كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV

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عدد المساهمات : 15534
التقييم : 26132
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV    كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV  Emptyالأحد 15 سبتمبر 2019, 3:49 pm

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Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV
Fundamentals of Injection Molding series
Manufacturing startup and management
By Douglas M. Bryce  

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV  P_i_m_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Table of Contents
Preface xv
Chapter 1 – Injection Molding Concepts
History . 1
Process Description 1
Categorizing the Parameters . 2
Temperature/Pressure/Time/Distance
Horizontal versus Vertical Molding . 19
Advantages of Horizontal Molding/Advantages of
Vertical Molding
Process Controls 20
Part Quality/Part Cost
Parameter Effects . 22
Determining Suitable Parameter Values 23
Setup Sheet
Controlling Shrinkage 25
Temperature Adjustment Effects/Pressure Adjustment
Effects/Postmold Shrinkage
Minimizing Molded-in Stress .30
Summary 31
Questions . 32
Chapter 2 – Materials
The Definition of Plastic 35
Polymerization 35
Basic Molecular Structure 35
Copolymers 39
Alloys and Blends 39
Thermoplastics versus Thermosets 40
Amorphous versus Crystalline Structured Materials 41
Amorphous Materials . 41
Crystalline Materials 41
Comparison of Amorphous and Crystalline Molecular Chains . 41
Elastomers 42
How Plastics are Made . 42vi
Molecular Weight and Distribution . 44
Influence of Time and Temperature . 44
Summary 44
Questions . 45
Chapter 3 – Determining Primary Equipment Needs
Industry Types Served . 47
Plastic Material Families .48
Physical Size of Products 49
Electrical Power Availability 49
Degree of Planned Automation 49
New versus Used Equipment .50
Multiple Screws and Barrels 52
Hydraulic, Toggle, Electric, or Hybrid? . 53
Hydraulic 53
Toggle (Mechanical) .53
Electric .53
Hybrids 54
Estimating Cycle Times . 54
Cooling Time versus Cycle Time 55
Determining Number of Cavities 55
How Much Clamp Tonnage? .57
Summary 59
Questions . 60
Chapter 4 – Determining Auxiliary Equipment Needs
What is Considered Auxiliary? . 61
Granulators .61
Dryer Units Overview . 64
Hopper Dryers 64
Floor (Central) Dryers . 64
Oven (Drawer or Tray) Dryers . 67
Defining Dryness . 68
Dew Point Measurement .68
Moisture Testing (TVI Test) . 68
Loaders 70
Mechanical Loaders .70
Vacuum Loaders 70
Positive Pressure Loaders 71vii
Blenders . 71
Mold Temperature Controllers 72
Stand-alone Units . 72
Manifold Systems 74
Turbulent versus Laminar Flow . 74
Reynolds Number Determination . 76
Robots . 77
Rigid Robots . 78
Flexible Robots 78
Summary 78
Questions . 79
Chapter 5 – Determining Utility Requirements
Defining Utilities 81
Electricity 81
Determining Requirements 81
Molding Machine/Auxiliary Equipment/Chillers/Cooling
Towers/Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)/
Air Compressors/Lighting/Maintenance Department/Totals
Distribution of Electrical Services . 87
Water
Determining Requirements 88
Distribution of Water Services . 89
Compressed Air . 89
Determining Requirements 91
Distribution of Air Services 91
Summary 91
Questions . 92
Chapter 6 – Material Storage and Handling
Overview 93
How Much Storage is Required? 93
Height Considerations 94
Silos . 94
Contamination 95
Material Drying . 95
Moisture Levels 95
How to Dry Materials . 96
Measuring Moisture Levels 97viii
Summary 97
Questions . 98
Chapter 7 – Tool Room Requirements
Minor Repair Facility 99
Major Repair Facility 100
Moldmaking Facility .100
Mold Storage and Handling .101
Causes of Damage 102
Cleaning and Protecting Molds .102
New Molds/Molds in Production
Mold Inspection and Installation 105
Storing Molds .111
Short-term Storage/Long-term Storage
Machine Maintenance 112
Summary 113
Questions .113
Chapter 8 – Plant Layout
Layout Objectives 115
Effective Use of Floor Space 115
Building Plan/Machinery Layout/Manufacturing Cells/
Clean Rooms
Optimization of Material Flow 123
Improving Labor Efficiency 123
Planning for Expansion .125
Building Site Criteria 126
Geographic Location Considerations .128
Summary 129
Questions .130
Chapter 9 – Determining Costs
Capital Requirements . 131
Building and Land .132
Primary and Auxiliary Equipment 133
Secondary Equipment 134
Depreciation . 135
Tool Room and Maintenance Department 135ix
Enclosures 135
Equipment 136
Operating Costs 138
Labor .138
Water .138
Electricity 139
Maintenance . 139
Total Operating Costs . 140
Product Cost Analysis . 140
Determining Machine Hour Rate (MHR) 140
Determining Piece Price 141
Machine Cost/Material Cost/Markups and Profit Margins
Projecting Sales Volume 146
Summary 147
Questions .149
References 149
Bibliography . 149
Chapter 10 – Organizational Structure
Identifying Needs 151
General Management 153
President 153
Human Resources/Quality Control/Product Engineering/
Manufacturing Engineering/Plant Manager
Vice President .158
Finance/Marketing
Totals 160
Define Individual and Team Responsibilities 160
Establish Reporting Relationships . 162
Document the Organizational Structure 162
Training Programs 163
Summary 164
Questions .165
Chapter 11 – Quality Control Concepts
Quality Program Selection 168
ISO 9000 .168
ISO 14000 . 170
The Quality Manual . 171x
Summary 171
Questions .172
Chapter 12 – Effective Management Practices
Definition and Requirements 173
Complying with Industry Standards 173
Customer-driven Requirements . 174
Quality and Environmental Issues 175
Welfare of Others 176
Employees/Vendors/Customers
Alliances and Partnerships 178
Strategic Alliances .178
Partnerships 179
Effective Communications . 180
Understanding Time Relationships 180
Making Adjustments .181
Providing Motivation 182
Summary 183
Questions .184
Reference .184
Bibliography . 184
Appendix A – Benchmarking an
Injection Molding Facility 185
Appendix B – What Customers Look For 187
Answers to Chapter Questions 193
Bibliography . 201
Index 203


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