications 387
flame retardant polymers 810
flammability characteristics 809
flammable polymers 810
flash 413
ignition temperature testing
(ASTM D-1929) 805
flashing 672
flat circular plate
equations 196
flexible hinge applications 388
flexural beam
stress distribution 145
flexural creep testing 762
flexural modulus 733
effects caused by fiber glass
orientation 519
flexural stress 732
flexural testing (ASTM D-790) 730
apparatus 731
test procedures 732
flexure comparison 198
flow orientation 511
flow path 511
flow restriction 511
fluorescent UV lamp, condensation
(ASTM G 53) 821
formaldehyde 87, 95
fumaric acid 99
fungi resistance testing (ASTM G 21)
828
G
gate 655
effects 664
and mold venting systems 713
type and location 548
gearing design 257
gearing technology designs 294
gear manufacturing processes 257
chipless methods 257
finishing processes 257
metal removal 257
molding 257
gear roundness
gating effects 275
gears
backlash values 281
bevel gears 259
– nonparallel and intersecting shafts
259
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
classification of 258
crossed axial helical gears 262
crown gears 260
cylindrical worm gears 261
double enveloping worm gears
261
double helial gears 259
face gears 260
for straight linear motion 262
helical gears 258
helical rack gears 262
helicon and planoid gears 262
herringbone gears 259
horsepower equations 266
hour glass worm gears 261
hypoid gears 261
– nonparallel and nonintersecting
shafts 261
internal gears 259
miter gears 260
mold shrinkage 287
mounting on metal shafts 279
multifunction designs 277
parallel to the shaft axis 258
selection of 264
single enveloping worm gears 261
single helical gears 258
skew bevel gears 260
spiral bevel gears 260
spiroid gears 262
spur gears 258
spur pinion gears 262
spur rack gears 262
standard injection molded gears
263
straight bevel gears 259
tolerances 287
worm gears 261
zerol bevel gears 260
gear safety stress 270
gear service factors 265
gears parallel to the shaft axis 258
gear total composite tolerances 283
glass transition temperature 513,
768
glow wire testing 807
glycidyls 92
H
halogenated polyolefins 69
hardness scales
comparison 740
heat capacity 514
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 859
heat deflection temperature
(ASTM D-648) 774
test
– applied stress 775
– specimen molding 775
– specimen thickness 775
heat flow rate 622
heat transfer
barriers 627
coefficient 622
helical compression springs 378
helical gear 258, 289
equations 289
HP (external and internal) 266
helical pinion and gear, 30 teeth or
more 320
helical pinion and gear, less than 30
teeth 319
helical pinion less than 30 teeth and
gear 30 teeth or more 319
helical rack gear 262
helicon and planoid gears 262
herringbone gears 259
heteroaromatics 101
high current arc ignition testing
(UL 746A) 806
high density polyethylene (HDPE)
36
high temperature nylon (HTN) 14
high voltage arc tracking rate
(UL-746 A) 803
method ASTM D-2132 803
method ASTM D-2303 803
hinge design
side core insert mold 237
hoist ring 718
holes 718
tapped hole sizes 718
Hooke’s law 121, 125
horizontal burning testing
(UL 94HB) 811
hot mandrel testing 807
hot plate welding 410
advantages 411
disadvantages 411
joint design 412
hot runner
externally heated systems 595
insulated molding systems 597
internally heated systems 594
hot runner mold 588
gates (drops) 590
– hot spear tip thermo-valve gate
593
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
– hot tip fixed and valve torpedo
gates 592
– hot tip spreader insert gate 591
– reciprocating pin valve gate 592
– reverse taper sprue gate 591
– straight sprue gate 591
– straight sprue molten insulated
gate 591
– tit edge gate 591
temperature control systems 589
– bands and coil heaters 590
– cartridge heaters 589
– cast-in heaters 590
– heat pipes 590
– torpedo heaters 590
– tubular heaters 589
valve pin gate 663
hot tip torpedo 600
hot wire coil ignition testing
(UL 746A/ASTM D-3874) 807
hot wire ignition time 787
hour glass worm gears 261
hourly machine rate 845
HTN
advantages 15
disadvantages and limitations 16
general properties of 14
typical applications 16
hub 143
hub/shaft coefficient of friction 441
hypoid gears 261
nonparallel and nonintersecting
shafts 261
I
impact fracture mechanism 752
impact resistance 513
testing 751
impact testing 760
injection mold
classification 545
design considerations 545, 550
injection molding cycles 528
injection molding process effects on
fiber glass orientation 517
injection pressure 653
inserts
base wall thickness 241
minimum clearance 241
instrumented high speed plunger
impact tester 760
instrumented impact testing 758
instrumented pendulum testers 758
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
integral life hinges 232
design 233
interchangeable insert molds 585
internal gas voids 672
internal gears 259
internal ring gate 659
internal sharp corners 222
ionomer 16
advantages 17
disadvantages and limitations 18
typical applications 18
isochronous stress-strain curves 764
isocyanate 104
Izod impact testing (ASTM D-256)
753
J
journal bearing
annealing effects 354
axial and thrust grooves for
lubrication 344
axial wall thickness 347
babbitt 336
bronze 336
carbon-graphite 337
cast-iron 337
clearances 365
coefficient of friction 359
design 335
– for lubrication 342
– principles 345
failures due to small clearances 360
felt snapped-on ring design 342
length-to-inside diameter ratio of
354
load carrying contact surface 350
load reaction across the length 350
lubricated axial groove oil wick
with seal 342
lubricated axial oil wick with debris
pocket 342
lubricated felt ring design 342
lubricated oil wick connected to rod
bearing 342
materials used 335
mounting 347
plugged bronze 336
pressure equation 367
pressure-velocity (PV) limits 358
rubber 337
self-centering 348
self-lubricated 338, 363
sintered porous metal 336
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –860 Subject Index
split bushing 348
temperature effects on 356
thermal effects on clearances 357
types of service and motion of 354
with round holes for lubrication/
debris trap 344
wooden 337
L
Lame’s equation 396
layout of mold cavity and core inserts
714
LCP
advantages 19
disadvantages and limitations 19
general properties of 18
typical applications 19
leader pins 581
and bushings 716
leakproof encapsulation of various
inserts 253
Lewis tooth form factor 266
life hinges
mold design considerations 235
proper gate design 236
lift holes 718
LIM
advantages 80
disadvantages and limitations 81
general properties of 78
injection molding machine
modifications 79
mold design recommendations 80
mold requirements 80
silicone processing 79
typical applications 81
limited oxygen index testing
(ASTM D-2863) 815
linear low density polyethylene
(LLDPE) 36
liquid components feeding system
79
liquid crystal polymer (LCP) 18
liquid injection molding 3
liquid injection molding silicone
(LIM®) 77
loads
types of 158
locating ring 580, 713
locating spring
application 386
long molding cycles 673
long-term thermal aging index 772
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
loss angle 798
loss index 798
lost core 602
molding machine
– clamping system 604
– injection molds 604
– injection unit 604
low density polyethylene (LDPE) 36
lubrication
hydrodynamics 339
M
“MQ1” requirements 721
machine cost 836
machine nozzle 639
machine size 833
maleic anhydride 97
modified vinyl esters 113
manufacturing costs
additional 848
material handling 833
material selection
coefficient of thermal expansion
effects 245
mathematical models 121
mating material
hardness 362
surface finishing 362
mating spur gears tooth form
comparison 304
maximum close mesh center distance
309
MDI 110
melamine formaldehyde 87
melamine formaldehyde (MF) 87
melt flashing inside the insert blind
hole 249
melt flow 511
rate 781
– loading the polymer 781
– moisture 781
– preheat time 781
– volume of sample 781
testing 779
melt index testing (ASTM D-1238)
780
melting point 768
test (ASTM D-795) 767
melt processible rubber (MPR) 57,
69
melt viscosity 783
metal fasteners 427
metal insert 239
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
anchorage for encapsulation 246,
250
drawn pin 251
drawn shell 251
flat plate 250
irregular shape 252
large drawn shell 252
large surface 252
thin tubular 250
metal insert encapsulating
process problems 249
metal insert floating (movement)
249
metallocene polyethylene (MPE) 38
metaresin diallyl isophthalate (DAIP)
85
methylene dianiline (MDA) 97
MF
advantages 88
disadvantages and limitations 88
general properties of 87
typical applications 88
miter gears 260
modified diphenylmethane-4,4-
diisocyanate (MDI) 109
modified vinyl ester resins 113
modulus of elasticity 129, 733
moisture effects on nylon 523
mold
cooling channel 619
heat removal 621
heat transfer 618
high volume production 546
production 546
prototype 545
surface finishing 571
– procedures 573
– diamond polishing 576
– electrical discharge machining
(EDM) 573
– grinding 573
– machining 573
– stoning 574
mold amortization 845
mold base 578
“A” cavity plate 580
“B” cavity plate 580
bottom clamping plate 581
ejector housing 580
ejector pins 581
ejector plate 581
ejector retainer plate 581
functions of components 579
leader pins 581
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 861
locating ring 580
return pins 581
shoulder bushings 582
sprue bushing 580
sprue puller pin 581
standard components 578
stop pins 581
support pillars 581
support plate 580
top clamping plate 580
mold cavity 606, 720
surface temperature 529
temperature control 530
mold cavity identification 711
mold cavity pressure monitoring
719
mold construction 709
finishing 712
requirements 713
welding 712
mold cooling 615, 638
channel location 619
fluid 628
system 549
mold cost 838
estimate factors 839
– per total mold cost factor 840
mold debug 720
mold deposit 669, 673
mold design 709
detailed 552
effects on the injection molding
process 549
preliminary 551
mold drawing standards 709
molded-in stress 256, 512
molded parts
tolerances 705
mold ejection
air poppet valve ejection system
613
blade system 612
mechanical ejection valve system
613
pin system 612
stripper plate ejection system 614
mold general assembly 718
mold halves interlocks 719
mold identification tag 719
mold layout 552, 704
mold modifications
documentation for 710
mold shrinkage 531, 538, 710
calculations 748
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
process condition effects 533
mold shrinkage test (ASTM D-955)
744
conditioning 746
gate type 747
injection pressure 747
location 747
mold temperature 747
post molding testing 747
size 747
test conditions 746
test procedures 746
test specimens 746
wall thickness 747
mold steel 553, 557
chemical composition 559, 560
corrosion resistance 569
economical grade 569
finishing process 572
general grade 569
performance grade 569
surface finish 572
mold support pillars 705
mold temperature control 616, 715
mold tryout 720
mold venting 550, 666
design 674
logic seal 691
negative coolant pressure 691
process problems 672
molecular structure
amorphous polymer 6
semi-crystalline polymer 6
moment area
applications of 179
first theorem 178
second theorem 178
procedure 178
moment of inertia 150, 152, 155,
156
of a circle 153, 154
of a rectangle 153
of a semicircular area 154
T-section 154
MPR
advantages 70
disadvantages and limitations 70
general properties of 69
typical applications 71
N
neutral axis 156, 159
location of the 163
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Newtonian flow 511
nitrile rubber 66
nonmetallic inserts for encapsulation
255
notches 222
novolac
two stage-(novolac) resin 95
epoxy polymers 113
Nusselt laminar flow number 621
Nusselt turbulent flow number 621
nylon 2
moisture effects 136
O
open hole 239
organic acid 85
orthoresin diallyl phthalate (DAP)
85
OSA
typical applications 54
outdoor weathering testing
(ASTM D-1435) 827
overlap edge gate 657
oxidation
photo 522
oxidizing olefins 92
P
PA
advantages 22
disadvantages and limitations 22
typical applications 22
PA 6
general properties of 20
PA 6/12
general properties of 21
PA 6/6
general properties of 20
PAK
advantages 84
disadvantages and limitations 85
general properties of 84
typical application 85
PAR
advantages 26
disadvantages and limitations 26
general properties of 25
typical applications 27
parallel axis theorem 152
part geometries 212
parting line 607
angled mold 608
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –862 Subject Index
complex mold 608
flat mold 607
local stepped mold 609
non-flat mold 608
profiled mold 608
PB
advantages 97
disadvantages and limitations 97
typical applications 97
PBT
advantages 33
disadvantages and limitations 34
general properties of 33
typical applications 34
PC
advantages 30
disadvantages and limitations 30
general properties of 29
typical applications 30
PE
general properties of 36
high density polyethylene (HDPE)
36
high molecular weight (HMW) 37
linear low density polyethylene
(LLDPE) 36
low density polyethylene (LDPE)
36
PEEK
advantages 28
disadvantages and limitations 28
general properties of 27
typical applications 28
PEI
advantages 24
disadvantages and limitations 24
general properties of 23
typical applications 24
pendulum impact tests 753
perfluoro alkoxy alkane (PFA) 40,
41
perfluoroethylene-propylene
copolymer (FEP)
fluorinated 40
perfluoroethylene propylene (FEP)
fluorinated 41
performance testing 723
PET
advantages 35
disadvantages and limitations 36
general properties of 35
typical applications 36
PF
advantages 96
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
disadvantages and limitations 96
general properties of 94
typical applications 96
PGT-1 gear tooth design data 296
PGT-1 helical mating gears center
distance 322
PGT-1 helical mating gears strength
balance 319
PGT-1 tooth design 295
PGT-1 tooth helical gear design
equations 317
PGT-2
gear tooth design 297
PGT-2 tooth design
for spur and helical gears 297
PGT-2 tooth helical gear design
equations 317
PGT-3
gear tooth design 298
PGT-3 tooth design
for spur and helical gears 298
PGT-4
gear tooth design 299
PGT-4 tooth design
for spur and helical gears 299
PGT
close mesh center distance between
spur gears 308
gear horsepower equation basic
parameters 324
gear tooth form comparison 300
helical gearing 314
helical gear specifications 334
helical pinion specifications 333
spur and helical gears horsepower
rating 323
spur and helical gear specifications
328
spur gear specifications 332
spur mating gears strength balance
305
spur pinion specifications 331
phase angle 798
phenol 95
phenol formaldehyde (phenolic, PF)
94
phenol glycidyl ethers 92
phenolic 2
phthalic anhydride 85
PI
advantages 102
disadvantages and limitations 102
general properties of 102
typical applications 103
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
pin hinge
conventional types 237
design
snap-in 238
standard lug 238
pin point gate 660
pipe plugs 715
pipe tapped holes 715
plasticity 127
plastic range 122, 127
plastics
beginning of 1
plastics selection 117
plate
bending under edge boundaries
200
classification 195
compensation factor for deflection
200
edge support 197
equations 201, 202
flat circular 194
flexure stress distribution 198
simply supported, uniformly
distributed load 197
simply supported, concentrated
center load 198
stress analysis 195
stresses 197
under concentrated center load
199
under concentrated load 196
uniformly distributed load, fixed
edge 204
uniformly distributed load, simply
supported edge 204
with fixed edge 199
PLC rating 787, 788
PMMA
advantages 13
disadvantages and limitations 14
general properties of generic
unfilled 13
typical applications 14
Poisson’s ratio 136
poly (11-amino-undecanoic) 75
polyamide (PA, nylon) 2, 20
polyamide thermoplastic elastomer
75
polyamide TPE
advantages 77
disadvantages and limitations 77
general properties of 75
typical applications 77
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 863
polyarylate (PAR) 25
polyarylether ketone (PEAK) 27
polybutadiene (PB) 97
polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)
33
polycarbonate (PC) 28
polyester alkyd (PAK) 83
polyetheramide (PETA) 75
polyetheresteramide (PEEA) 75
polyetherether ketone (PEEK) 27
polyetherimide (PEI) 23
polyetherketone ketone (PEKK) 27
polyethylene (PE) 2, 36
polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 34
polyimide (PI) 101
polyisocyanate 104
polymer families 3
polymer melt behavior 511
polymer reinforcements 515
polymers 1
classification of 4
critical properties 514
general characteristics of 513
molecular structure of 6
polymethyl metacrylate (acrylic,
PMMA) 12
polyol 104
polyolefin thermoplastic elastomer
(TPO) 57, 62
polyoxyethylene glycol 75
polyoxypropylene glycol 75
polyoxytetramethylene glycol 75
polyphenols 89
polyphenylene oxide (PPO)
modified 31
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 44
polypropylene (PP) 46, 62, 66
glycol 72
polystyrene (PS) 48
polysulfone (PSU) 49
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 39
polytetramethylene ether 72
polyurethane (PUR) 104
chemistry 58
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 2, 51
polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) 40
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 40,
42
polyxylene 103
advantages 103
disadvantages and limitations 103
typical applications 103
POM
advantages 11
– – – – – – – – – – –
disadvantages and limitations 11
general properties of 9
typical applications 11
POM copolymers
general properties of 9
poor surface 673
post-mold shrinkage 531, 538
post hinges
insert molded 237
potassium acetate
aqueous 527
power factor 798
PP
advantages 47
atactic PP 46
disadvantages and limitations 47
general properties of 46
syndiotactic PP 46
typical applications 47
PPO
advantages 32
disadvantages and limitations 32
general properties of 31
typical applications 32
PPS
advantages 45
disadvantages and limitations 45
general properties of 44
typical applications 45
Prandtl number 621
press/lock slotted metal insert 242
press fitting 437
circular assembly 441
dimensional changes 442
interference 439
joint strength 441
metal hub and plastic shaft 440
metal shaft and plastic hub 439
shaft and hub made of different
materials 439
shaft and hub made of the same
material 439
pressure drop 651
pressure vessel
ASME code 403
bolted end cap design 401
bursting pressure 403
cylindrical equations 399
design 393, 400
– pressure 403
– temperature 403
flat closed end, thin-walled 394
loadings 403
operating pressure 403
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
permissible over pressures 404
pressure relief devices 403
proof of design adequacy 403
regulations 402
set pressures 404
– tolerances 404
snap-fit end cap design 401
spherical closed end, thin-walled
394
stress caused by combined loads
403
tensile strength 403
testing prototype 402
testing requirements 404
thick-walled 396
thin-walled 393
processing temperatures 655
product cost 831
product design 115, 511
effects on the injection molding
process 546
profit on fixed investment 845
profit on working capital 845
property
materials 115, 116
property comparison 118
property data sheet 724
proportional boss geometries 548
proportional limit (PL) 126
protruding metal insert
encapsulation 249
protruding screw 239
protruding shaft 239
PS
advantages 48
disadvantages and limitations 49
expandable polystyrene (EPS) 48
general properties of 48
general purpose (GPPS) 48
high impact (HIPS) 48
rubber modified medium (MIPS)
48
typical applications 49
PSU
advantages 50
disadvantages and limitations 50
general properties of 49
typical applications 51
PTFE
advantages 42
disadvantages and limitations 43
general properties of 39
typical applications 43
pull out force 143
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –864 Subject Index
PUR
advantages 106
disadvantages and limitations 107
general properties of 104
high-density RIM systems 105
low-density flexible RIM systems
105
medium-density flexible RIM
systems 105
reaction product 105
reinforced integral skin foam 106
rigid 105
– block foams 105
– integral skin foams 106
semirigid 105
thermoplastic 105
typical applications 107
PVC
advantages 52
disadvantages and limitations 52
general properties of 51
typical applications 52
pyroxylin 88
Q
quality control tests 119
R
radial displacement 149
radius of gyration 158
reaction injection molding (RIM)
110
rectangular edge gate 656
regrinds 833
relative thermal indices 770
relaxation 139, 761
relief edge vent 678
residual stress 775
resin
commodity 4
engineering 4
high performance engineering 5
intermediate 4
processing characteristics 119
resole
single stage (resole) resin 95
retaining plate 611
return pins 581, 717
Reynolds number 621
rib
deflection analysis 216, 217
strength analysis 215
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
stress analysis 216, 217
rib design
structural reinforced or foam resins
215
structural reinforced resins 215
surface appearance 215
Rockwell hardness testing
(ASTM D-785-60T) 737
rough finishing 673
round edge gate 661
runner relief edge vent 688
runner system 549
rupture 761
under long-term load 139
S
SAN
acrylic (ASA) 53
advantages 54
disadvantages and limitations 54
general properties of 53
olefin-modified (OSA) 53
typical applications 54
SBS
advantages 62
disadvantages and limitation 62
general properties of 60
typical applications 62
screw
self-tapping 432
– boss dimensions 433
– pull-out force equation 432
– stripping torque equation 432
shakeproof hi-lo
– boss hole diameter 434
– thread cutting 435
– thread forming 435
thread cutting lead 431
thread forming taper lead 431
tri-lobular
– boss hole size 436
– twin lead thread forming 435
screw insert
tolerances 240
secant modulus 130
secondary molding operations 848
section area 150, 155
section modulus 163
SEF
advantages 409
components 409
sequence of operations 409
self-tapping screws 429
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
self ignition temperature testing
(ASTM D-1929) 805
selling price 845
shar testing
apparatus 735
test specimen 735
shearing force 164
shearing strain 207
shearing stress 208
shear rate 511, 655, 783
shear strength testing (ASTM D-732)
735
short shots 672
shot size 655
shoulder bushings 582
SI
advantages 108
disadvantages and limitations 108
fluids 108
typical applications 109
silicone (SI) 107
single enveloping worm gears 261
single helical gears 258
single stage (resole) resin 95
sintered vent plugs 690
skew bevel gears 260
smoke density testing
(ASTM D-2843) 817
smoke generation testing 817
smooth internal sharp corners 547
snap fitting 444
cantilevered latch 447
cantilever latch 450
cantilever latch design 449
circular internal undercut depth
447
circular undercut 445
equations for cantilever beams 451
stripping circular undercut 446
soldering heat resistance 775
solvent bonding
advantages 414
disadvantages 414
of ABS 414
of acrylic (PMMA) 414
of cellulosic 415
of nylon (PA) 415
of polycarbonate (PC) 415
of polystyrene (PS) 415
of polysulfone (PSU) 415
of PPO/PPE 415
of PVC 415
specific gravity testing
test procedures 749
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 865
specific gravity testing
(ASTM D-792) 748
specimen conditioning 726
SPI-SPE mold steel surface finishing
comparison kit 571
spider gate 659
spin welding 476
inertia process 479
joint designs 480
pivot process 477
process 480
types of processes 477
variables 477
spiral bevel gears 260
spiroid gears 262
spot welding 509
spring design 377
spring ratchet applications 385
sprue
bushing 580, 641, 713
diaphragm gate 658
extension nozzle 642
gate 656
hot 643
performance alloy 642
puller 644
– pin 581
sizing 643
spur gear 258
addendum 268
– circle 268
AGMA number 268
angle of action 268
backlash 268
base circle diameter 268
base pitch 268
calculations 279
center distance 268
circular pitch 268
circular tooth thickness 268
classic designs 273
clearance 269
dedendum 269
design requirements 273
diametral pitch 269
equations 279, 280
face width 269
fillet radius 269
flank 269
gear ratio 269
interference 269
involute 269
line of action 269
number of teeth in gear 269
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
number of teeth in pinion 269
outside diameter 269
pitch circle 269
pitch diameter 269
pitch backlash 281
pressure angle 269
root circle 269
root diameter 269
terminology and definitions 268,
269
tooth 282
– form comparison 303
– loading 271
– stress 270
– tangential force 270
– transferred torque 270
whole depth of tooth 269
working depth of tooth 269
spur pinion and gear
both with 35 teeth or more,
circular tooth thickness 306
with less than 35 teeth, circular
tooth thickness 305
spur pinion gear 262
spur pinion with less than 35 teeth,
gear with 35 teeth or more
circular tooth thicknesses 305
spur rack gear 262
SRIM processing 110
stainless steel 568
410 568
420 568
440C 568
standard mold base 582
advantages 583
disadvantages 583
standard mold tool steels 719
steel
boron alloy 556
carbon spring 555
carburizing alloy 555
carburizing carbon 554
electrical 556
free machining carbon 554
H-alloy 555
hardening carbon 555
high carbon 554
high strength low alloy 555
high temperature 557
low carbon 553
low temperature alloy 556
low temperature carbon 555
medium carbon 554
nitriding 556
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
stainless 556
tool 556
ultra high strength 557
used in thermoplastic injection
mold components 570
steel families 553
stiffness 513
stop buttons 717
stop pins 581
straight bevel gear 259, 290, 291
HP 266
strain 125
analysis 130
stress 123, 125
compressive 133
flexural 134
working 132
stress-strain 122
behavior 121
creep 730
curve 122, 124, 125, 126
– isochronous 141
recovery (hysteresis) 138
stress-strain tension 735
stress analysis 130
stress relaxation 765
structural design 120, 211
of ribs 213
stud heads
profiles and dimensions 509
styrene acrylonitrile (SAN) 53
styrenic block copolymer (SBS) 60
support pillars 581, 717
support plate 580
surface finish
molded product 549
surface preparation 424
abrasion 424
chemical etching 424
corona discharge 424
degreasing cleaning 424
flame treatment 424
plasma treatment 424
surface hardness testing 736
surface resistivity testing
(ASTM D-257) 794
syndiotactic PP 46
T
tab edge gate 658
taber abrasion testing 741
talc 516
tangent modulus 129
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –866 Subject Index
Teflon® (TFE) fabric composite
bearings 373
tensile
creep testing 761
elongation 727
impact testing (ASTM D-1822)
755
modulus 727
strength 123, 129
– test 726
stress 125
– effects caused by fiber glass
orientation 518
test 122
tensile testing (ASTM D-638) 122,
725
crosshead speed 729
equipment 725
moisture absorption effects 729
molecular orientation 728
specimen 123, 726
temperature effects 729
tension curves 129
terephthalic acid 72
testing 723
tetraglycidylamine 90
thermal conductivity 514, 619
testing (ASTM C-177) 777
thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) 3,
55
thermoplastic hinge design
co-extruded 238
thermoplastic Kevlar® reinforced
bearings 375
thermoplastic polyurethane
elastomer (TPU) 57
thermoplastic resins 3
thermoplastics
physical properties of 265
thermoset
epoxies 83
families 83
melamines 83
phenolics 83
polyesters 83
polymers 4, 82
silicones 83
thread cutting 430
threaded female metal inserts 244
threaded insert
tolerances 240
thread forming 430
threads
ACME 226
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
American National 226
British Association Standard 226
buttress 225
collapsible core for molding 224
creep effects 227
injection molded 224
square 226
standard forms 225
unified 226
V-threads 226
Whitworth 226
three-plate mold cold runner system
586
thrust bearing pressure equation
367
tolerances
molded product 548
with finishing operations 244
without finishing operations 244
toluene diisocyanate (TDI) 104
tool steels 711
air hardening 567
air hardening SAE A2 567
air hardening SAE A4 567
air hardening SAE A6 567
air hardening SAE D2 568
air hardening SAE S7 567
carburizing 566
carburizing SAE P2 566
carburizing SAE P6 567
CPM-10V 566
effects of alloying 559, 560
– aluminum (Al) 561
– carbon (C) 560
– chromium (Cr) 561
– cobalt (Co) 562
– manganese (Mn) 561
– molybdenum (Mo) 561
– nickel (Ni) 562
– silicon (Si) 561
– tungsten (W) 562
– vanadium (V) 561
effects of heat treatment 562
flame hardening 562
for molds 712
heat treatment 563
induction hardening 563
nitriding 563
oil hardening 567
oil hardening SAE O 567
precipitation hardening 563
prehardened 564
– SAE H13 565
– SAE P20 564
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
– SAE P21 564
properties and characteristics 559
tooth design
maximum allowable outside
diameter 302
top clamping plate 580
torsion
equations 209
structural analysis 207
torsional springs 388
total profit 845
toughness 513
TPE
advantages 55, 73
disadvantages 56
disadvantages and limitations 74
families 56
general properties of 71
typical applications 74
TPO
advantages 65
disadvantages and limitations 65
general properties of 63
typical applications 65
TPU
advantages 59
disadvantages and limitations 59
general properties of 57
polyester-based 58
polyether-based 58
typical applications 60
TPV
advantages 68
disadvantages and limitations 68
general properties of 66
typical applications 68
triazine resins 89
tunnel gates 661
twisting moment 207
two-plate molds 584
two-stage-(novolac) resin 95
U
UL 94-5VA classification (bars and
plaques) 814
UL 94-5VB classification (bars and
plaques) 814
UL 94-5V classification 814
UL 94 flammability testing 811
UL flammability classifications 814
UL insulation systems recognition
791
UL temperature index 770
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –Subject Index 867
ultrahigh molecular weight
polyethylene (UHMWPE) 38
ultrasonic insertion 500
advantages 501
configurations 501
equipment requirements 502
process guidelines 503
product design 502
ultrasonic spot welding 509
ultrasonic stud heading 506
flush head profile 508
hollow head profile 508
knurled head profile 508
multiple ultrasonic stud heading
508
rosette head profiles 508
stud profiles 506
ultrasonic stud staking 503
joint design 503
ultrasonic welding 482
amplitude of vibrations 488
basic components 483
basic principles 482
basic shear joint design with flash
trap 491
chamfer shear joint 491
design limitations 494
effects caused by 497
– colorants 499
– flame retardants 498
– foaming agents 498
– impact modifiers 498
– melt flow modifiers 498
– mold release lubricants 497
– plasticizers 498
– reinforcements and fillers 499
energy director butt joint 492
energy director step joint design
493
energy director tongue and groove
joint design 493
equipment 483
grades of resins 496
holding fixture 487
hold time 488
horn 486
joint designs 489
moisture absorption 495
process variables 487
reground material 495
shear joint design 489
thrust pressure 488
welding configurations 494
welding dissimilar resins 495
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
weld time 488
undercuts 227
core pins and ejector wedge 228
external radial with angled pin
slides 231
external side, using an angled pin
slide 230
external side, with slides actuated
hydraulically 230
offset ejector pin 229
Underwriter’s laboratories (UL)
yellow cards 785
uniform wall thickness 547
UniLifter® 229
unsaturated polyester (UP) 98
UP
advantages 100
arthophthalic polyester resins 99
bisphenol A (BPA) fumarates 99
chlorendics 100
classifications 99
dicyclopentadiene 100
disadvantages and limitations 101
general properties of 99
isophthalic or terephthalic polyester
99
typical applications 101
urethane (TPU) 417
hybrid 109
advantages 111
disadvantages and limitations 111
typical applications 111
user’s price 845
V
vapor deposits 674
vented cold runner system 713
vented ejector pins 717
vented sprue puller 714
venting 671
air poppet valve/stripper plate
cavity 683
characteristics 669
cold runner 687
core and ejector pin ring groove
681
internal undercut ejection 685
mold cavity vacuum 693
parting line 675
problems 670
product design for 667
rectangular ejector blade 683
single angle pin slide mold 686
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
sintered porous insert plugs 690
system
– ejector ring 681
vertical burning testing, UL 94-5V,
UL 94-5VA, UL 94-5VB 813
vertical burning testing, UL 94-V0,
UL 94-V1, UL 94-V2 812
vertical insert mold 587
vibration welding 465
aligning and fixturing 473
amplitude 471
angular modes 466
butt joints 473
comparing to other assembly
methods 469
equipment 471, 474
high frequency 465
joint design 472
linear methods 468
material 468
modes 466
part geometry 468
shape 468
size 468
thrust pressure on the joint
interface 471
tolerances 474
vibration frequency 471
weld time 472
Vicat softening point
(ASTM D-1525) 767
vinyl ester (BPA) 111
viscoelastic modulus 147
viscosity 655
volume resistivity testing
(ASTM D-257) 793
W
wall draft angle 213
wall thickness
symmetrical 211
uniform 211
water absorption testing
(ASTM D-570) 750
water testing
carbon arc light 823
xenon arc light 825
wear 741
abrasive 361
adhesive 361
corrosive 361
weathering
creep factors (degradation) 818
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –868 Subject Index
micro-organisms 820
moisture 820
oxidation 820
temperature 819
tests 818
ultraviolet (UV) radiation 819
weldability
of amorphous thermoplastic resins
496
of semi-crystalline thermoplastic
resins 496
of thermoplastic materials 496
– – – – – – – – –
weld bead 413
weld line 541, 673
injection molding machine
problems 543
molding process parameters 544
mold problems 543
product design 542
resins 542
strength 542
wollastonite 516
worm gear 261, 292
worm gear analysis 293
– – – – – –
X
xenon arc light (ASTM D-2565) 825
Y
yield modulus 130
yield point (Y) 127
yield strength 129
Young’s modulus 121
Z
zerol bevel gears 260


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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
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