كتاب Conveyor Belt Furnace Thermal Processing
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 كتاب Conveyor Belt Furnace Thermal Processing

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Conveyor Belt Furnace Thermal Processing
Jinlong Xu, Joyce Zhang, Ken Kuang

كتاب Conveyor Belt Furnace Thermal Processing  C_b_f_10
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Contents
Introduction . 1
What Is Thermal Processing? 1
Different Types of Thermal Processing 1
What Is a Conveyor Belt Furnace? 3
Basic Structure of Conveyor Belt Furnace 3
Typical Applications . 6
Understanding the Influence of Belt Furnace and Firing Parameters
on Efficiency of Silicon Solar Cells 13
Introduction 13
Screen Printing . 13
Firing . 14
Effect of Peak Temperature 15
Effect of Soak Time . 15
Belt Furnace Parameters 16
Furnace for Firing Operation 16
Conclusion 18
References . 18
Understanding the Influence of Belt Furnace and Firing Parameters
on Efficiency of Thin-Film CIGS Solar Cells 21
Introduction 21
Processing CIGS in a Belt Furnace 22
Effect of Selenization Profle on the Effciency of Solar Cell . 23
Belt Furnace for CIGS Processing 24
Conclusion 26
References . 26
Understanding the Influence of Belt Furnace and Sintering Parameters
on Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells . 27
Introduction 27
Structure 27
Electricity Generation Schematics 28xii
Material Selection . 28
Advantages 29
Process of Sintering in a Belt Furnace . 30
In?uence of Sintering Temperature on Performance of DSSCs 30
Furnace for DSSC Application . 31
Belt Furnace Parameters 33
References . 33
Manufacturing Solar Cells: Assembly and Packaging 35
Introduction 35
First Generation 36
Phosphorus Diffusion 36
Silicon Wafer Metallization . 36
Solar Module Assembly 37
Second Generation 37
Thin-Film Deposition 38
Thin-Film Annealing . 38
Metallization . 39
Third Generation 39
Similar to Semiconductor . 40
Conclusion 41
A Practical Guide for Improving Crystalline Solar Cell Efficiencies
Through Optimization of the Firing Process 43
Introduction 43
Thermal Process Development . 43
Trial and Error Experimentation for Improved Wafer Profles . 44
Transferring the Process from the Pilot Line to the Production Lines . 48
Periodic Adjustment of the Production Furnaces to Consistently
Produce Higher Effciency Cells 50
Conclusion 50
Study on the Effect of the Firing Process to the Energy Conversion
Efficiency of Solar Cells . 51
Background 51
Principle of Experiment 51
Material and Equipment List 51
Experiment 52
Analysis and Discussion 52
Conclusion 54
Thermal Profiling of Silicon Solar Cells During the Metallization
Process . 55
Introduction 55
Thermocouple Junction Design 56
Test Conditions . 56
Measurement Accuracy and Reproducibility 59
Contentsxiii
Discussion and Highlights 61
Conclusions 61
References . 61
PID Temperature Control . 63
Introduction 63
Different Types of Temperature Control 64
Control Loop Basics . 64
On-Off Control . 65
Proportional Control . 66
PID Control 66
PID Control 67
Introduction 67
PID Controller Theory . 67
Proportional Term . 68
Steady-State Error . 68
Integral Term . 68
Derivative Term . 69
Loop Tuning . 70
Stability . 70
Optimum Behavior 71
Overview of Methods 71
Manual Tuning . 71
Ziegler-Nichols Method 72
PID Tuning Software 73
Limitations of PID Control 73
Linearity 74
Noise in Derivative 75
Modifcation of PID Control . 75
Overshooting from Known Disturbances . 75
Future Pattern of PID Control 76
References . 76
Introduction to Materials and Firing Parameters in Thick
Film Firing 77
Introduction 77
Material . 77
Conductor Pastes 78
Resistor Pastes . 78
Dielectrics Pastes . 79
Paste Selection . 79
Firing Parameters . 79
Temperature Profle 80
Air?ow . 80
References . 82
Contentsxiv
Influence of Belt Furnace on Engine Valve Heat Treatment 83
Introduction 83
Engine Valve Heat Treatment Description 83
References . 85
The Influence of a Belt Furnace on the Brazing Process . 87
Introduction 87
Parameters of Brazing Process . 88
Atmosphere Control in a Belt Furnace . 88
Selecting a Furnace for Brazing 90
Conclusion 92
The Influence of Belt Furnace on Post Mold Cure Process . 93
Introduction 93
PMC Process in IC Encapsulation 93
Applications of PMC 94
The In?uence of PMC on Material Properties . 95
Furnace Selection of PMC 97
Furnace Control of PMC 99
Belt Furnace for PMC 99
Conclusion 101
An Introduction to Glass-to-Metal Seals . 103
Introduction 103
Types of Glass-to-Metal Seals . 103
Fabrication of Glass-to-Metal Seals . 105
Copper-to-Glass Seals 106
Summary 108
Furnaces for Glass-to-Metal Seal Applications 108
HSA1310-0611NH 108
Furnace Specifcation 109
Furnace Layout . 109
HSA 1503-0409NH . 110
Advantages 110
Main Characteristics . 111
References . 112
Furnace Temperature and Atmosphere Influences
on Producing Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Powders
for Lithium-Ion Batteries 113
Introduction 113
Solid State Processing Methods 114
Solution-Based Processing Methods . 116
Firing Temperature In?uence on Powder Formation 117
In?uence of Atmospheric Conditions on Characteristics of LiFePO4 . 119
Furnace for LiFePO4 Manufacturing 120
Conclusion 120
References . 121
Contentsxv
Direct Bond Copper (DBC) Technologies . 123
Introduction 123
DBC Process . 124
Patterned Substrates . 126
Plating 127
Electrical Properties . 128
Thermal Properties 128
Mechanical Properties 130
Future Development . 130
Conclusion 131
Influence of Firing Temperature and Atmospheric Conditions
on Processing of Direct Bond Copper (DBC) 133
Introduction 133
Process of DBC . 134
Characteristic Features of DBC 136
Effect of Temperature and Atmosphere in Bonding . 136
Firing Operations Using a Belt Furnace 136
Conclusion 139
References . 139
Ultrasonic Belt Cleaning . 141
Introduction 141
Principles Behind Ultrasonic Cleaning Technology . 141
Process of Cavitation: A Microscopic Brush 142
Advantages of Ultrasonic Belt Cleaning 143
Equipment Maintenance and Belt Cleaning Guidelines 143
How Challenging Conventional Wisdom Can Optimize
Solder Reflow . 145
A Standard Profle? 145
Avoid Re?ow of Double-Sided PCBs? . 146
What Really Causes “Tombstoning”? 147
Using Nitrogen (Vs. Air) Improves the Process? . 148
Lower Oxygen, Better Results? 148
Processing in N2 Means More Maintenance/Downtime? . 149
References . 150
Common Maintenance and Troubleshooting 151
Introduction 151
Common Maintenance . 151
Daily Maintenance 151
Replacement of Heating Elements 152
Maintenance of the Motor . 154
Transportation 154
Equipment Storing Up . 155
Storage of Motor 155
Contentsxvi
Troubleshooting 155
Overheating 155
Heating Up Problem . 156
Heating Elements Broken . 156
Belt Movement Problem 157
Breaker Tripping 158
Black Screen of Industrial Computer Display . 158
Future Development 161
Introduction 161
New Materials Result in Different Thermal Profling 161
Solar Cells . 161
Engine Valves 163
Brazing Process . 163
Technology Innovations and Their In?uence on Thermal Processes 164
Thick Film . 164
Glass-to-Metal Seal Process . 165
DBC Technology 165
Brazing Process . 166
Optimizing the Heating Process 166
Precise Temperature Control . 167
Mass Production 167
Line Speed 167
Cleaning 168
References . 168
Index . 17


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