كتاب Understanding Injection Molds
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Understanding Injection Molds

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عدد المساهمات : 15534
التقييم : 26132
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Understanding Injection Molds    كتاب Understanding Injection Molds  Emptyالثلاثاء 03 سبتمبر 2019, 11:38 pm

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Understanding Injection Molds
Harry Pruner
Wolfgang Nesch  

كتاب Understanding Injection Molds  U_i_m_10
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VII  Table of Contents
Preface XIII
1 Basic Mold Design 1
1.1 Assemblies of an Injection Mold 1
1.1.1 Phases of Design . 2
1.1.2 Stability of Thermosets Molds 3
1.1.3 Wear in Thermoset Molds . 3
1.2 Nozzle Side 4
1.2.1 Sprue Bushing . 5
1.2.2 Decompression 6
1.2.3 Strainer Nozzles . 7
1.2.4 Nozzle Side of Thermoset Materials . 8
1.2.5 Nozzle Side of Elastomer Molds 8
1.3 Ejector Side 9
1.3.1 Ejector Device . 10
1.3.1.1 Ejector Set with Ejector Pins 10
1.3.1.2 Stripper Plate 10
1.3.1.3 Mushroom Ejector 11
1.3.1.4 Air Ejector . 11
1.3.1.5 Ejector System for Thermoset Molds 12
1.3.1.6 Ejector System for Elastomer Molds 12
1.3.2 Draft Angles 13
1.3.3 Ejector Coupling . 14
1.4 Buoyancy Forces in the Mold 15
1.5 Mold Protection 16
1.5.1 Light Barrier/Failure Scale . 16
1.5.2 Infrared Mold Protection 16
1.5.3 Vision Systems . 17
1.6 Mold Cavity Pressure/Mold Filling Control . 18
1.7 Simulation of the Filling Process (Moldflow Analysis) 19
1.8 Demolding Force . 20
1.9 Ventilation 21
1.9.1 Ventilation by Displacement . 21
1.9.2 Ventilation by Vacuum 22
Table of Contents
Elastomer
ThermosetsVIII Table of Contents
1.10 Support Bars, Support Plates, and Support Rollers . 23
1.11 Mold Clamping Plate and Centering Ring 24
1.11.1 Mold Clamping Plate . 24
1.11.2 Centering Ring . 24
1.12 Core Pullers . 25
1.13 Mold Structure in Elastomer Processing . 26
2 Types of Demolding in Two-Platen Molds 27
2.1 Molded Parts without Undercuts 27
2.2 Molded Parts with Undercuts . 28
2.2.1 Elastic Stripping . 28
2.2.2 Demolding through Sliders 29
2.2.3 Demolding with Jaws (Split Molds) 30
2.2.4 Collapsible Cores . 31
2.3 Molded Parts with Intern al and External Threads . 32
2.3.1 Internal Thread 32
2.3.2 External Thread . 32
2.3.3 Unscrewing Device . 32
2.3.3.1 Types of Unscrewing 33
2.3.3.1.1 Unscrewing when the Mold is Closed 33
2.3.3.1.2 Unscrewing for an Attached Stripper Plate . 33
2.3.3.1.3 Unscrewing during Upward Motion . 34
2.3.3.1.4 Unscrewing the Stripper Plate with Spring Force 34
2.4 Molded Parts with Threads, Forcibly Demolded 35
2.5 Unscrewing Gears 36
3 Gate Technology 37
3.1 Distribution Systems 37
3.1.1 Distribution System with Demolded Molded Part 38
3.1.1.1 Cold Runner . 38
3.1.1.2 Three-Platen Distributor . 39
3.1.2 Distribution System, Remaining in the Mold . 40
3.1.2.1 Insulating Runner 40
3.1.2.2 Hot Runner 41
3.1.2.2.1 Advantages of a Hot Runner 41
3.1.2.2.2 Hot Runner, Internally Heated 42
3.1.2.2.3 Hot Runner, Externally Heated . 43
3.1.2.2.4 Multiple Connections 45
3.1.2.2.5 Needle Shut-Off Nozzles . 46
3.1.2.2.6 Hot Mold Halves 48
3.2 Sprue Technology 49
3.2.1 Solidifying Gate, Remaining on the Molded Part 50
3.2.1.1 Direct Gate 50
3.2.1.2 Pinpoint Gate 51
3.2.1.3 Fan and Ring Gate 52  Table of Contents IX
3.2.1.4 Sprue Gate 53
3.2.1.5 Film Gate 54
3.2.2 Automatically Separated Gate 55
3.2.2.1 Tunnel Gate . 55
3.2.2.2 Whip Gate 56
3.2.2.3 Hot Edge Gate (Lateral Injection) 57
3.2.2.4 Hot Runner Nozzles 58
3.3 Distribution System for Thermosets and Elastomers 59
3.3.1 Demolding with the Molded Part for Thermosets 60
3.3.1.1 Cold Runner for Thermosets . 60
3.3.2 Demolding with the Molded Part for Elastomers 61
3.3.2.1 Cold Runner for Elastomers 61
4 Standard Parts . 63
4.1 Mold Designs 63
4.2 Mold Guide Elements . 64
4.3 Demolding Elements . 65
4.4 Equipment for Mold Temperature Control 66
4.5 Mold Quick-Change Systems . 67
4.6 Latch Conveyors 68
4.7 Hot Plates for Thermosets and Elastomers 69
4.8 Brushing Units for Elastomers . 70
5 Temperature Control 71
5.1 Temperature Control Channels . 71
5.2 Temperature Distribution . 72
5.2.1 Temperature Distribution in Thermosets . 73
5.2.2 Temperature Distribution in Elastomers . 73
5.3 Continuous Cooling 74
5.4 Segmented Temperature Control . 75
5.5 Dynamic Temperature Control . 76
5.6 Pulsed Cooling 77
5.7 Core Temperature Control . 78
5.8 Temperature Measurement 79
6 Special Designs . 81
6.1 Stack Molds . 81
6.1.1 Stack Molds in Elastomers . 82
6.2 Multi-Component Molds . 83
6.2.1 Slider Technology (Core-Back) 84
6.2.2 Transfer Process (Handling Transfer) 85
6.2.3 Index Plate 86
6.2.4 Hub 87 X Table of Contents
6.2.5 Rotary disk 88
6.2.6 Paternoster . 89
6.2.7 Cube Technology . 90
6.2.7.1 Stack Turning Technology . 90
6.2.7.2 Double Cube 91
6.2.8 Tandem Mold . 92
6.2.9 Multi-Component Molds for Thermosets and Elastomers 93
6.3 Thin Wall Molds . 95
6.4 Insertion Technology . 96
6.5 Fluid Injection Technology 97
6.5.1 Gas Injection (GIT) . 97
6.5.1.1 Partial Filling 98
6.5.1.2 Secondary Cavity 98
6.5.1.3 Blow-Back Process . 99
6.5.1.4 The Core Pull-Back Process 99
6.5.2 Water Injection (WIT) . 100
6.6 Push-Pull Injection Molds . 101
6.7 Implantation Injection Molding . 102
6.8 In Mold Labeling (IML) Process . 103
6.9 Cascade Injection Molding Process 104
6.10 Lost Core Technology . 105
6.11 Material-Dependent Special Processes . 106
6.11.1 Marbling . 106
6.11.2 Micro-Foam Injection Molding (MuCell) . 106
6.11.3 Thermoplastic-Foam Casting (TSG) Process 106
6.11.4 PVC Processing 106
6.11.5 Monosandwich Process . 107
6.11.6 In-Mold Painting . 107
6.11.7 In-Mold Welding . 107
6.12 Micro-Injection Molds 108
6.13 Powder Metal/Ceramic Molds 109
6.14 Rapid Prototyping 111
6.15 Rotary Table Molds . 113
6.16 Silicone Molds . 114
6.17 Injection Blow Molds . 115
6.18 Injection Compression Molds 116
6.18.1 Injection Compression Molds in Elastomers 117
6.19 Textile Back Injection Technology . 118
6.20 Workpiece Carrier System . 119  Table of Contents XI
7 Mold Surface Treatment . 121
7.1 Common Surface Treatment Processes . 121
7.2 Thermal Treatment . 123
7.2.1 Vacuum Hardening 123
7.2.2 Laser Hardening . 123
7.2.3 Flame Hardening . 123
7.3 Thermochemical Treatment 124
7.3.1 Gas Nitriding 124
7.3.2 Plasma Nitriding 124
7.3.3 Carburization . 124
7.4 Electrochemical Treatment . 125
7.4.1 Hard Chrome Plating . 125
7.4.2 Chemical Nickel Plating . 125
7.5 Chemical Physical Treatment . 126
7.5.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Coating . 126
7.5.2 Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD) Coating 126
7.5.3 Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Coating 126
7.5.4 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Coating 126
7.6 Mechanical Treatment 127
7.6.1 High Speed Cutting (HSC) Milling . 127
7.6.2 Surface Gloss . 127
7.6.3 High-Gloss Polishing 128
7.7 Surface Graining . 129
7.8 Steel Selection . 130
7.9 Aluminum Molds . 131
8 Machining Processes 133
8.1 Sinking Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) . 133
8.2 Wire EDM 134
8.3 Welding 135
8.3.1 TIG-Welding 135
8.3.2 MIG-Welding 135
8.3.3 MAG-Welding . 135
8.3.4 Laser Beam Welding 135
8.4 Punching und Drop-Forging 136
8.4.1 Punching . 136
8.4.2 Drop Forging 136
8.5 Casting . 137
8.6 Galvanized Mold Inserts 138 XII Table of Contents
9 Care, Maintenance, and Storage 139
9.1 Mold Care . 139
9.2 Inspection 140
9.3 Maintenance 141
9.4 Storage . 142
Index 143


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