كتاب Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety

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عدد المساهمات : 15377
التقييم : 25683
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety    كتاب Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety  Emptyالإثنين 14 يناير 2019, 10:25 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety
من سلسلة علم المواد المتقدمة
Advanced Material Series
Ashutosh Tiwari and Mikael Syvajarvi

كتاب Advanced Materials for Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Safety  A_m_a_11
ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Contents
Preface xv
Part 1: Fundamental Methodologies 1
1 Layered Double Hydroxides and the Environment: An Overview 3
Amita Jaiswal, Ravindra Kumar Gautam and
Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya
1.1 Introduction 4
1.2 Structure of Layered Double Hydroxides 4
1.3 Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides 6
1.4 Synthesis of Layered Double Hydroxides 7
1.4.1 Co-precipitation Method 7
1.4.2 Hydrothermal Synthesis 8
1.4.3 Urea Hydrolysis Method 9
1.4.4 Sol-Gel Method 9
1.4.5 Ion-Exchange Method 9
1.4.6 Rehydration Method 10
1.4.7 Miscellaneous Methods 10
1.5 Characterization of Layered Double Hydroxides 11
1.5.1 X-ray Di?raction 11
1.5.2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 11
1.5.3 Termogravimetric Analysis and Di?erential
Termal Analysis 12
1.5.4 Other Techniques 12
1.6 Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides 13
1.6.1 Catalytic Applications 14
1.6.2 Agricultural Applications 15
1.6.3 Pharmaceutical Applications 15
1.6.4 Industrial Applications 16vi Contents
1.6.5 Environmental Applications 16
1.7 Conclusions 19
Acknowledgements 19
References 20
2 Improvement of the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Alloys
Applying Di?erent Types of Silanes 27
Anca-Iulia Stoica, Norica Carmen Godja, Andje Stankovi?,
Matthias P?lzler, Erich Kny and Christoph Kleber
2.1 Introduction 28
2.2 Silanes for Surface Treatment 31
2.2.1 Classifcation of Silanes 32
2.2.2 Surface Treatment and Silane Chemistry 34
2.2.3 Experimental Procedure 37
2.3 Materials, Methods and Experimentals 40
2.3.1 Materials 40
2.3.2 Preparation of Silane Solutions 41
2.3.3 Silane Treatment 41
2.4 Surface Analytics 42
2.5 Results and Discussion 43
2.5.1 Contact Angle 43
2.5.2 Characterization with SEM/EDX – FIB 46
2.5.3 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Tests 50
2.5.4 Salt Spray Test 53
2.5.5 FTIR Spectroscopy 55
2.6 Conclusions 56
Acknowledgements 57
References 57
3 New Generation Material for the Removal of Arsenic
from Water 61
Dinesh Kumar and Vaishali Tomar
3.1 Introduction 62
3.1.1 Properties of Arsenic [3–6] 62
3.1.2 World Health Organization Guidelines 63
3.1.3 Toxicity 63
3.1.4 Technologies 64
3.1.5 Adsorption Process 65
3.1.6 New Generation Materials 76Contents vii
3.2 Arsenic Desorption/Sorbent Regeneration 76
3.2.1 Cost Evaluation 77
3.3 Conclusions 78
Acknowledgement 79
References 79
4 Prediction and Optimization of Heavy Clay Products Quality 87
Milica Arsenovi?, Lato Pezo, Lidija Man?i? and
Zagorka Radojevi?
4.1 Introduction 87
4.2 Materials and Methods 89
4.2.1 Raw Materials and Samples 89
4.2.2 Chemical and Technological Features 89
4.2.3 Second Order Polynomial Model and Analysis
of Variance 90
4.2.4 Artifcial Neural Network Modeling 91
4.2.5 Fuzzy Synthetic Optimization 93
4.3 Results and Discussions 94
4.3.1 Correlation Analysis 94
4.3.2 Analysis of Variance and SOP Models 97
4.3.3 Neurons in the ANN Hidden Layer 102
4.3.4 Simulation of the ANNs 103
4.3.5 Sensitivity Analysis 110
4.3.6 Fuzzy Synthetic Optimization 113
4.4 Conclusions 117
Acknowledgement 118
References 118
5 Enhancement of Physical and Mechanical Properties of
Sugar Palm Fiber via Vacuum Resin Impregnation 121
M.R. Ishak, Z. Leman, S.M. Sapuan, M.Z.A. Rahman
and U.M.K. Anwar
5.1 Introduction 122
5.2 Experimental 123
5.2.1 Materials 123
5.2.2 Methods 124
5.3 Results and Discussion 125
5.3.1 Physical Properties of Impregnated Fiber 125
5.3.2 Tensile Properties of Impregnated Fibre 132viii Contents
5.4 Conclusions 138
Acknowledgments 139
References 139
6 Environmentally-Friendly Acrylates-Based Polymer Latices 145
Sweta Shukla and J.S.P. Rai
6.1 Introduction 146
6.1.1 Alkyds 146
6.1.2 Urethanes 147
6.1.3 Epoxies 147
6.1.4 Acrylics 148
6.2 Polymerization Techniques 154
6.2.1 Component of Emulsion Polymerization 155
6.2.2 Applications of Acrylic Polymers 168
References 170
Part 2: Inventive Nanotechnology 177
7 Nanoparticles for Trace Analysis of Toxins: Present and
Future Scenario 179
Anupreet Kaur and Shivender Singh Saini
7.1 Introduction 179
7.2 Nanoremediation Using TiO2 Nanoparticles 180
7.3 Gold Nanoparticles for Nanoremediation 183
7.4 Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles 184
7.5 Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles for Nanoremediation 187
7.6 Other Materials for Nanoremediation 190
7.7 Conclusion 193
References 193
8 Recent Developments in Gold Nanomaterial Catalysts for
Oxidation Reaction through Green and Sustainable Routes 197
Biswajit Chowdhury, Chiranjit Santra, Sandip Mandal
and Rawesh Kumar
8.1 Introduction 198
8.1.1 Quantum Size E?ects 200
8.1.2 Charge Transfer between Gold and Metal
Oxide Support 201
8.1.3 Formation of Reactive Gold–Metal Oxide
Perimeter Interfaces 202Contents ix
8.2 Propylene Epoxidation Reaction 202
8.3 Reaction Mechanism 211
8.4 Glucose Oxidation 214
8.5 Alcohol Oxidation 225
8.5.1 Mechanism for Alcohol Oxidation Reaction 233
8.6 Conclusion 234
References 234
9 Nanosized Metal Oxide-Based Adsorbents for Heavy Metal
Removal: A Review 243
Deepak Pathania and Pardeep Singh
9.1 Introduction 244
9.2 Nanosized Metal Oxide 246
9.2.1 Nano Ferric Oxides (NFeOs) 246
9.2.2 Nano Manganese Oxides (NMnOs) 249
9.2.3 Nano Titanium Oxides (NTOs) 250
9.2.4 Nano Zinc Oxides (NZnOs) 251
9.2.5 Nano Aluminum Oxides 252
9.3 Hybrid Adsorbents 253
9.3.1 Bentonite-Based Hybrid Nano-Metal Oxide
Nanocomposites (B-NMOs) 253
9.3.2 Polymer-Supported Nano-Metal Oxide
Nanocomposites (P-NMOs) 256
9.3.3 Zeolites-Supported Nano Metal Oxide
Nanocomposites (P-NMOs) 256
9.3.4 Metal Oxides-Based Nanocomposites 257
9.4 Conclusion 258
References 258
10 Future Prospects of Phytosynthesized Transition Metal
Nanoparticles as Novel Functional Agents for Textiles 265
Shahid-ul-Islam, Mohammad Shahid and Faqeer Mohammad
10.1 Introduction 266
10.2 Synthesis of Transition Metal Nanoparticle Using
Various Plant Parts 266
10.2.1 Silver – Most Versatile Transition Metal
Nanoparticle Synthesized by Using Plants 267
10.2.2 Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles 276
10.2.3 Gold/Silver Bimetallic Nanoparticles 277
10.2.4 Palladium Nanoparticles 278
10.2.5 Synthesis of Other Transition Metal Nanoparticles 279x Contents
10.3 Proposed Mechanisms 279
10.4 Transition Metal Nanoparticles as Novel Antimicrobial
Agents for Textile Modifcations 282
10.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Aspects 284
References 285
11 Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for Heavy Metal Removal
from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetics and Equilibrium Modeling 291
Ravindra Kumar Gautam, Amita Jaiswal and
Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya
11.1 Introduction 291
11.2 Sources of Heavy Metals in the Environment 292
11.3 Toxicity to Human Health and Ecosystems 299
11.4 Magnetic Nanoparticles 303
11.4.1 Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles 303
11.5 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 304
11.5.1 Co-precipitation 305
11.5.2 Hydrothermal Synthesis 307
11.5.4 Termal Decomposition 309
11.6 Magnetic Nanoparticles in Wastewater Treatment 310
11.6.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles as Nanosorbents for
Heavy Metals 310
11.7 Modeling of Adsorption: Kinetic and Isotherm Models 316
11.7.1 Kinetic Studies in Adsorption of Heavy Metals 316
11.7.2 Equilibrium Modeling of Adsorption 319
11.8 Termodynamic Analysis 322
11.9 Metal Recovery and Regeneration of Magnetic
Nanoparticles 323
11.10 Conclusions 324
Acknowledgements 325
References 325
12 Potential Application of Nanoparticles as Antipathogens 333
Pratima Chauhan, Mini Mishra and Deepika Gupta
12.1 Introduction 333
12.1.1 Types of Pathogens 334
12.1.2 Virulence 335
12.1.3 Transmission 335
12.2 Applications of Nanoparticles 336Contents xi
12.2.1 Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery 336
12.2.2 Role of Nanoparticles and Teir Potential
Application in Food Packaging 337
12.2.3 Nanoparticles Used in Agriculture 337
12.2.4 Nanotechnology for the Health Sector 338
12.2.5 Nanoparticles Applicable in the Area of
Textile Fibers 339
12.2.6 Nanoparticles Used in Water Treatment 340
12.3 Nanoparticles in Biology 340
12.4 Uses and Advantages of Nanoparticles in Medicine 341
12.5 Antibacterial Properties of Nanomaterials 342
12.5.1 Gold Nanoparticles 343
12.5.2 Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles 343
12.5.3 Copper Oxide Nanoparticles 343
12.5.4 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles 344
12.5.5 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles 344
12.6 Antiviral properties of Nanoparticles 345
12.6.1 Silver 345
12.6.2 Selenium Nanoclusters 345
12.6.3 Metal Oxides 346
12.6.4 N-phenyl- and N-benzoylthiourea Derivatives 346
12.6.5 FeO
4/C12 Nanostructures and 2-((4-ethylphenoxy)
methyl)-N-(substituted-phenyl carbamothioyl)-
benzamides 347
12.6.6 Graphene Nanosheets 347
12.6.7 Photoactivated Carbon Nanotube?Porphyrin
Conjugates 348
12.7 Antifungal Activity 348
12.7.1 Silver 348
12.8 Mechanism of Action of Nanoparticle inside the Body 349
12.9 Detecting the Antipathogenicity of Nanoparticles on
Microorganisms in Vitro 350
12.10 Types of Nanoparticles 351
12.11 Synthesis of Nanoparticles by Conventional Methods 351
12.11.1 Top-down approach 351
12.11.2 Bottom-up approach 352
12.12 Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles 353
12.12.1 Extraction of Nanoparticles 355
12.13 Characterizations of Nanoparticles 355
12.14 Biocompatibility of Nanoparticles 356xii Contents
12.15 Toxic E?ects of Nanoparticles 356
12.15.1 Respiratory System 357
12.15.2 Translocation of nanoparticle to the Blood
Stream and Central Nervous System 358
12.15.3 Gastrointestinal Tract and Skin 358
12.16 Conclusion 359
References 360
13 Gas Barrier Properties of Biopolymer-based Nanocomposites:
Application in Food Packaging 369
Sarat Kumar Swain
13.1 Introduction 370
13.2 Experimental 372
13.3 Objective 372
13.4 Background of Food Packaging 373
13.4.1 Oxygen Penetration 373
13.4.2 Antimicrobial Systems 374
13.4.3 Detection of Gases Produced by Food Spoilage 375
13.4.4 Di?erent Fillers for Nanocomposites 376
13.5 Conclusion 382
References 382
14 Application of Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles for
Environmental Clean Up 385
Ritu Singh and Virendra Misra
14.1 Introduction 386
14.2 Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles: A Versatile Tool for
Environmental Clean Up 388
14.2.1 Iron Chemistry 388
14.2.2 Synthesis 389
14.2.3 Structure 390
14.2.4 Environmental Application 390
14.3 Reduction Mechanisms and Pathways 406
14.4 Pilot- and Field-Scale Studies 408
14.5 Transport of nFe0 in Environment 410
14.6 Integrated Approach 411
14.7 Challenges Ahead 412
14.7.1 Toxicity 412
14.7.2 Fate and Behavior in Environment 413
14.8 Concluding Remarks 413
References 414Contents xiii
15 Typical Synthesis and Environmental Application of Novel
TiO
2 Nanoparticles 421
Tanmay Kumar Ghorai
15.1 Introduction 421
15.2 Use of Di?erent Dyes 424
15.2.1 Methyl Orange Degradation (MO) 424
15.2.2 Rhodamine B (RB) 425
15.2.3 Tymol Blue (TB) 425
15.2.4 Bromocresol Green (BG) 426
15.3 Synthetic Methods for Novel Titania Photocatalysts 427
15.3.1 Photocatalytic Reactor 429
15.3.2 Sol-Gel Method 430
15.4 Novel Chemical Synthesis Routes 438
15.4.1 Fe(III)-Doped TiO2 Nanophotocatalyst 439
15.4.2 Metal Molybdate Incorporated Titanium
Dioxide Photocatalyst 441
15.4.3 Metal Molybdate Doped Bismuth Titanate
(NMBT) Nanocomposites 441
References 445
16 Zinc Oxide Nanowire Films: Solution Growth, Defect States
and Electrical Conductivity 453
Ajay Kushwaha and M. Aslam
16.1 Introduction 453
16.2 Solution Growth of ZnO Nanowire Films 456
16.2.1 Low Temperature Hydrothermal Growth 457
16.2.2 Alternative Solution Growth Methods 463
16.3 Defects and Photoluminescence Properties of ZnO 465
16.3.1 Defects in ZnO 465
16.3.2 Photoluminescence of ZnO Nanowire 467
16.4 Role of Defect States in Electrical Conductivity of ZnO 469
16.4.1 Defect States Responsible for N-Type
Conductivity 469
16.4.2 Defect States Responsible for P-Type
Conductivity 471
16.5 Defects a nd Electrical Conductivity of ZnO
Nanowire Films 471
16.5.1 Electrical Conductivity of Nanowire Film in Dark 474
16.5.2 Defect-Induced Photoconductivity in
Nanowire Films 476xiv Contents
16.5.3 Surface Modifcation and Optoelectrical
Properties of ZnO Nanowires 477
16.6 ZnO Nanowires for Energy Conversion Devices 478
16.6.1 Photovoltaic Applications 479
16.6.2 Water Splitting/Solar Hydrogen Generation 480
16.6.3 Piezoelectric Nanogenerators 481
References 483
Index


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