كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals

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Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals
Fundamentals of Injection Molding series
By Douglas M. Bryce

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals  P_i_m_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface xxiii
Chapter 1 – Understanding the Injection Molding Process
Evolution of the Process 1
Charting Industry Evolution . 1
Evolution of Screw Concept and Evaluation of Plunger . 2
The Process 3
Categorizing the Parameters . 4
Temperature/Pressure/Time/Distance
Horizontal versus Vertical Molding 20
Advantages of Horizontal Molding 20
Advantages of Vertical Molding 21
The Need for Process Controls 22
Part Quality 22
Part Cost 23
Parameter Effects . 23
The Setup Sheet . 24
Controlling Shrinkage 26
The Effects of Temperature Adjustments . 29
The Effects of Pressure Adjustments . 30
Post-mold Shrinkage 30
Minimizing Molded-in Stress . 32
Summary . 33
Questions 34
Chapter 2 – The Language of Plastics
Definitions Relating to Materials 37
The Definition of Plastic 37
Polymerization . 37
Basic Molecular Structure/Copolymers/Alloys and Blends
Thermoplastics versus Thermosets . 42
Amorphous versus Crystalline . 43
Amorphous Materials/Crystalline Materials/Comparison
of Amorphous and Crystalline Molecular Chains
Elastomers . 44vi
How Plastics are Made . 45
Molecular Weight and Distribution 46
Influence of Time and Temperature . 46
Summary . 47
Questions 48
Chapter 3 – Reinforcements and Fillers
Why Reinforcements and Fillers are Used 49
What Are They? . 49
Reinforcements 49
Fiberglass/Organic Fibers/Boron/Carbon-graphite/Ceramics
(Metal Oxides)/Metals
Fillers 53
Colorants/Plasticizers/Heat Stabilizers/Antioxidants/Flame
Retardants/Ultraviolet (UV) Absorbers/Antistatic Agents/
Blowing Agents/Lubricants
Summary . 57
Questions 58
Chapter 4 – Comparing Amorphous and Crystalline Materials
Identifying the Differences 59
Molecular Structure 59
Crystalline Polymers/Amorphous Polymers/
Crystalline/Amorphous Polymers
Process Temperature Requirements (injection unit) . 61
Process Temperature Requirements (mold) . 63
Crystalline/Amorphous/General Differences Based
on Crystallization
Liquid Crystalline Materials . 66
Summary . 67
Questions 67
Chapter 5 – Basic Material Properties
Property Descriptions and Terminology 69
Physical Properties 69
Density/Specific Gravity/Shrinkage Rate/Water Absorption/
Transparency (Opacity)/Modulus (Toughness)/Elasticity/
Plasticity/Ductility/Brittleness/Notch Sensitivity/Lubricity/
Isotropy and Anisotropyvii
Mechanical Properties 74
Stress and Strain/Modulus of Elasticity/Poisson’s Ratio/Shear
Stress and Shear Strain/Shear Modulus/Direct Shear/
Compressive Strength and Modulus/Flexural Strength and
Modulus/Creep/Impact Strength/Fatigue Endurance
Thermal Properties . 83
Melting Point/Glass Transition Temperature/Melt Index/
Vicat Softening Point/Heat Deflection (Distortion)
Temperature/Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion/
Thermal Conductivity/Temperature Index/Flammability
Electrical Properties 85
Volume Resistivity/Surface Resistivity/Dielectric Strength/
Dielectric Constant (Permittivity)/Arc Resistance/Comparative
Tracking Index (CTI)
Environmental Concerns 88
Stress/Exposure Factors/Temperature/Chemicals/Weathering
Summary . 92
Questions 93
Chapter 6 – Applications and Properties of Specific Materials
Characteristics and Applications . 95
Common Thermoplastics 95
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/Acetal/Acrylic/Acrylicstyrene-acrylonitrile (ASA)/Cellulose/Fluoroplastics/Ionomers/
Liquid Crystal Polymers/Methyl Pentenes/Nylon (Polyamide)/
Polyallomers/Polycarbonates/Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)/
Polyethylene/Polyimides/Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO)/
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)/Polypropylene/Polystyrene/
Polysulfones/Polyvinylchloride (PVC)/Thermoplastic Polyesters
(PBT, PET)/Thermoplastic Copolyesters (PCTA, PCTG, PETG)/
Polyarylate (Wholly Aromatic Polyester [ARP])/Thermoplastic
Rubbers (TPR)
Elastomers . 103
Natural Rubber (NR)/Isoprene Rubber (IR)/Styrene-butadiene
Rubber (SBR)/Neoprene (CR)/Nitrile Rubber (NBR)/Butyl
Rubber (IIR)/Ethylene Rubber (EPM)/Ethylene Terpolymer Rubber
(EDPM)/Hypalon™ (CSM)/Acrylic Rubber (ABR)/Polysulfide
Rubber (T)/Silicones (SI, FSI, PSI, VSI, PVSI)/Urethanes (U)/
Fluoroelastomers (FPM)/Butadiene Rubbers (BR)/Carboxylic
(COX)/Epichlorohydrin Rubbers (CO, ECO)
Star Diagrams 106viii
Structural Foams 106
Summary . 107
Questions 107
Chapter 7 – Determining Injection Molding Costs
Is It Worth It? . 135
What Information is Needed? . 135
Material Costs 136
Use of Regrind/Impact of Runner versus Shot Size
Labor Costs . 139
Machine Costs . 139
Determining Machine Size/Determining Machine Location/
Calculating Molding Process Costs/Should Operator Cost be
Included?/Estimating Setup Charges
Tooling Costs . 144
Standard Practice/Amortizing Tool Costs/Maintenance Costs
Adding It All Up . 146
Secondary Operations (Including Packaging) . 146
Summary . 147
Questions 148
Chapter 8 – Secondary Operations
Defining Secondary Operations 149
When to Consider Secondary Operations 150
When Volumes are Small 150
When Tooling Costs are Excessive . 150
When Time to Build the Mold Jeopardizes
Marketing Schedules 150
When a Labor-heavy Environment Exists 151
Assembly Operations . 151
Ultrasonic Welding . 151
Energy Directors/Ease of Welding/Variables that Influence
Weldability
Hot Gas Welding . 157
Induction (Electromagnetic) Bonding . 158
Spin Welding (Friction Welding) 159
Adhesive Bonding 159
Machining Operations 160
Drilling and Tapping Thermoplastics . 160
Drilling and Tapping Thermosets 164ix
Reaming Thermoplastics and Thermosets 164
Turning and Milling Thermoplastics and Thermosets 164
Automated Shape Cutting . 165
Water Jet . 165
Laser . 166
Surface Finishes and Decorating Procedures . 166
Preparation of Surface 166
Flame Treatment/Corona Discharge/Plasma Process/
Acid Etch
Applied Finishes . 167
Painting/Plating (Electroplating)/Vacuum Metallizing
(Deposition)/Hot Stamping/Pad Printing (Heat Transfer)/
Screen Printing
In-process Finishes . 173
Molded-in Color/Molded-in Symbols/Two-color (Two-shot)
Molding/Textured Surface/In-mold Overlays
Summary . 177
Questions 177
Chapter 9 – Testing and Failure Analysis
Distinguishing the Terms . 179
Testing . 179
Electrical Testing . 179
Conditioning Samples/Dielectric Strength/Dielectric Constant/
Volume Resistivity/Surface Resistivity/Arc Resistance
Physical Testing 181
Shrinkage Rate/Density/Water Absorption/Moisture Content/
Melt Flow Index
Mechanical Testing . 186
Tensile Strength/Compressive Strength/Flexural Strength/
Creep/Impact
Thermal Testing 189
Melting Point/Heat Deflection Temperature/Vicat Softening
Temperature/Flammability/Limiting Oxygen Index
Failure Analysis 195
As a Design Tool 195
Stress . 195
Differential Scanning Calorimeter . 196
Stress/Moisture/Tm and Tg Points/Regrind Percentage/
Crystallinityx
Calculating Glass Content 199
Furnace Method/TGA Method
Summary . 201
Questions 202
Chapter 10 – The Product Design Session
Brainstorming 203
Who Are the Players? . 203
What Takes Place? . 204
What Does the Product Do?/How Will the Product be Made?/
When Should Production Start?/Where Will It be Built?/How
Much Should It Cost?
Project Chart Samples 209
Product Development/Project Management Process/Process
Management/Product Development Time Line
Why Projects Fail 216
Uninvolved Users/Undisciplined Management System/
Ineffective Communication/Uncontrolled Changes/
Inappropriate Technology/Poorly Defined Products
Summary . 220
Questions 220
Chapter 11 – Determining Product Requirements
Defining the Product . 223
Typical Project Example . 224
Phase 0 . 225
Phase 1 . 225
Phase 2 . 225
Phases 3 through 8 226
Determining Actual Requirements . 227
Functional Aspects 227
Color/Fit/Appearance
Physical and Mechanical Aspects 231
Mechanical Assembly Methods/Other Assembly Methods
Thermal Aspects . 248
Electrical Aspects 249
Flammability Considerations 249
Weather and Exposure Limits 250
Safety and Environmental Issues . 251
Summary . 252
Questions 253xi
Chapter 12 – Product Design Considerations
Design Guidelines 255
Wall Thickness Recommendations . 255
Uniform Wall Thickness Requirement 257
Knit Lines . 258
Sharp Corners . 259
Sink Marks . 261
Warpage and Bowing . 262
Draft . 264
Ejector Pin Marks and Gate Location Restrictions . 269
Gate Marks 270
Dimensions and Drawing Notes . 271
What the Vendor Needs . 272
Common Design Considerations 276
Product Design Checklist 279
Summary . 281
Questions 283
Chapter 13 – Miscellaneous Determinations
Annual Volumes . 285
Material Handling Requirements . 286
Secondary Operations 286
Packaging Requirements . 287
Testing Requirements 288
Summary . 289
Questions 290
Chapter 14 – Selecting a Vendor
Overview . 293
List of Requirements . 293
Dedicated Specialty or Full Service? 293
Dedicated Specialty/Full Service
What to Look For . 295
Basic Investigation 296
Note Condition of Plant and Equipment/Ask to See Product
Samples/Check Delivery Performance/Check Quality Rating/
Investigate Specialty Areas/Determine Equipment Availability/
Examine Bidding Practices
Familiarity 297
Normal Tolerance Levels/Materials/Molding Processes/
Equipment Type, Age, and Size/Subcontractingxii
Capabilities . 298
Volumes/Tool Design, Build, and Repair/Computerized
Operations/Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Other
Quality Programs
Responsibilities . 299
Qualification Form . 300
Summary . 304
Questions 304
Chapter 15 – Prototype Overview
The Value of Prototyping . 307
Form . 307
Fit . 308
Function 308
Appearance . 308
The Prototype Option . 309
Typical Methods and Recommended Quantities . 309
Fabrication 309
Thermoforming 309
Casting 310
Molding . 310
Virtual Prototyping 310
Rapid Prototyping (RP) 310
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)/Selective Laser Sintering
(SLS)/Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)/Ballistic
Particle Manufacturing (BPM)/Solid Ground Curing (SGC)
Which is Best? 312
Summary . 313
Questions 313
Chapter 16 – A Primer on Molds
Description of the Mold 315
The “A” and “B” Plates 315
The Cavity Image . 315
The Injection Half of the Mold . 316
The Sprue Bushing . 317
Runners . 317
Flash . 318
The Ejector Half of the Mold . 318xiii
Ejector Pins 318
Ejector Plates . 319
Knockout Rod 319
Mold Design Basics 320
Gate Location 320
Runner Cross-section . 321
Venting Concepts . 321
Typical Tool Life 324
Ownership of the Mold (and Other Tools) . 326
What to Expect from Molds . 326
Summary . 328
Questions 329
Chapter 17 – Understanding Defects
Overview . 331
What Causes Defects? 332
Common Defects and Remedies . 333
Black Specks or Streaks 333
Excessive Residence Time in Barrel/Contaminated Raw
Material
Blisters . 334
Back Pressure Too Low
Blush . 334
Mold Temperature Too Low
Bowing 334
Clamp Opens Too Quickly/Improper Handling
Brittleness 335
Excessive Moisture
Bubbles (Voids) 335
Section Thickness Too Great/Excessive Moisture
Burn Marks 335
Improper Venting/Excessive Regrind
Clear Spots 336
Barrel Temperature Too Low/Inconsistent Cycles
Cloudy Appearance . 336
Uneven Packing of Cavity
Contamination . 337
Improper Regrind/Poor Housekeeping
Cracking . 337
Molded-in Stresses/Insufficient Draft or Polishxiv
Crazing . 338
Delamination . 338
Foreign Materials or Additives/Excessive Mold Release
Discoloration . 338
Improper Mold Temperature/Contamination
Flash . 339
Excessive Injection Pressure/Improper Flow Rate
Flow Lines 339
Inadequate Injection Pressure
Gloss (Low) 339
Inadequate Injection Pressure/Mold Temperature Too Low
Jetting . 340
Improper Gate Design or Location
Knit Lines (Weld Lines) 340
Barrel Temperature Too Low
Nonfill (Short Shots) . 340
Insufficient Material Feed/Insufficient Venting
Shrinkage (Excessive) 341
Mold Temperature Too High/Early Gate Opening
Sink Marks . 341
Excessive Rib Thickness
Splay (Silver Streaking) . 342
Excessive Moisture
Warpage . 342
Inadequate Injection Pressure or Time
Troubleshooting Tips 342
Summary . 343
Questions 343
Appendix A – Material Tradenames and Descriptions 345
Appendix B – Common Material Acronyms
and Their Meanings . 355
Appendix C – Material Rankings for Various Properties . 359
Answers to Chapter Questions 361
Index
INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
acetal 2 6 10 45
86 88 95 110
166 168 229 250
252 257
acetate 96 229
acid etch 167
acrylate(s) 45
butadiene 104
acrylic(s) 6 10 45 86
88 96 111 156
168 229 250 257
rubber 104
-styrene-acrylonitrile (ASA) 96 112
acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) 2 6 10 41
42 44 45 54
55 86 96 106
108 154 156 167
168 175 229 241
248 250 257 287
/polycarbonate 109
adhesive bond(ing) 159 161
alkyd 168Index Terms Links
alloys 42 47
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM) 103 179
standard
#D-1238 12
#D-618 180
#D-149 180
#D-150 180
#D-257 180
#D-495 181
#D-955 182
amorphous 28 43 83 198
materials 4 45 59 62
63 65 69 84
151
molecular
chains 43 44
structure 59 60
properties 44
shrinkage 29
“angle pins,” 268
anisotropy 73
antioxidants 55
antistatic agents 56
applied finishes 167
aramid 51
arc resistance 88
assembly 233
methods 231Index Terms Links
assembly (Cont.)
operations 151
automated shape cutting 165
B
Ballistic Particle
Manufacturing (BPM) 311
barrel 7
capacity 141 333
rear temperature 24
temperature 29 336 340 342
zone 24
black specks 333
blends 42 47
blisters 334
blowing agents 56
blush 334
boron 51
bowing 262 334
Branson
Ultrasonics Corp. 153
brittleness 72 335
bubbles (voids) 335
burn marks 335
butadiene rubbers 105
butyl(s) 45
rubber 104
butyrate 96 97Index Terms Links
C
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) 277 288
carbon-graphite 52
carboxylic 105
casting 310
cavity(ies)
image(s) 13 15 29 315
316 320 323 334
mold 12 176
celluloid 1 2
cellulose 96
acetate 6 10
butyrate 6 10 45
propionate 6 10 45
cellulosics 168
ceramic(s) 52
chemical(s) 89
reaction 89
resistance 13 67 90
solvation 89
chlorosulfonated polyethylene 45
clamp
force 140
mechanism 4
pressure 14 140
tonnage 140 141
unit 4 13
clear spots 336Index Terms Links
cloudy appearance 336
coefficient of linear thermal expansion
(CLTE) 84
color 308
colorability 97
colorant(s) 54 156 174
Comparative Tracking Index (CPI) 88
concurrent engineering 216
contamination 334 337 338
contour 308
controlled pressure molding 176
cooling
post-mold 30 31
copolymer(s) 41 42
butadiene-acrylonitrile 104
chlorotrifluoroethylene 105
ethylene-propylene 104
hexafluoropropylene 105
isobutylene-isoprene 104
phenylene ether 106
vinylidene fluoride 105
copolyester elastomers 113
corona discharge 167
cracking 33 337 338
crazing 33 338
creep 82 101 189
resistance 13 67 83 92
187
testing 189Index Terms Links
cross-linking 46
crystalline 8 28 43 47
197
materials 5 45 46 59
62 64 69 84
98 151 198 246
250
molecular
chains 44 64
structure 59 60 66
properties 44
shrinkage 29
crystalline/amorphous
molecular structure 60 61
cushion (pad) 18
cycle time(s) 30 142 143 146
159 318 326
gate-to-gate 21
cylinder 3
heating 4 5
D
decorative procedures 166
defects 331
delamination 338
density 69
design considerations 276
destaticizers (see antistatic agents)Index Terms Links
dielectric
constant (permittivity) 87
properties 249
strength 87
Differential Scanning Calorimeter
(DSC) 61 67 83 190
196
discoloration 338
dissipation factor 87
values 88
distance 4 15
ejection 20
holding 17
initial injection 17
mold-closed 16
mold-open 18 19
draft 264 287
allowance and tolerances 299
angle(s) 231 264 337
limitations 275
drilling
thermoplastics 160
thermosets 164
ductility 72
E
ejector
bar 319 320Index Terms Links
ejector (Cont.)
marks 269 270 272
pin(s) 19 318 319
plates 319 320
rod 320
ejector retainer plate 319
elastic limit 79
elasticity 71 72
elastomeric(s) 159
adhesives 160
elastomers 44 45 103
electrical discharge machine (EDM) 315
electrical properties 85
electromagnetic interference (EMI) 53
elongation 50 67
energy director(s) 152 153 245 247
environmental
concerns 88
issues 251
epichlorohydrin rubbers 106
epoxy(ies) 159 168
equipment 297
ethyl cellulose 96 97
ethylene 40
rubber 104
terpolymer rubber 104
exposure factors 88
monomer 41
eyelets 241Index Terms Links
F
fabrication 309
failure analysis (FA) 179 195
fiberglass 49 50 200
fillers 49 53 54 156
finite element analysis (FEA) 308
flame
retardants 55 56 156
treatment 166 287
flammability 85 249
testing 193 194
flash 26 318 339
flow
index rating 12
lines 339
rate(s) 141 154 155 339
flowability 67
fluorocarbon(s) 45 160 168
fluoroelastomers 105
fluoroplastics 97
fluorosilicones 45
foaming agent(s) (see blowing agents)
“freeze off,” 14
friction welding (see spin welding) 159
G
gate 15 28 334 341
design 340Index Terms Links
gate (Cont.)
location 320
location restrictions 269
sizing 336
witness marks 270
glass content 199
glass transition (Tg)
area 63
point 62 63 84
range 153
temperatrure 62
gloss 13 339
H
hardness 13
heat deflection temperature (HDT) 50 84 191 248
heat exchanger 11
heat resistance 66
heat stabilizer(s) 55
heater band(s) 2 3 5 7
heating cylinder 7 8 332 334
Hooke’s Law 75 79
hopper 4 8 9 51
337 340
horizontal molding 20
hot gas welding 157
hot stamp(ing) 169
machine 170Index Terms Links
hygroscopic 154 335 342
materials 72 250
HypalonTM 104
I
induction (electromagnetic) bonding 157
injection
cylinder 2
molding
costs 135
process 4 15 17 33
pressure 140 141
unit 4 14
in-mold
overlay(s) 175
process 176
in-process finishes 173
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) 179
standard
9000 299
#IEC 243-1 180
#IEC 250 180
#IEC 93 180
#IEC 294 182
ionomers 97
isotropy 73Index Terms Links
J
Jetting 340
John Wesley Hyatt 1 2
Just-in-Time (JIT) 209
K
knit lines(s) 258 340
knockout rod 19 319
L
labor
charges 136
costs 139
Laminated Object Manufacturing
(LOM) 311
laser cutters 166
limiting oxygen index (LOI) 194
liquid crystalline
materials (plastics) 67 83
living hinge(s) 241 242
low-pressure molding 176
lubricants 56
lubricity 73
M
machine
costs 139Index Terms Links
machine (Cont.)
fixed 140
variable 139
man hour rate (MHR) 142 147
rate 136
machining operations 160
maintenance costs 145
material(s) 297
applications 95
costs 136
easy-flow 140 255 339
handling requirements 286
properties 69
mechanical properties 74
melamine 43
melt(ing)
flow 84
flow index 84 181 187
index (MI) 12 13 84 151
188
rheometer 12
test 154 185
value 185
point (MP) 5 61 62 83
temperature(s) (Tm) 5 6 23 24
83 151 153
metal inserts 237
methyl pentenes
(TPX resins) 98Index Terms Links
milling
thermoplastics 164
thermosets 164
modulus 71
of elasticity 75
secant 79
shear 79
moisture 196
content 154 181
molded-in
color 173
symbols 174
mold(ing) 310
“A” half 11
“A” plates 315
“B” half 11 20
“B” plates 315
process(es) 297 315
process costs 142
release 338
release agents 155 287
temperature 334 338 339 341
molecular weight 13
distribution
(MWD) 46 47
monomer(s) 37 47
cements 160
molecule 40Index Terms Links
N
neoprene 45 104
nitrate 95
nitrile 45
rubber 104
nonfill 340
notch sensitivity 73
nozzle 3 18 34
assembly 7
heater zone 8
tip 7 8
nylon 44 45 54 98
154 250 257
elastomers 117
type (6) 6 10 115
type (6/6) 6 10 229
type (12) 116
O
overhead costs
fixed 141
variable 141
oxygen index 85
P
packaging 147
requirements 275 287Index Terms Links
pad printing 172
painting 167 168 287
part
cost 23
“nesting,” 288
quality 22
volumes 298
parting agents (see mold release agents) 155
peripheral marking 170
permeability 13
phenolic 43 45 168 257
photopolymer 310
pin-hinge 243
plasma
etch 167
process 167
plasticity 72
plasticization 92
plasticizers 54 55 155
plating (electroplating) 168 287 238
plunger 2
device 33
injection 54
-type machine 3
Poisson’s Ratio 79
polyalkylene ether glycol(s) 105
polyallomer(s) 6 10 99
polyamide (nylon) 86 88
polyamide-imide 6 10 45Index Terms Links
polyarylate 6 10 45 86
88 102 118 250
polybutadiene 105
polybutylene 6 10
-terephthalate 106 119
polycarbonate(s) 2 6 10 45
86 88 96 99
106 121 140 154
156 167 168 229
241 244 250 257
polychloroprene 104
polychlorotrifluoroethylene (FCTFE) 97
poly-dimethyl siloxanes 105
polyester (PBT) 45 96 102 229
polyester (TP) 86 88 250 257
polyetheretherketone (PEEK) 6 10 45 99
polyetherimide 6 10 45
polyethersulfone 45
polyethylene 6 10 40 41
45 55 56 99
106 156 160 229
chlorosulfonated 104
high-density (HDPE) 122 257
low-density (LDPE) 252 257
terephthalate (PET) 120
polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 45 102
polyfluoroethylene-propylene (PFEP) 97
polyimide(s) 100
polyketone(s) 123Index Terms Links
polymer(s) 37 40 44 46
47 49
amorphous 60
crystalline 59 97
liquid crystal 6 10 45 86
88 98 114 250
structure 153
sulfone 126
polymerization 37 41 45
addition-type 45
combination 46
condensation-type 45
polymethylpentene 6 10
polyolefin(s) 99 166 287
polyphenylene
oxide (PPO) 6 10 45 86
88 100 106 127
229 250 257
sulfide (PPS) 6 10 45 86
88 100 128 250
polypropylene 6 10 45 86
88 98 106 124
156 160 229 250
257
polystyrene 2 6 10 45
54 101 106 156
257
high-impact 125
polysulfide(s) 45Index Terms Links
polysulfone(s) 6 10 86 101
154 229 250
rubber 104
polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 97 98
polyurethane(s) 45 106 168
polyvinylchloride (PVC) 6 10 45 54
55 96 101 129
156 163 168 229
257 336
polyvinylidene fluoride 97
pressure 4
back 23 24
clamp(ing) 11 13 14 339
closing 17
ejection 338
hold(ing) 11 13 18
injection 11 23 24 26
30 339 342
process
controls 22
design 216
implementation 216
maintenance 216
management 213 214
product
cost breakdown 208
design 203 204 255
checklist 279 280
development 209Index Terms Links
product (Cont.)
time line 216 217
requirements 223 227
project management 213 214
propionate 96 97
proportional limit 75
prototype(ing) 307
rapid (RP) 310
virtual 310
Q
quality
costs 223
part 22
programs 298
rating 296
R
radii 278
reaction injection molding (RIM) 106
recycling 251
symbol 251
regrind 2 136 138 156
198 334 336 338
reinforcement(s) 49 156
fibers 52
materials 51
metal fiber(s) 52 53Index Terms Links
resin grade 156
resistivity
surface 86
volume 86 249 250
rivets 241
robotic systems 149
roll-on decorating 169
rubber(s)
isoprene 103
natural 103
neoprene 104
styrene-butadiene 1
runner(s) 140 317 325 337
341
cross-section 321 322
sizing 336
system(s) 136 137 139 318
versus shot size 138
S
safety 251
screen printing 172 173
screw
concept 2
injection machine 2 3 54
retention 237
self-tapping 237
secondary operation(s) 146 149 150 286Index Terms Links
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 311
semicrystalline materials 246
costs 146
setup
charges 144
sheet 24 25
sharp corners 278
shear
direct s 80 81
strain 80
stress 80
shipment schedules 275
short shots 340
shot size 139
shrinkage 26 28 30 65
229 255 257 279
341
amorphous 29
anisotropic 28
control 29 32
crystalline 29
factors 229
high 28
impact 50 66
isotropic 28
low 28
medium 28
post-mold 30 31Index Terms Links
shrinkage (Cont.)
rate 26 27 29 69
70 73 74 181
silicone(s) 45 105
sink marks 255 261 341 342
snap-fit 243 251
Society of Manufacturing Engineers
(SME) 331
Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) 2 289
Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) 2 251 265
Solid Ground Curing (SGC) 312
specific gravity 50 51 67 69
181
spin welding 159
splay 342
sprue
bushing 317
volume 138
staking 246
star diagrams 106
Statistical Process Control (SPC) 298
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) 310
stiffness 13 151 153 156
strain 74 78
normal 75
shear 79
strength
compressive 188
and modulus 81Index Terms Links
strength (Cont.)
dielectric 87 180
flexural 50 82 187 189
s and modulus 81
impact 83 97
IZOD 189
tensile 13 50 51 66
67 188
ultimate 79
yield 13 79
stress(es) 74 76 78 88
195 196 259 262
337
bending 195
compression 195 259
-crack resistance 13
cracking 92
direct 74
molded-in 32 33
normal 75
shear 74 79 195 259
/strain 71 77
tensile 259
tension 195
twisting 195
structural foams 106 107
styrene 41 229 309
acrylonitrile (SAN) 6 10 130
butadiene 6 10 45Index Terms Links
styrene (Cont.)
-maleic-anhydride (SMA) 131
subcontracting 298
surface finished 166
T
tapping
thermoplastics 160
thermosets 164
temperature(s) 4 46 47 88
barrel 29 336 340 342
controller 9 24
glass transition(Tg) 62 83 192 197
heat deflection (HDT) 50 84 191 192
index 85
maximum use 67
melt(ing [Tm]) 5 6 23 24
153 192 197
mold 8 23 24 334
338 339 341
process t requirements 61 63
Vicat softening 13 193
zones 5
tensile modulus 67
testing 179
arc resistance 181 182
ASTM #D-495 181
compressive strength 187Index Terms Links
testing (Cont.)
ASTM #D-695 187
creep 189
ASTM #D-618 180
ASTM #D-674 189
electrical 179
density 183
ASTM #D-792 183
ISO #1183:1987 183
dielectric constant 180 181
ASTM #D-150 180
ISO #IEC 250 180
dielectric strength 180
ASTM #D-149 180
ISO #IEC 243 180
flammability 193 194
ASTM #UL-94 193
ISO #UL-94 193
flexural strength 188
ASTM #D-790 188
ISO #178:1993 188
impact 189
ASTM #D-256 189
ISO #179 and 180:1993 189
limiting oxygen index (LOI) 194
ASTM #D-2863 194
ISO #589:1984 194
melt flow index 185
ASTM #D-1238 185 255Index Terms Links
testing (Cont.)
ISO # 1133:1991 185
melting point 189
ASTM #D-3418 190
ISO #3146:1985 190
moisture content (Tomasetti Volatile
Indicator [TVI]) 185
requirements 288
shrinkage rate 182
ASTM #D-955 182
ISO #294-4 182
surface resistivity 180 181
ASTM #D-257 180
ISO # IEC 93 180
tensile strength 187
ASTM #D-638 187
ISO #527-1 and 2:1993 187
Vicat softening temperature 193
ASTM #D-1525 193
ISO #306:1987 193
volume resistivity 180 181
ASTM #D-257 180
water absorption 184
ASTM #D-570 184
ISO #62:1980 184
test(s)
fatigue endurance 83
impact 83 191
Charpy 83 189Index Terms Links
test(s) (Cont.)
falling dart 83
IZOD 50 83 189
tensile 83
melt index (ASTM #D-1238)
stress/strain (tensile) 77
tetrafluoroethylene 6 10
Texas Plastic Technologies 332
textured surface 174
texture(s) 175 230 231 277
300 309
thermal
coefficient of expansion 50
conductivity 85
properties 83
thermoforming 309
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) 200 201
thermoplastic polyester
(PBT) 6 10
(PET) 6 10
thermoplastic(s) 42 43 47 55
163 230 248 255
copolyester(s) 102
polyester(s) 102
polyolefin 132
polyurethane 133
rigid 159
rubbers 103
thermosets 42 43 47 55Index Terms Links
time 4 46
clamp 15
cooling 15
initial injection 14
injection 14
injection hold 14
mold-closed 15
tolerance levels 297
tool(ing) 326
approval signoff 274
build t 216
charges 136 145
costs 144
amortizing 145
debug t 216
design t 216
build and repair 298
prototype 285
torque 236
toughness 13
transparency 70
troubleshooting 331 343
tips 342
turning
thermoplastics 164
thermosets 164
twisting 33
two-color (two-shot) molding 174 175Index Terms Links
U
ultrasonic
assembly machine 246
energy 152 153 245
welding 151 245 287
ultraviolet light 310 312
absorbers 56
undercuts 279
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 56 85 193
194 249 273 277
288 289
United Silicone, Inc. 169 172
urea 168
urethane(s) 105
elastomer 6
U.S. Food and Drug
Administration
(FDA) 277
V
vacuum metallizing 168 287
process 169
vendor(s) 293 295
dedicated specialty 293
full-service 293 294
qualification form 300
venting 321 324 325 335
341Index Terms Links
vertical
molding 20 21
stamping 170
vibration welding 152
Vicat softening point 84
vinyl 252
virgin 138 336
material 2 334
viscosity 66
W
wall thickness 255 262 263 278
warpage 33 66 67 262
342
water
absorption 70 181
jet cutting 166
weathering 92
work-in-process (WIP) 147
yield point 75


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رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Fundamentals of Injection Molding series
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كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume II - Material selection and product design fundamentals
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» كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume III - Mold Design and Construction Fundamentals
» كتاب Plastic Injection Molding - Volume I: Manufacturing Process Fundamentals
» كتاب Plastic Product Material and Process Selection Handbook
» كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume IV
» كتاب Understanding Product Design For Injection Molding

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