كتاب Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering
Second Edition
Myer Kutz
Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., Delmar, New York  

كتاب Handbook of Farm, Dairy and Food Machinery Engineering  H_o_f_11
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Contents
Preface to the Second Edition Xv
Preface to the First Edition Xvii
List of Contributors Xxi
1. The Food Engineer 1
Felix H. Barron
1. Nature of Work and Necessary Skills 1
2. Academic and Industry Preparation 2
3. Work Opportunities for a Food Engineer 5
4. Engineering Jobs 9
5. Future Opportunities 9
6. Conclusions 10
Reference 12
Further Reading 12
2. Food Regulations 13
Kevin M. Keener
1. Background 13
2. Federal Register 14
3. Code of Federal Regulations 15
4. United States Code 15
5. State and Local Regulations 16
6. Usdafsis Sanitation Programs 16
7. Fda Sanitation Programs 18
8. Food Safety Modernization Act 20
9. Hazard Analyses and Critical Control Point Program (Haccp) 22
10. Meat Processing 24
11. Shell Eggs 26
12. Seafood Processing 27
13. Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts 29
14. Beverages 30
15. Canned Foods 34
16. Food Service/restaurants 35
17. Export Foods 35
18. Imported Foods 37
19. Conclusions 38
20. Acronyms 38
References 39
Vii3. Food Safety Engineering 43
Raghupathy Ramaswamy, Juhee Ahn, V.m. Balasubramaniam,
Luis Rodriguez Saona and Ahmed E. Yousef
1. Introduction 43
2. Intervention Technologies 44
3. Control/monitoring/identification Techniques 52
4. Packaging Applications in Food Safety 57
5. Tracking and Traceability 58
6. Byproducts of Processing 59
7. Conclusions 61
Acknowledgment 61
References 61
4. Farm Machinery Automation for Tillage, Planting Cultivation, and Harvesting 67
Brian T. Adams
1. Introduction 67
2. Vehicle Guidance 68
3. Implement Guidance Systems 75
4. Guidance Methods 75
5. Challenges Facing Autonomous Vehicles 81
6. Summary 83
References 84
Other Contacts 85
5. Air Seeders for Conservation Tillage Crop Production 87
John Nowatzki
1. Opener Design Options 87
2. Managing Crop Residue 89
3. Soil Disturbance and Environmental Impacts 93
4. Seed/fertilizer Placement, Row Spacing 94
5. Depth Control and Packing 97
6. Varying Conditions 98
7. Precision Agriculture 99
8. Energy Requirements 101
9. Commercial Options 101
Reference 101
Further Reading 101
6. Grain Harvesting Machinery 103
H. Mark Hanna and Graeme R. Quick
1. General 103
2. History 103
Viii Contents3. Pre-harvest Issues That Affect Machine Design 104
4. Performance Factors 105
5. Heads: Grain Platforms, Corn Heads, and Strippers 106
6. Feederhouse 109
7. Cylinder or Rotor and Concave 109
8. Separation: Straw Walkers or Rotary Separation 112
9. Cleaning Shoe 114
10. Elevators: Clean Grain and Tailings 116
11. Grain Bin and Unloading Auger 116
12. Other Attachments 118
13. Operator’s Station, Adjustments, and Monitoring Systems 118
14. Field Performance 119
15. Grain Damage 120
16. Combine Trends 120
References 121
7. Grain Storage Systems Design 123
Ray Bucklin, Sid Thompson, Michael Montross and Ali Abdel-hadi
1. Materials 124
2. Drying 126
3. Structural Loads 132
4. Grain Handling 153
5. Testers for Measuring Flow Properties 165
References 171
8. Milking Machines and Milking Parlors 177
Douglas J. Reinemann
1. Introduction 177
2. The Milking Machine 178
3. Milking Parlors 189
References 197
9. Dairy Product Processing Equipment 199
H. Douglas Goff
1. Introduction 199
2. Clarification, Separation, and Standardization 200
3. Pasteurization 202
4. Uht Sterilization 208
5. Homogenization 209
6. Membrane Processing 211
7. Evaporation 212
Contents Ix8. Drying 213
9. Ice Cream Manufacturing Equipment 216
10. Butter Manufacturing Equipment 218
11. Cheese Manufacturing Equipment 219
References 220
10. Grain Process Engineering 223
Imran Ahmad and Athapol Noomhorm
1. Drying 223
2. Pre-storage Grain Treatments 228
3. Post-harvest Value Addition 233
4. Cooking and Processing 239
5. Quality Evaluation 246
References 251
11. Technology of Processing of Horticultural Crops 259
Conrad O. Perera and Bronwen Smith
1. Introduction 259
2. Properties of Fruits and Vegetables 261
3. Biological Deterioration and Control 269
4. Methods for Minimizing Deterioration 272
5. General Methods of Fruit and Vegetable Preservation 275
6. Some Important Methods of Processing of Fruits and Vegetables 282
7. Quality Control/assurance 301
8. Fruit and Vegetable Processing Units 303
References 309
12. Food Drying and Evaporation Processing Operations 317
William L. Kerr
1. Introduction 317
2. Water in Foods 317
3. Types of Water in Foods 319
4. Food Stability and Moisture Relationships 321
5. Drying: Describing the Process 323
6. Types of Dryers 329
7. Quality Changes During Drying 340
8. Evaporation 342
9. The Basic Evaporator 344
10. Tube Evaporators 345
11. Single Effect Evaporators 348
12. Multi-effect Evaporators 350
X Contents13. Mechanical Vapor Recompression 351
14. Quality Changes During Evaporation 352
15. Conclusion 352
Further Reading 353
13. Food Freezing Technology 355
Chenchaiah Marella and Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
1. Introduction 355
2. Freezing Point Depression 356
3. Freezing Process 356
4. Phase Change and Ice Crystal Formation 359
5. Product Heat Load 360
6. Freezing Time Estimations 361
7. Freezing Equipment 364
8. Effect of Freezing and Frozen Storage on Foods 372
9. Developments in Freezing Techniques 375
10. Energy Conservation in Freezing 376
11. Scope for Future Work 376
References 377
14. Heat and Mass Transfer in Food Processing 379
Mohammed Farid
1. Basic Concepts of Heat and Mass Transfer 379
2. Case Study 1: Thermal Sterilization Using Computational
Fluid Dynamics 384
3. Case Study 2: New Approach to the Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer
In Drying and Frying 389
4. Case Study 3: Microwave Thawing of Frozen Meat 393
Nomenclature 397
Greek Symbols 400
References 400
15. Food Rheology 403
Qixin Zhong and Christopher R. Daubert
1. Introduction 403
2. Basic Concepts in Rheology 403
3. Rheology of Fluids 407
4. Rheology of Semi-solid Materials 414
5. Interfacial Rheology 422
6. Conclusions 425
References 425
Contents Xi16. Food Extruders 427
Mian N. Riaz
1. Role of an Extruder 429
2. Typical Components of an Extruder 430
3. Types of Extruders 431
4. Sources for More Information for Extrusion Technology 439
References 439
Further Reading 440
17. Thermal Processing for Food Sterilization and
Preservation 441
Arthur a. Teixeira
1. Introduction 441
2. Retort Systems 441
3. Automated Materials Handling Systems 454
4. Aseptic Process Equipment Systems 457
5. Low-acid Canned Food Regulations 459
References 466
18. Artificial Neural Network (Ann) Based Process
Modeling 467
Gauri Shankar Mittal
1. Basics 467
2. Examples 468
3. Meatball Cooking Example in Detail 469
References 472
19. Design of Food Process Controls Systems 475
Mark T. Morgan and Timothy a. Haley
1. Introduction 475
2. Benefits of Automation 475
3. Computer Integrated Manufacturing 476
4. Automation Components and Terminology 478
5. Control System Objectives 480
6. Controllers 493
7. Sensor Fundamentals 502
8. Actuators 531
Further Reading 540
Xii Contents20. Ohmic Pasteurization of Meat and Meat Products 541
James G. Lyng and Brian M. Mckenna
1. Introduction 541
2. Conventional Thermal Methods for the Preservation of Meats 543
3. Basic Principle of Ohmic Heating 544
4. Microbial Inactivation During Ohmic Heating 552
5. Quality of Ohmically Heated Meat Products 553
6. Economics of Ohmic Processing 557
7. Ohmic Heating for Commercial Scale Production of Cooked Meats 559
8. Conclusion and Future Work 564
Acknowledgements 564
Abbreviations 565
References 565
21. Food Processing Facility Design 571
Timothy J. Bowser
1. Introduction 571
2. Background 571
3. Key Facility Issues 572
4. Project Phases 579
5. Conclusion 595
References 595
22. Sanitary Pump Selection and Use 599
Timothy J. Bowser
1. Introduction 599
2. Sanitation Standards for Pumps 600
3. Sanitary Pump Classification 600
4. Selecting Sanitary Pump Type 604
5. Installation 614
6. Cleaning and Maintenance 615
7. Conclusion 617
References 617
23. Agricultural Waste Management in Food Processing 619
Conly L. Hansen and Dae Yeol Cheong
1. Introduction 619
2. Common Unit Processes Employed in Food Waste Treatment 621
Contents Xiii3. Characteristics of Wastes and Treatment Types 623
4. Physical-chemical Treatment Process 628
5. Biological Treatment Process 639
6. Land Treatment of Waste 650
7. Bioprocess Technology From Waste 652
8. Conclusions 659
References 662
Further Reading 666
24. Food Packaging Machinery 667
Harold a. Hughes
1. Introduction 667
2. Filling Machines 670
3. Volumetric Fillers 670
4. Weight Filling 673
5. In-line or Rotary Fillers 676
6. Cap Application Machines 677
7. Induction Cap Sealing 680
8. Flexible Packaging 681
9. Formfillseal Equipment 681
10. Canning Machinery 684
11. Carton Filling and Closing Machinery 687
12. Metal Detectors 689
25. Damage Reduction to Food Products During Transportation and Handling 691
Jay Singh and S. Paul Singh
1. Introduction 691
2. Functions of Packaging 691
3. Food Product Categories 696
4. Food Product Distribution Environment 702
5. Major Causes of Food Spoilage/damage in Supply Chain 704
6. Packaging Materials 705
7. “smart” Packaging 711
8. Trends in Protective Food Packaging of 2000 and Beyond 713
References 719
Index 72


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