كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume I
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 كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume I

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عدد المساهمات : 15534
التقييم : 26132
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume I  Empty
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Plastic Injection Molding Volume I
Fundamentals of Injection Molding series
Manufacturing process fundamentals
By Douglas M. Bryce

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume I  P_i_m_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface xix
How It All Began 1
Evolution of the Screw . 1
Industry Evolution . 2
A Vision of Tomorrow . 3
Processes .3
Energy Efficiency/Desktop Manufacturing
Molds 4
Tooling/Lead Times
Materials .6
Recycling
Business Concepts 7
Education and Training/Alliances/Quality
Summary . 8
Questions 9
The Main Components 11
The Injection Unit 11
Sizing the Injection Unit/Purpose of the Injection Unit/
The Heating Cylinder/The Basic Hopper/The Injection
Screw/Injection Screw Designs/Screw Tip and Check
Ring/Nonreturn Valves and Ball Shutoffs/The Nozzle
Determining Injection Requirements 20
Calculation
The Clamp Unit 21
Sizing the Clamp Unit/How Much Force Is Required?/
Determining Projected Area/What About That D
Dimension?/What Happens If Too Little Clamp Force
Is Used?/What Happens If Too Much Clamp Force Is Used?
Summary . 27
Questions 27viii
Identifying the Parameters . 29
Temperature . 30
Melt Temperature Control 30
Insulation Blankets
Mold Temperature Control . 33
Postmold Shrinkage Control
Hydraulic System Temperature Control 35
Ambient Temperature Control . 35
Insulation Sheets . 36
Pressure 37
Injection Unit 37
Initial Injection Pressure/Holding Pressure (Secondary
Pressure)/Back Pressure
Clamp Unit 39
Hydraulic Clamp System/Mechanical Clamp
(Toggle) System
How Much Pressure Is Needed? 42
Time 44
Gate-to-gate Cycle Time 44
Gate Close Time . 44
Mold Close Time 45
Initial Injection Time 46
Injection Hold Time . 46
Cooling Time . 47
Screw Return Time 47
Mold Open Time 48
Ejection Time 49
Part-removal Time . 49
Mold-inspection Time 49
Distance 50
Mold Close Distance . 50
Injection Distance . 51
Injection-hold Distance 51
Cushion (Pad) 52
Screw-return Distance . 53
Mold-open Distance 53
Ejection Distance 55
Determining Injection-molding Costs . 55
What Information Is Needed? 56
Material Costs/Labor Costs/Machine Costs/
Tooling Costs
Adding It All Up . 64ix
Summary . 65
Questions 65
The Need for Control 67
Part Quality . 67
Part Cost . 68
Parameter Effects 69
What Are the Proper Parameter Values? . 69
The Setup Sheet 70
Installing and Setting up the Mold 72
Sizing and Inspection/Installation Procedure
Optimizing Temperature 78
Injection Cylinder Feed Throat . 78
Injection Cylinder Nozzle Zone . 79
Checking Temperature of Melt
Injection Cylinder Front Zone . 81
Injection Cylinder Center Zone 81
Injection Cylinder Rear Zone . 82
Injection Cylinder Summary . 82
Insulation Jackets/Preheating Material
Mold Temperatures . 84
Cooling Channels/Cascades (Bubblers)/Cooling Pins/
Insulation Sheets/Cooling Related to Cycle Times/Cooling
Related to Standard Runners/Cooling Related to
Hot Runners
Machine and Oil Temperatures 92
Purpose of Heat Exchanger
Ambient Temperatures . 93
Optimizing Pressure . 94
Injection Unit 94
Developing Injection Pressure/How Much Injection
Pressure Is Required?/Initial Injection Pressure and
Time/Holding Pressure and Time/Cushion (Pad)/
Back Pressure/Decompression
Clamp Unit 101
Purpose of Clamp Pressure/How Much Clamp
Pressure Is Required?
Controlling Shrinkage .105
What Is Meant by Shrinkage? .105
Effects of Temperature Adjustments .108
Effects of Pressure Adjustments .109
Postmold Shrinkage 109x
Minimizing Molded-in Stress 111
Defining Stress .111
Influence of Product Design 113
Draft Angles/How Much Draft Is Necessary?/What If
There Is No Draft?/Uniform Walls
The Importance of Drying Materials .118
Hygroscopic Materials 118
Other Materials 119
Summary .119
Questions 120
Focus of the Operator’s Role 121
Consistency . 121
Inspection of Parts 123
Inspection of the Mold 123
Inspection of the Machine .124
Housekeeping 124
Attitude .125
Summary .126
Questions 126
The Importance of Proper Material Selection .127
Plastic Defined .127
Amorphous versus Crystalline 128
Amorphous Materials 128
Crystalline Materials .128
Comparison of Amorphous and Crystalline .128
Polymerization .129
Monomers .129
Polymers 129
What Happens During the Molding Process? 131
Heat 131
Pressure .133
Cooling .133
Cost versus Performance .134
Fillers and Reinforcements .134
Melt Flow Index 135
Why Use the Melt Flow Index? 136
Establishing a Proper Melt Index Value .136xi
Summary .137
Questions 138
Describing the Mold .139
The A and B Plates .139
The Cavity Image .139
The Injection Half of the Mold 141
The Sprue Bushing 141
Runners .142
Flash .142
The Ejector Half of the Mold 142
Ejector Pins 142
Ejector Plates .143
Knockout Rod .143
Mold Design Basics 144
Gate Location 144
Runner Cross Section 146
Venting Concepts .146
Summary .150
Questions 150
Dryer Units 151
Hopper Dryers .151
Floor (Central) Dryers 152
Oven (Drawer or Tray) Dryers 153
How Dry Is “Dry”? 154
Dew-point Measurement/Inexpensive Moisture
Testing (TVI Testing)
Loaders .156
Mechanical Loaders .157
Vacuum Loaders .157
Positive-pressure Loaders .157
Blenders 158
Granulators .159
Mold Temperature Controllers 160
Robots .162
Summary .163
Questions 163xii
Defining Secondary Operations .165
When to Consider Secondary Operations 166
Assembly Operations 167
Ultrasonic Welding .167
Energy Directors/Ease of Welding/Variables That
Influence Weldability
Hot-gas Welding 173
Induction (Electromagnetic) Bonding .174
Spin (Friction) Welding .175
Adhesive Bonding 176
Machining Operations 178
Drilling and Tapping Thermoplastics .178
Drilling and Tapping Thermosets 180
Reaming Thermoplastics and Thermosets 180
Turning and Milling (Thermoplastic and Thermoset) 181
Automated Shape Cutting .181
Water Jet .181
Laser Cutting 182
Surface Finishes and Decorating Procedures .182
Preparation of Surface 182
Flame Treatment/Corona Discharge/Plasma Process/
Acid Etch
Applied Finishes .183
Painting/Plating (Electroplating)/Vacuum Metallizing
(Deposition)/Hot Stamping/Pad Printing (Heat Transfer)/
Screen Printing
In-process Finishes 189
Molded-in Color/Molded-in Symbols/Two-color (Two-shot)
Molding/Textured Surface/In-mold Overlays
Summary .193
Questions 194
Overview 195
Testing .195
Electrical Testing .195
Conditioning Samples/Dielectric Strength/Dielectric
Constant/Volume Resistivity/Surface Resistivity/
Arc Resistancexiii
Physical Testing 197
Shrinkage Rate/Density/Water Absorption/Moisture
Content—Tomasetti Volatile Indicator (TVI)/Melt
Flow Index
Mechanical Testing .203
Tensile Strength/Compressive Strength/Flexural
Strength/Creep/Impact Testing
Thermal Testing 206
Melting Point/Heat Deflection Temperature/Vicat
Softening Temperature/Flammability/Limiting
Oxygen Index
Failure Analysis 211
Overview 211
Stress 211
Differential Scanning Calorimeter .212
Stress/Moisture/T
m
and T
g
Points/Regrind Percentage/
Crystallinity
Calculating Glass Content .214
Furnace Method/TGA Method
Summary .217
Questions 218
Overview 219
What Causes Defects? 219
Defects and Remedies .221
Black Specks or Streaks 221
Blisters .222
Blush .223
Bowing 224
Brittleness 225
Bubbles (Voids) 227
Burn Marks 228
Clear Spots 229
Cloudy Appearance .231
Contamination .232
Cracking .233
Crazing .234
Delamination .234
Discoloration 236
Flash .237
Flow Lines 238xiv
Gloss (Low) 239
Jetting .241
Knit Lines (Weld Lines) 242
Nonfill (Short Shots) 243
Shrinkage (Excessive) 244
Sink Marks 245
Splay (Silver Streaking) .247
Warpage .248
Troubleshooting Tips .249
Rules to Mold By 250
Summary .252
Questions 253  


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