كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume II
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 كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume II

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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Plastic Injection Molding Volume II
Material selection and product design fundamentals
By Douglas M. Bryce
Fundamentals of Injection Molding series  

كتاب Plastic Injection Molding Volume II P_i_m_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Preface xxiii
Chapter 1 – Understanding the Injection Molding Process
Evolution of the Process 1
Charting Industry Evolution . 1
Evolution of Screw Concept and Evaluation of Plunger . 2
The Process 3
Categorizing the Parameters . 4
Temperature/Pressure/Time/Distance
Horizontal versus Vertical Molding 20
Advantages of Horizontal Molding 20
Advantages of Vertical Molding 21
The Need for Process Controls 22
Part Quality 22
Part Cost 23
Parameter Effects . 23
The Setup Sheet . 24
Controlling Shrinkage 26
The Effects of Temperature Adjustments . 29
The Effects of Pressure Adjustments . 30
Post-mold Shrinkage 30
Minimizing Molded-in Stress . 32
Summary . 33
Questions 34
Chapter 2 – The Language of Plastics
Definitions Relating to Materials 37
The Definition of Plastic 37
Polymerization . 37
Basic Molecular Structure/Copolymers/Alloys and Blends
Thermoplastics versus Thermosets . 42
Amorphous versus Crystalline . 43
Amorphous Materials/Crystalline Materials/Comparison
of Amorphous and Crystalline Molecular Chains
Elastomers . 44vi
How Plastics are Made . 45
Molecular Weight and Distribution 46
Influence of Time and Temperature . 46
Summary . 47
Questions 48
Chapter 3 – Reinforcements and Fillers
Why Reinforcements and Fillers are Used 49
What Are They? . 49
Reinforcements 49
Fiberglass/Organic Fibers/Boron/Carbon-graphite/Ceramics
(Metal Oxides)/Metals
Fillers 53
Colorants/Plasticizers/Heat Stabilizers/Antioxidants/Flame
Retardants/Ultraviolet (UV) Absorbers/Antistatic Agents/
Blowing Agents/Lubricants
Summary . 57
Questions 58
Chapter 4 – Comparing Amorphous and Crystalline Materials
Identifying the Differences 59
Molecular Structure 59
Crystalline Polymers/Amorphous Polymers/
Crystalline/Amorphous Polymers
Process Temperature Requirements (injection unit) . 61
Process Temperature Requirements (mold) . 63
Crystalline/Amorphous/General Differences Based
on Crystallization
Liquid Crystalline Materials . 66
Summary . 67
Questions 67
Chapter 5 – Basic Material Properties
Property Descriptions and Terminology 69
Physical Properties 69
Density/Specific Gravity/Shrinkage Rate/Water Absorption/
Transparency (Opacity)/Modulus (Toughness)/Elasticity/
Plasticity/Ductility/Brittleness/Notch Sensitivity/Lubricity/
Isotropy and Anisotropyvii
Mechanical Properties 74
Stress and Strain/Modulus of Elasticity/Poisson’s Ratio/Shear
Stress and Shear Strain/Shear Modulus/Direct Shear/
Compressive Strength and Modulus/Flexural Strength and
Modulus/Creep/Impact Strength/Fatigue Endurance
Thermal Properties . 83
Melting Point/Glass Transition Temperature/Melt Index/
Vicat Softening Point/Heat Deflection (Distortion)
Temperature/Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion/
Thermal Conductivity/Temperature Index/Flammability
Electrical Properties 85
Volume Resistivity/Surface Resistivity/Dielectric Strength/
Dielectric Constant (Permittivity)/Arc Resistance/Comparative
Tracking Index (CTI)
Environmental Concerns 88
Stress/Exposure Factors/Temperature/Chemicals/Weathering
Summary . 92
Questions 93
Chapter 6 – Applications and Properties of Specific Materials
Characteristics and Applications . 95
Common Thermoplastics 95
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/Acetal/Acrylic/Acrylicstyrene-acrylonitrile (ASA)/Cellulose/Fluoroplastics/Ionomers/
Liquid Crystal Polymers/Methyl Pentenes/Nylon (Polyamide)/
Polyallomers/Polycarbonates/Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)/
Polyethylene/Polyimides/Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO)/
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)/Polypropylene/Polystyrene/
Polysulfones/Polyvinylchloride (PVC)/Thermoplastic Polyesters
(PBT, PET)/Thermoplastic Copolyesters (PCTA, PCTG, PETG)/
Polyarylate (Wholly Aromatic Polyester [ARP])/Thermoplastic
Rubbers (TPR)
Elastomers . 103
Natural Rubber (NR)/Isoprene Rubber (IR)/Styrene-butadiene
Rubber (SBR)/Neoprene (CR)/Nitrile Rubber (NBR)/Butyl
Rubber (IIR)/Ethylene Rubber (EPM)/Ethylene Terpolymer Rubber
(EDPM)/Hypalon™ (CSM)/Acrylic Rubber (ABR)/Polysulfide
Rubber (T)/Silicones (SI, FSI, PSI, VSI, PVSI)/Urethanes (U)/
Fluoroelastomers (FPM)/Butadiene Rubbers (BR)/Carboxylic
(COX)/Epichlorohydrin Rubbers (CO, ECO)
Star Diagrams 106viii
Structural Foams 106
Summary . 107
Questions 107
Chapter 7 – Determining Injection Molding Costs
Is It Worth It? . 135
What Information is Needed? . 135
Material Costs 136
Use of Regrind/Impact of Runner versus Shot Size
Labor Costs . 139
Machine Costs . 139
Determining Machine Size/Determining Machine Location/
Calculating Molding Process Costs/Should Operator Cost be
Included?/Estimating Setup Charges
Tooling Costs . 144
Standard Practice/Amortizing Tool Costs/Maintenance Costs
Adding It All Up . 146
Secondary Operations (Including Packaging) . 146
Summary . 147
Questions 148
Chapter 8 – Secondary Operations
Defining Secondary Operations 149
When to Consider Secondary Operations 150
When Volumes are Small 150
When Tooling Costs are Excessive . 150
When Time to Build the Mold Jeopardizes
Marketing Schedules 150
When a Labor-heavy Environment Exists 151
Assembly Operations . 151
Ultrasonic Welding . 151
Energy Directors/Ease of Welding/Variables that Influence
Weldability
Hot Gas Welding . 157
Induction (Electromagnetic) Bonding . 158
Spin Welding (Friction Welding) 159
Adhesive Bonding 159
Machining Operations 160
Drilling and Tapping Thermoplastics . 160
Drilling and Tapping Thermosets 164ix
Reaming Thermoplastics and Thermosets 164
Turning and Milling Thermoplastics and Thermosets 164
Automated Shape Cutting . 165
Water Jet . 165
Laser . 166
Surface Finishes and Decorating Procedures . 166
Preparation of Surface 166
Flame Treatment/Corona Discharge/Plasma Process/
Acid Etch
Applied Finishes . 167
Painting/Plating (Electroplating)/Vacuum Metallizing
(Deposition)/Hot Stamping/Pad Printing (Heat Transfer)/
Screen Printing
In-process Finishes . 173
Molded-in Color/Molded-in Symbols/Two-color (Two-shot)
Molding/Textured Surface/In-mold Overlays
Summary . 177
Questions 177
Chapter 9 – Testing and Failure Analysis
Distinguishing the Terms . 179
Testing . 179
Electrical Testing . 179
Conditioning Samples/Dielectric Strength/Dielectric Constant/
Volume Resistivity/Surface Resistivity/Arc Resistance
Physical Testing 181
Shrinkage Rate/Density/Water Absorption/Moisture Content/
Melt Flow Index
Mechanical Testing . 186
Tensile Strength/Compressive Strength/Flexural Strength/
Creep/Impact
Thermal Testing 189
Melting Point/Heat Deflection Temperature/Vicat Softening
Temperature/Flammability/Limiting Oxygen Index
Failure Analysis 195
As a Design Tool 195
Stress . 195
Differential Scanning Calorimeter . 196
Stress/Moisture/Tm and Tg Points/Regrind Percentage/
Crystallinityx
Calculating Glass Content 199
Furnace Method/TGA Method
Summary . 201
Questions 202
Chapter 10 – The Product Design Session
Brainstorming 203
Who Are the Players? . 203
What Takes Place? . 204
What Does the Product Do?/How Will the Product be Made?/
When Should Production Start?/Where Will It be Built?/How
Much Should It Cost?
Project Chart Samples 209
Product Development/Project Management Process/Process
Management/Product Development Time Line
Why Projects Fail 216
Uninvolved Users/Undisciplined Management System/
Ineffective Communication/Uncontrolled Changes/
Inappropriate Technology/Poorly Defined Products
Summary . 220
Questions 220
Chapter 11 – Determining Product Requirements
Defining the Product . 223
Typical Project Example . 224
Phase 0 . 225
Phase 1 . 225
Phase 2 . 225
Phases 3 through 8 226
Determining Actual Requirements . 227
Functional Aspects 227
Color/Fit/Appearance
Physical and Mechanical Aspects 231
Mechanical Assembly Methods/Other Assembly Methods
Thermal Aspects . 248
Electrical Aspects 249
Flammability Considerations 249
Weather and Exposure Limits 250
Safety and Environmental Issues . 251
Summary . 252
Questions 253xi
Chapter 12 – Product Design Considerations
Design Guidelines 255
Wall Thickness Recommendations . 255
Uniform Wall Thickness Requirement 257
Knit Lines . 258
Sharp Corners . 259
Sink Marks . 261
Warpage and Bowing . 262
Draft . 264
Ejector Pin Marks and Gate Location Restrictions . 269
Gate Marks 270
Dimensions and Drawing Notes . 271
What the Vendor Needs . 272
Common Design Considerations 276
Product Design Checklist 279
Summary . 281
Questions 283
Chapter 13 – Miscellaneous Determinations
Annual Volumes . 285
Material Handling Requirements . 286
Secondary Operations 286
Packaging Requirements . 287
Testing Requirements 288
Summary . 289
Questions 290
Chapter 14 – Selecting a Vendor
Overview . 293
List of Requirements . 293
Dedicated Specialty or Full Service? 293
Dedicated Specialty/Full Service
What to Look For . 295
Basic Investigation 296
Note Condition of Plant and Equipment/Ask to See Product
Samples/Check Delivery Performance/Check Quality Rating/
Investigate Specialty Areas/Determine Equipment Availability/
Examine Bidding Practices
Familiarity 297
Normal Tolerance Levels/Materials/Molding Processes/
Equipment Type, Age, and Size/Subcontractingxii
Capabilities . 298
Volumes/Tool Design, Build, and Repair/Computerized
Operations/Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Other
Quality Programs
Responsibilities . 299
Qualification Form . 300
Summary . 304
Questions 304
Chapter 15 – Prototype Overview
The Value of Prototyping . 307
Form . 307
Fit . 308
Function 308
Appearance . 308
The Prototype Option . 309
Typical Methods and Recommended Quantities . 309
Fabrication 309
Thermoforming 309
Casting 310
Molding . 310
Virtual Prototyping 310
Rapid Prototyping (RP) 310
Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA)/Selective Laser Sintering
(SLS)/Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)/Ballistic
Particle Manufacturing (BPM)/Solid Ground Curing (SGC)
Which is Best? 312
Summary . 313
Questions 313
Chapter 16 – A Primer on Molds
Description of the Mold 315
The “A” and “B” Plates 315
The Cavity Image . 315
The Injection Half of the Mold . 316
The Sprue Bushing . 317
Runners . 317
Flash . 318
The Ejector Half of the Mold . 318xiii
Ejector Pins 318
Ejector Plates . 319
Knockout Rod 319
Mold Design Basics 320
Gate Location 320
Runner Cross-section . 321
Venting Concepts . 321
Typical Tool Life 324
Ownership of the Mold (and Other Tools) . 326
What to Expect from Molds . 326
Summary . 328
Questions 329
Chapter 17 – Understanding Defects
Overview . 331
What Causes Defects? 332
Common Defects and Remedies . 333
Black Specks or Streaks 333
Excessive Residence Time in Barrel/Contaminated Raw
Material
Blisters . 334
Back Pressure Too Low
Blush . 334
Mold Temperature Too Low
Bowing 334
Clamp Opens Too Quickly/Improper Handling
Brittleness 335
Excessive Moisture
Bubbles (Voids) 335
Section Thickness Too Great/Excessive Moisture
Burn Marks 335
Improper Venting/Excessive Regrind
Clear Spots 336
Barrel Temperature Too Low/Inconsistent Cycles
Cloudy Appearance . 336
Uneven Packing of Cavity
Contamination . 337
Improper Regrind/Poor Housekeeping
Cracking . 337
Molded-in Stresses/Insufficient Draft or Polishxiv
Crazing . 338
Delamination . 338
Foreign Materials or Additives/Excessive Mold Release
Discoloration . 338
Improper Mold Temperature/Contamination
Flash . 339
Excessive Injection Pressure/Improper Flow Rate
Flow Lines 339
Inadequate Injection Pressure
Gloss (Low) 339
Inadequate Injection Pressure/Mold Temperature Too Low
Jetting . 340
Improper Gate Design or Location
Knit Lines (Weld Lines) 340
Barrel Temperature Too Low
Nonfill (Short Shots) . 340
Insufficient Material Feed/Insufficient Venting
Shrinkage (Excessive) 341
Mold Temperature Too High/Early Gate Opening
Sink Marks . 341
Excessive Rib Thickness
Splay (Silver Streaking) . 342
Excessive Moisture
Warpage . 342
Inadequate Injection Pressure or Time
Troubleshooting Tips 342
Summary . 343
Questions 343
Appendix A – Material Tradenames and Descriptions 345
Appendix B – Common Material Acronyms
and Their Meanings . 355
Appendix C – Material Rankings for Various Properties . 359
Answers to Chapter Questions 361
Index 371


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