كتاب Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers
Second Edition
Paul M. Kurowski  

كتاب Finite Element Analysis for Design Engineers  F_e_a_13
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Contents
Acknowledgements . v
Preface xiii
Chapter 1: Introduction . 1
1.1 What Is Finite Element Analysis? 1
1.2 What Is the Place of Finite Element Analysis Among Other Tools of
Computer-Aided Engineering? . 2
1.3 Fields of Application of FEA and Mechanism Analysis; Differences
Between Structures and Mechanisms 2
1.4 Fields of Application of FEA and CFD . 4
1.5 What Is “FEA for Design Engineers”? 4
1.6 Importance of Hands-On Exercises 5
Chapter 2: From CAD Model to Results of Finite Element
Analysis 7
2.1 Formulation of the Mathematical Model . 7
2.2 Selecting Numerical Method to Solve the Mathematical Model . 10
2.2.1 Selected Numerical Methods in Computer Aided
Engineering . 10
2.2.2 Reasons for the Dominance of Finite Element Method 11
2.3 The Finite Element Model . 12
2.3.1 Meshing 12
2.3.2 Formulation of Finite-Element Equations 13
2.3.3 Errors in FEA Results . 14
2.4 Verification and Validation of FEA Results . 15
Chapter 3: Fundamental Concepts of Finite Element
Analysis . 17
3.1 Formulation of a Finite Element 17
3.1.1 Closer Look at Finite Element 17
3.1.2 Requirements to be Satisfied by Displacement Interpolation
Functions . 20
3.1.3 Artificial Restraints . 20
3.2 The Choice of Discretization . 22
3.3 Types of Finite Elements 23
3.3.1 Element Dimensionality . 23
3.3.2 Element Shape . 29
3.3.3 Element Order and Element Type . 29viii
Contents
3.3.4 Summary of Commonly Used Elements . 31
3.3.5 Element Modeling Capabilities . 32
Chapter 4: Controlling Discretization Errors 35
4.1 Presenting Stress Results 36
4.2 Types of Convergence Process . 38
4.2.1 h Convergence by Global Mesh Refinement 38
4.2.2 h Convergence Process by Local Mesh Refinement 42
4.2.3 Adaptive h Convergence Process . 45
4.2.4 p Convergence Process 47
4.2.5 The Choice of Convergence Process . 49
4.3 Discretization Error 49
4.3.1 Convergence Error . 50
4.3.2 Solution Error 50
4.4 Problems With Convergence . 51
4.4.1 Stress Singularity . 51
4.4.2 Displacement Singularity 57
4.5 Hands-On Exercises 64
4.5.1 Hollow Plate (Figure 4.33) . 64
4.5.2 L Bracket (Figure 4.34) 66
4.5.3 2D Beam (Figure 4.35) . 67
Chapter 5: Finite Element Mesh 69
5.1 Meshing Techniques 69
5.1.1 Manual Meshing . 69
5.1.2 Semiautomatic Meshing . 70
5.1.3 Automeshing 71
5.2 Mesh Compatibility 74
5.2.1 Compatible Elements . 74
5.2.2 Incompatible Elements 74
5.2.3 Forced Compatibility . 76
5.3 Common Meshing Problems . 77
5.3.1 Element Distortion . 77
5.3.2 Mesh Adequacy 80
5.3.3 Element Mapping to Geometry . 82
5.3.4 Incorrect Conversion to Shell Model 83
5.4 Hands-On Exercises 84
5.4.1 BRACKET01 (Figure 5.24) . 84
5.4.2 Cantilever Beam (Figure 5.25) 85
Chapter 6: Modeling Process . 87
6.1 Modeling Steps 88
6.1.1 Definition of the Objective of Analysis 88
6.1.2 Selection of the Units of Measurement 88ix
Contents
6.1.3 Geometry Preparation 89
6.1.4 Definition of Material Properties . 90
6.1.5 Definition of Boundary Conditions . 90
6.2 Modeling Techniques . 91
6.2.1 Mirror Symmetry and Antisymmetry Boundary
Conditions 91
6.2.2 Axial Symmetry 96
6.2.3 Cyclic Symmetry . 97
6.2.4 Realignment of Degrees of Freedom 99
6.3 Hands-On Exercises . 100
6.3.1 BRACKET02-1 (Figure 6.14) 100
6.3.2 BRACKET02-2 (Figure 6.15) 101
6.3.3 BRACKET02-3 (Figure 6.16) 102
6.3.4 Shaft (Figure 6.17) . 103
6.3.5 Pressure Tank (Figure 6.18) . 104
6.3.6 RING (Figure 6.19) 105
6.3.7 Link (Figure 6.20) . 106
Chapter 7: Nonlinear Static Structural Analysis 109
7.1 Classification of Different Types of Nonlinearities . 109
7.2 Large Displacement Analysis 110
7.3 Membrane Stress Stiffening 117
7.4 Contact 123
7.5 Hands-On Exercises . 128
7.5.1 Cantilever Beam (Figure 7.1) 128
7.5.2 Torsion Shaft (Figure 7.7) . 129
7.5.3 Round Plate (Figure 7.12) . 129
7.5.4 LINK (Figure 7.17) . 130
7.5.5 Sliding Support (Figure 7.18) 130
7.5.6 CLAMP01 (Figure 7.21) 131
7.5.7 CLAMP02 (Figure 7.26) 131
7.5.8 Shrink Fit (Figure 7.27) . 132
Chapter 8: Nonlinear Material Analysis . 133
8.1 Review of Nonlinear Material Models . 133
8.2 Elastic–Perfectly Plastic Material Model 134
8.3 Use of Nonlinear Material to Control Stress Singularity 137
8.4 Other Types of Nonlinearities . 139
8.5 Hands-On Exercises . 140
8.5.1 BRACKET NL (Figure 8.3) 140
8.5.2 L BRACKET (Figure 8.7) . 140x
Contents
Chapter 9: Modal Analysis .143
9.1 Differences Between Modal and Static Analysis . 143
9.2 Interpretation of Displacement and Stress Results in Modal
Analysis . 144
9.3 Modal Analysis With Rigid Body Modes . 145
9.4 Importance of Supports in Modal Analysis . 147
9.5 Applications of Modal Analysis . 148
9.5.1 Finding Modal Frequencies and Associated Shapes of
Vibration . 148
9.5.2 Locating “Weak Spots” in Structure 149
9.5.3 Modal Analysis Provides Input to Vibration Analysis 150
9.6 Prestress Modal Analysis . 150
9.7 Symmetry and Antisymmetry Boundary Conditions in Modal
Analysis . 152
9.8 Convergence of Modal Frequencies 154
9.9 Meshing Consideration for Modal Analysis . 155
9.10 Hands-On Exercises . 155
9.10.1 Tuning Fork (Figure 9.12) . 155
9.10.2 Box (Figure 9.1) . 156
9.10.3 Airplane (Figure 9.2) . 156
9.10.4 Ball (Figure 9.4) . 157
9.10.5 Link (Figure 9.5) 157
9.10.6 Helicopter Blade (Figure 9.7) 158
9.10.7 Column (Figure 9.8) . 159
9.10.8 Bracket (Figure 9.10) . 159
Chapter 10: Buckling Analysis . 161
10.1 Linear Buckling Analysis . 162
10.2 Convergence of Results in Linear Buckling Analysis . 165
10.3 Nonlinear Buckling Analysis . 165
10.4 Summary 176
10.5 Hands-On Exercises . 177
10.5.1 Notched Column—Free End (Figure 10.1) 177
10.5.2 Notched Column—Sliding End (Figure 10.2) 178
10.5.3 Button (Figure 10.11) . 178
10.5.4 Curved Column (Figure 10.15) 179
10.5.5 Stand (Figure 10.16) . 179
10.5.6 CURVED_SHEET (Figure 10.17) . 179
Chapter 11: Vibration Analysis . 181
11.1 Modal Superposition Method . 181
11.2 Time Response Analysis . 183
11.3 Frequency Response Analysis . 186xi
Contents
11.4 Nonlinear Vibration Analysis . 190
11.5 Hands-On Exercises . 193
11.5.1 Hammer Impulse Load (Figure 11.2) . 193
11.5.2 Hammer Beating (Figure 11.2) . 194
11.5.3 ELBOW_PIPE (Figure 11.7) . 194
11.5.4 Centrifuge (Figure 11.10) . 195
11.5.5 PLANK (Figure 11.13) 196
Chapter 12: Thermal Analysis 197
12.1 Heat Transfer Induced by Prescribed Temperatures 197
12.2 Heat Transfer Induced by Heat Power and Convection . 198
12.3 Heat Transfer by Radiation . 201
12.4 Modeling Considerations in Thermal Analysis 202
12.5 Challenges in Thermal Analysis . 204
12.6 Hand-On Exercises 205
12.6.1 Bracket (Figure 12.1) . 205
12.6.2 Heat Sink (Figure 12.2) . 205
12.6.3 Channel (Figure 12.4) 206
12.6.4 Space Heater (Figure 12.6) 207
Chapter 13: Implementation of Finite Element Analysis
in the Design Process 209
13.1 Differences Between CAD and FEA Geometry 209
13.1.1 Defeaturing 210
13.1.2 Idealization 211
13.1.3 Cleanup 213
13.2 Common Meshing Problems 214
13.3 Mesh Inadequacy . 217
13.4 Integration of CAD and FEA Software . 218
13.4.1 Stand-Alone FEA Software . 218
13.4.2 FEA Programs Integrated With CAD . 218
13.4.3 Computer-Aided Engineering Programs . 218
13.5 FEA Implementation 219
13.5.1 Positioning of CAD and FEA Activities . 219
13.5.2 Personnel Training 220
13.5.3 FEA Program Selection . 222
13.5.4 Hardware Selection 225
13.5.5 Building Confidence in the FEA . 225
13.5.6 Return-On Investment . 226
13.6 FEA Project . 227
13.6.1 Major Steps in FEA Project 227
13.6.2 FEA Report . 230
13.6.3 Importance of Documentation and Backups . 231xii
Contents
13.6.4 Contracting Out FEA Services . 232
13.6.5 Common Errors in the FEA Management . 233
Chapter 14: Misconceptions and Frequently Asked
Questions 235
14.1 FEA Quiz 235
14.2 Frequently Asked Questions 239
Chapter 15: FEA Resources 251
References 252
Chapter 16: Glossary of Terms .253
Chapter 17: List of Exercises 259
Index 261
About the Author


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