كتاب e-Design Computer-Aided Engineering Design
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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الرئيسيةالبوابةاليوميةس .و .جبحـثالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب e-Design Computer-Aided Engineering Design

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عدد المساهمات : 14836
التقييم : 24326
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب e-Design Computer-Aided Engineering Design   السبت 07 يوليو 2018, 11:59 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
e-Design Computer-Aided Engineering Design
Kuang-Hua Chang


ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :

INTRODUCTION TO e-DESIGN 1
CHAPTER OUTLINE
1.1 Introduction .2
1.2 The e-Design Paradigm .5
1.3 Virtual Prototyping 7
1.3.1 Parameterized CAD Product Model .7
1.3.1.1 Parameterized Product Model 8
1.3.1.2 Analysis Models .8
1.3.1.3 Motion Simulation Models . 10
1.3.2 Product Performance Analysis .11
1.3.2.1 Motion Analysis . 11
1.3.2.2 Structural Analysis 11
1.3.2.3 Fatigue and Fracture Analysis . 12
1.3.2.4 Product Reliability Evaluations . 12
1.3.3 Product Virtual Manufacturing .13
1.3.4 Tool Integration 13
1.3.5 Design Decision Making 15
1.3.5.1 Design Problem Formulation . 15
1.3.5.2 Design Sensitivity Analysis . 16
1.3.5.3 Parametric Study 16
1.3.5.4 Design Trade-Off Analysis . 17
1.3.5.5 What-If Study 19
1.4 Physical Prototyping .19
1.4.1 Rapid Prototyping .19
1.4.2 CNC Machining 21
1.5 Example: Simple Airplane Engine 23
1.5.1 System-Level Design .23
1.5.2 Component-Level Design .25
1.5.3 Design Trade-Off 25
1.5.4 Rapid Prototyping .26
1.6 Example: High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle 26
1.6.1 Hierarchical Product Model .27
1.6.2 Preliminary Design .28
1.6.3 Detailed Design 30
1.6.4 Design Trade-Off
GEOMETRIC MODELING 2
CHAPTER OUTLINE
2.1 Introduction .43
2.2 Parametric Curves 44
2.2.1 Straight Line 46
2.2.2 Quadratic Curves 47
2.2.2.1 Spline CurvedThree Points . 48
2.2.2.2 Two Points and a Vector 50
2.2.2.3 Be´zier Curve . 52
2.2.3 Cubic Curves 56
2.2.3.1 Spline CurvedFour Points . 56
2.2.3.2 Hermit Cubic Curve (Two End Points and Two End Vectors) . 59
2.2.3.3 Be´zier Curve . 62
2.2.4 Continuities .63
2.2.5 B-Spline Curves .64
2.2.5.1 Nonuniform B-Spline Curves . 64
2.2.5.2 Uniform B-Spline Curves . 69
2.2.5.3 Closed Uniform B-Spline Curves 71
2.2.6 NURB Curves .75
2.3 Parametric Surfaces .76
2.3.1 Parametric Representation 77
2.3.1.1 Bicubic Surface Patch . 77
2.3.1.2 16-Point Format 78
2.3.1.3 Coons Patch . 79
2.3.1.4 Be´zier Surface 81
2.3.2 B-Spline Surface 82
2.4 CAD-Generated Surfaces .84
2.4.1 Cylindrical Surfaces 84
2.4.2 Ruled Surfaces 87
2.4.3 Loft (or Blend) Surfaces 89
2.4.4 Revolved Surfaces 92
2.4.5 Sweep Surfaces 96
2.5 Geometric Transformations 100
2.5.1 Homogeneous Coordinates
SOLID MODELING 3
CHAPTER OUTLINE
3.1 Introduction .126
3.2 Basics of Solid Modeling 127
3.2.1 Wireframe Models 127
3.2.2 Surface Models 129
3.2.3 Solid Models 130
3.2.4 Major Modeling Schemes 132
3.2.4.1 Constructive Solid Geometry 132
3.2.4.2 Boundary Representation 135
3.3 Feature-Based Parametric Solid Modeling 139
3.3.1 Geometric Features 140
3.3.2 Sketch Profiles .142
3.3.2.1 Sketch Relations . 142
3.3.2.2 Variational Modeling 144
3.3.3 Parent–Child Relationships .149
3.3.4 Parametric Modeling .150
3.3.5 Solid Modeling Procedure in CAD 151
3.3.6 Direct Modeling 155
3.3.7 Geometric Modeling Kernels 155
3.4 Solid Model Build Plan .157
3.5 Commercial CAD Systems .160
3.5.1 General Purpose Codes .161
3.5.2 Special Codes 161
3.6 Summary .162
Appendix 3A: Sketch Relations .162
Questions and Exercises .164
References
ASSEMBLY MODELING 4
CHAPTER OUTLINE
4.1 Introduction .170
4.2 Assembly Modeling in CAD 172
4.2.1 Mating Constraints .173
4.2.2 Kinematic Joints 178
4.3 Assembly Modeling Technique 184
4.3.1 Transformation Matrix .185
4.3.1.1 Coincident 186
4.3.1.2 Concentric 186
4.3.1.3 Computation of the Transformation Matrix . 188
4.3.2 Degree of Freedom Analysis 197
4.4 Kinematic Modeling Technique* 199
4.4.1 Mapping Mating Constraints to Kinematic Joints .200
4.4.2 D–H Representation 202
4.4.2.1 Open-Loop System 210
4.4.2.2 Closed-Loop System 214
4.4.3 Constructing the Joint Coordinate Systems .219
4.5 Case Study and Tutorial Example .225
4.5.1 Case Study: Virtual Reality 225
4.5.2 Tutorial Example: A Single-Piston Engine .227
4.6 Summary .228
Questions and Exercises .229
References .
DESIGN PARAMETERIZATION 5
CHAPTER OUTLINE
5.1 Introduction .234
5.2 Design Intents 235
5.3 Design Axioms .238
5.3.1 Independence Axiom 238
5.3.2 Information Axiom 241
5.4 Design Parameterization at Part Level .242
5.4.1 Profile in Sketch .242
5.4.2 Solid Features in Part .244
5.4.3 Guidelines for Design Parameterization 245
5.5 Design Parameterization at Assembly Level .248
5.5.1 Guidelines for Design Parameterization 248
5.5.2 Slider-Crank Assembly in Pro/ENGINEER .250
5.5.3 Slider-Crank Assembly in SolidWorks .252
5.6 Case Studies 253
5.6.1 Single-Piston Engine 253
5.6.1.1 Part Level: Engine Case . 255
5.6.1.2 Assembly Level: Engine . 256
5.6.2 HMMWV Suspension 257
5.6.2.1 Track Design Variable . 258
5.6.2.2 Wheelbase Design Variable 260
5.6.2.3 Design Change 261
5.7 Summary .262
Questions and Exercises .262
References
PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT 6
CHAPTER OUTLINE
6.1 Introduction .267
6.2 File Management 269
6.2.1 AD-HOC Methods .270
6.2.2 PDM Approach .273
6.3 Fundamentals of PDM .274
6.3.1 Engineering Data Models 275
6.3.1.1 Product Data Model 275
6.3.1.2 Process Data Model 279
6.3.2 Basic Functions of PDM Systems .280
6.3.2.1 User Functions . 281
6.3.2.2 Utility Functions 282
6.3.3 Benefits of PDM Systems 283
6.3.4 Impact to Industry 284
6.4 PDM Systems .285
6.4.1 Systems Offered by CAD Vendors .286
6.4.1.1 AutoDesk ProductStream of Autodesk Inventor 286
6.4.1.2 ENOVIA Smarteam of CATIA . 286
6.4.1.3 Windchill by PTC . 287
6.4.1.4 TeamCenter by Siemens UGS NX 287
6.4.1.5 SolidWorks Enterprise PDM . 288
6.4.2 Systems Offered by Non-CAD Vendors 288
6.4.2.1 SofTech ProductCenter PLM . 288
6.4.2.2 Arena Cloud PLM 288
6.5 Product Data Exchange .289
6.5.1 Data Exchange Options .291
6.5.2 Direct Model Translations .292
6.5.2.1 Importing Pro/ENGINEER Parts to SolidWorks 292
6.5.2.2 Importing Pro/ENGINEER Assembly to SolidWorks . 294
6.5.2.3 Importing SolidWorks Parts to Pro/ENGINEER 295
6.5.2.4 Importing SolidWorks Assembly to Pro/ENGINEER . 296
6.5.2.5 Data Exchange Between CAD and CAE/CAM
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 7
CHAPTER OUTLINE
7.1 Introduction .327
7.2 Analytical Methods .328
7.2.1 Strength of Materials 328
7.2.2 Energy Method .330
7.2.3 Linear Elasticity .333
7.2.4 Failure Criteria .336
7.2.5 Uncertainties, Variations, and Safety Factors 338
7.3 Finite Element Methods 340
7.3.1 A Simple Example 341
7.3.2 Finite Element Formulation .345
7.3.3 p-Version FEA 351
7.3.4 The Meshless Method .356
7.3.5 Using Finite Element Method 358
7.4 Finite Element Modeling .359
7.4.1 General Process and Potential Pitfalls 360
7.4.2 Idealization and Simplification 361
7.4.3 Mesh Generation and Refinement 363
7.4.3.1 Automatic Mesh Generation 365
7.4.3.2 Semiautomatic Mesh Generation . 369
7.4.4 CAD Model Translations 371
7.4.5 Loads and Boundary Conditions .372
7.4.6 Results Checking 373
7.4.7 Strategy for Complex Problems 376
7.5 Commercial FEA Software .376
7.5.1 General-Purpose Codes .377
7.5.2 Specialized Codes 378
7.6 Case Study and Tutorial Examples .378
7.6.1 Case Study 378
7.6.2 Tutorial Examples .380
7.6.2.1 Cantilever Beam 380
7.6.2.2 Thin-Walled Tube 382
7.7 Summary
Appendix 7A: The Default in.-lbm-sec Unit System 384
Questions and Exercises .385
References
MOTION ANALYSIS 8
CHAPTER OUTLINE
8.1 Introduction .393
8.2 Analytical Methods .396
8.2.1 Particle Motion 397
8.2.2 Rigid-Body Motion 404
8.2.3 Multibody Kinematic Analysis 407
8.2.4 Multibody Dynamic Analysis 411
8.3 Computer-Aided Methods 415
8.3.1 Kinematic Analysis .415
8.3.2 Kinematic Joints 421
8.3.3 Multibody Dynamic Analysis 424
8.4 Motion Simulation 427
8.4.1 Creating Motion Models 428
8.4.1.1 Ground Parts (or Ground Bodies) 428
8.4.1.2 Moving Parts (or Moving Bodies) . 428
8.4.1.3 Constraints . 428
8.4.1.4 Degrees of Freedom 430
8.4.1.5 Forces 431
8.4.1.6 Initial Conditions . 432
8.4.1.7 Motion Drivers 432
8.4.2 Motion Analysis 432
8.4.3 Results Visualization .433
8.5 Motion Simulation Software 434
8.5.1 General-Purpose Codes .434
8.5.2 Specialized Codes 434
8.6 Case Studies 435
8.6.1 Formula SAE Racecar .435
8.6.2 High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle 445
8.6.3 Driving Simulators 450
8.6.4 Recreational Waterslides
8.7 Tutorial Examples .457
8.7.1 Sliding Block .458
8.7.2 Single-Piston Engine 459
8.8 Summary .461
Questions and Exercises .461
References
ATIGUE AND FRACTURE
ANALYSIS 9
CHAPTER OUTLINE
9.1 Introduction .464
9.2 The Physics of Fatigue 467
9.3 The Stress-Life Approach 470
9.3.1 The S-N Diagram 470
9.3.2 Nonfully Reversed Cyclic Loads .472
9.3.3 In-Phase Bending and Torsion .475
9.3.4 Complex Multiaxial Stress .476
9.3.5 Cumulative Damage 477
9.4 The Strain-Based Approach .478
9.4.1 The Manson–Coffin Equation .478
9.4.2 Multiaxial Analysis .483
9.5 Fracture Mechanics* 484
9.5.1 Basic Approaches .485
9.5.2 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics .486
9.5.3 Mixed Mode .488
9.5.4 Quasistatic Crack Growth 491
9.5.5 The Extended Finite Element Method .492
9.6 Dynamic Stress Calculation and Cumulative Damage 497
9.6.1 Dynamic Stress Calculations .497
9.6.2 Peak-Valley Editing .500
9.6.3 Rain-Flow Counting 501
9.6.4 Blocks to Failure 504
9.7 Fatigue and Fracture Simulation Software 505
9.7.1 General-Purpose Codes for Crack Initiation .505
9.7.2 Non-FEA-Based Crack Propagation 506
9.7.3 FEA-Based Crack Propagation .507
9.8 Case Studies and Tutorial Example 508
9.8.1 Case Study: Tracked Vehicle Roadarm 508
9.8.2 Case Study: Engine Connecting Rod .511
9.8.3 Tutorial Example: Crankshaft .516
9.9 Summary .518
Questions and Exercises .518
References
RELIABILITY ANALYSIS 10
CHAPTER OUTLINE
10.1 Introduction .525
10.2 Probability of FailuredBasic Concepts 526
10.2.1 Deterministic Design versus Probabilistic Prediction 527
10.2.2 Probabilistic Design 531
10.2.3 Short Summary 534
10.3 Basics of Statistics and Probabilistic Theory 535
10.3.1 Events and Basic Probability Rules 535
10.3.2 Random Variables and Distribution Functions .538
10.3.2.1 Random Variables . 538
10.3.2.2 Distribution Functions . 538
10.3.2.3 Mean Value and Standard Deviation 539
10.3.2.4 Joint Probability Density Function 539
10.3.3 Probabilistic Distributions .543
10.3.3.1 Normal Distribution . 544
10.3.3.2 Lognormal Distribution 545
10.3.3.3 Extreme Value Distributions . 546
10.4 Reliability Analysis Methods .547
10.4.1 The Limit State Function .548
10.4.2 Monte Carlo Simulation .549
10.4.3 The First-Order Reliability Method .552
10.4.3.1 FORM . 553
10.4.3.2 The Reliability Index Approach 560
10.4.3.3 The Performance Measure Approach 563
10.4.4 The Second-Order Reliability Method .566
10.4.5 Transformation of Random Variables* 568
10.4.5.1 Correlated Random Variables of Normal Distribution 568
10.4.5.2 Independent Random Variables of Non-Normal Distribution . 571
10.4.5.3 Correlated Random Variables of Non-Normal Distribution . 573
10.4.6 Importance Sampling 575
10.4.7 The Response Surface Method .579
10.4.8 Short Summary
10.5 Multiple Failure Modes* .581
10.5.1 Series System 582
10.5.2 Parallel System 583
10.5.3 FORM Approximation for a Series System .585
10.6 General-Purpose Reliability Analysis Tools .588
10.7 Case Study .589
10.8 Summary 591
Questions and Exercises .593
References
VIRTUAL MACHINING 11
CHAPTER OUTLINE
11.1 Introduction .601
11.2 NC Part Programming .602
11.2.1 Basics of NC Machines .602
11.2.2 Basic Concept of Part Programming .606
11.2.3 Computer-Assisted Part Programming 608
11.2.4 CAD/CAM Approach 611
11.3 Virtual Machining Simulations 611
11.3.1 Basic Machining Simulations 612
11.3.2 Advanced Machining Simulations 616
11.3.3 Turning Simulations .621
11.4 Practical Aspects in CNC Machining 622
11.4.1 Jigs and Fixtures 623
11.4.2 Cutters and Machining Parameters .624
11.4.3 Setting a CNC Sequence .627
11.5 Commercial Machining Simulation Software 629
11.5.1 General-Purpose Machining Software .629
11.5.2 Special-Purpose Machining Software 630
11.6 Case Study and Tutorial Examples .632
11.6.1 Case Study 632
11.6.1.1 Virtual Machining for Green Part 635
11.6.2 Tutorial Examples .636
11.6.2.1 Name Plate . 636
11.6.2.2 Block with a Sculpture Surface 637
11.7 Summary 640
Appendix 11A: Sample Address Codes 641
Appendix 11B: Sample G- and M-Codes .642
Questions and Exercises .643
References
TOOLPATH GENERATION 12
CHAPTER OUTLINE
12.1 Introduction .648
12.2 Inclined Flat Surface 650
12.3 Ruled Surface 657
12.3.1 5-Axis Mill with Ball-Nose Cutter (OP010) 658
12.3.1.1 Number of Passes 658
12.3.1.2 Scallop Height 659
12.3.1.3 Parametric Surface and CL Data . 662
12.3.1.4 A Few Questions . 666
12.3.2 3-Axis Mill with Flat-End Cutter (OP030) .668
12.3.2.1 Flat-End Cutter . 668
12.3.3 3-Axis Mill with Ball-Nose Cutter (OP030) 671
12.3.3.1 CL Data 671
12.3.4 4-Axis Mill with Flat-End Cutter* (OP020) 674
12.3.4.1 CL Data 675
12.4 Cylindrical Surface of Be´zier Curve .677
12.5 Summary 680
Questions and Exercises .680
References
SHEET METAL FORMING
SIMULATION 13
CHAPTER OUTLINE
13.1 Introduction .687
13.2 Fundamentals of Sheet Metal Forming .689
13.2.1 Sheet Forming Processes 689
13.2.1.1 Draw Forming . 689
13.2.1.2 Stretch Forming 690
13.2.1.3 Sheet Hydroforming 691
13.2.2 Plane Stress and Material Properties 692
13.2.2.1 Stress–Strain Curve . 692
13.2.2.2 Plane Stress Sheet Deformation . 693
13.2.2.3 Material Anisotropy . 697
13.2.3 Yield Criteria 698
13.2.3.1 Isotropic Yield Criteria . 699
13.2.3.2 Anisotropic Yield Criteria . 700
13.2.4 Forming Limit Diagram .701
13.2.5 Springback Analysis 704
13.2.6 Numerical Implementations 707
13.3 Process Planning and Tooling Design 709
13.3.1 One-Step Simulation for Formability Study .711
13.3.1.1 Blank Fitting and Blank Nesting 713
13.3.2 Die Design .714
13.3.2.1 Part Preparation 715
13.3.2.2 Binder Design . 716
13.3.2.3 Addendum Design 716
13.3.2.4 Drawbead Design 718
13.3.3 Incremental Forming Analysis 719
13.3.4 Springback Analysis and Die Compensation 721
13.4 Commercial Forming Simulation Software 725
13.4.1 Overview of Simulation Software 725
13.4.1.1 FastForm 726
13.4.1.2 AutoForm . 726
13.4.1.3 Pam-Stamp 2G
13.4.2 HyperForm .727
13.4.3 DynaForm 727
13.5 Case Studies 730
13.5.1 Core Panel .731
13.5.2 Wheel Fairing .734
13.6 Summary 739
Questions and Exercises .739
References
RAPID PROTOTYPING 14
CHAPTER OUTLINE
14.1 Introduction .745
14.2 RP Process and Tutorial Example 746
14.2.1 General Process .746
14.2.2 Engine Block Example 747
14.3 Rapid Prototyping Systems 750
14.3.1 Liquid-Based Systems 750
14.3.2 Solid-Based Systems 751
14.3.3 Powder-Based Systems .752
14.4 Advanced RP Systems .754
14.4.1 Solidica .754
14.4.2 Electron Beam Melting .755
14.4.3 Laser Engineered Net Shaping .757
14.4.4 Micro-Manufacturing RP Systems 757
14.5 Rapid Prototyping Applications 759
14.5.1 Design Applications 760
14.5.2 Manufacturing Applications .761
14.5.3 Art Applications .761
14.5.3.1 Art Design 762
14.5.3.2 Museum Application . 762
14.5.3.3 Props . 763
14.5.4 Medical Applications 763
14.5.4.1 Presurgery Planning and Rehearsal . 763
14.5.4.2 Education and Research Application . 766
14.5.4.3 Dental Applications . 767
14.5.5 Bioengineering Applications 768
14.5.5.1 Custom Prosthesis and Implantation 768
14.5.5.2 Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 769
14.5.5.3 Organ Printing 771
14.5.6 Personal RP .771
14.5.7 Other Applications
14.6 Case Study: RP for Complex Assembly .773
14.6.1 Single-Piston Engine 773
14.6.2 Formula SAE Racecar .775
14.6.2.1 Scale Factor 775
14.6.2.2 Model Modification 777
14.6.2.3 Model Conversion . 780
14.6.2.4 Model Fabrication . 780
14.7 Summary 783
Questions and Exercises .783
References
PRODUCT COST ESTIMATING 15
CHAPTER OUTLINE
15.1 Introduction .789
15.2 Fundamentals of Cost Analysis 792
15.2.1 Elements in the Cost Estimate .793
15.2.2 Type of Costs .794
15.2.2.1 Fixed versus Variable Costs . 795
15.2.2.2 Direct and Indirect Costs . 797
15.2.3 Overhead Costs 797
15.2.4 Cost-Estimating Techniques 798
15.2.4.1 Qualitative Cost-Estimating Techniques 799
15.2.4.2 Quantitative Cost-Estimating Techniques . 801
15.3 Manufacturing Cost Models .802
15.3.1 Manufacturing Cost Elements for In-House Parts .803
15.3.1.1 Processing Cost Cp . 803
15.3.1.2 Unit Time tunit . 804
15.3.2 Machining Cost Model 804
15.3.2.1 Setup Time Tsu . 805
15.3.2.2 Operation Time to 806
15.3.2.3 Non-operation Time tno . 809
15.3.2.4 Tooling Cost Ct 809
15.3.2.5 Material Cost Cmat . 810
15.3.3 Injection Molding Cost Model 810
15.3.3.1 Machine Rate Rm 811
15.3.3.2 Molding Cycle Time to . 813
15.3.3.3 Mold Cost Estimation 814
15.3.3.4 Material Cost Cmat . 816
15.3.4 Sheet Metal Stamping Cost Model .816
15.3.4.1 Material Cost Cmat . 816
15.3.4.2 Processing Cost Rate Rp . 818
15.3.4.3 Tooling Cost 819
15.3.5 Assembly Cost Model 819
15.4 Commercial Software for the Cost Estimate 820
15.4.1 CAD-Based Costing Software
15.4.2 General-Purpose Costing Software 821
15.4.2.1 SEER for Manufacturing 821
15.4.2.2 MicroEstimating 821
15.4.2.3 DFM Concurrent Costing . 821
15.4.2.4 Costimator of MTI System . 822
15.4.2.5 aPriori Product Cost Management . 822
15.4.2.6 MISys Manufacturing 822
15.4.3 Special-Purpose Costing Software 823
15.4.4 Web-Based Costing Tools 823
15.5 Case Studies 824
15.5.1 Machining Costing Using SolidWorks 824
15.5.2 Sheet Metal Costing Using SolidWorks .829
15.5.3 Cost Estimate for a BWMD Using SEER-DFM 832
15.6 Summary 837
Appendix 15A: Calculations of Material Removed for Standard Features 838
Questions and Exercises .842
References
ECISIONS IN ENGINEERING
DESIGN 16
CHAPTER OUTLINE
16.1 Introduction .849
16.2 Conventional Methods 850
16.2.1 Decision Matrix Method 850
16.2.2 Decision Tree Method .853
16.3 Basics of Decision Theory .857
16.3.1 Elements of a Decision .858
16.3.2 Decision-Making Models .858
16.3.3 Decision Under Risk .859
16.3.4 Decision Under Uncertainty .861
16.4 Utility Theory .864
16.4.1 Basic Assumptions .864
16.4.2 Utility Axioms 865
16.4.3 Utility Functions .866
16.4.4 Attitude Toward Risk 867
16.4.5 Construction of Utility Functions 870
16.4.6 Multiattribute Utility Functions 871
16.4.6.1 Additive MAU Functions 872
16.4.6.2 Multiplicative MAU Functions 874
16.5 Game Theory 875
16.5.1 Elements of a Game .876
16.5.2 Two-Person Matrix Games .877
16.5.3 Sequential Games 880
16.5.4 Cooperative Games .883
16.6 Design Examples 885
16.6.1 Utility Theory as a Design Tool .885
16.6.1.1 Beam Design Example 1: Unconstrained Problem . 886
16.6.1.2 Beam Design Example 2: Constrained Problem . 890
16.6.1.3 Summary of Utility Theory as a Design Tool . 894
16.6.2 Game Theory as a Design Tool .894
16.6.2.1 The Pressure Vessel Design Example 894
16.6.2.2 Strategy Form Game . 896
16.6.2.3 Sequential Game
16.6.2.4 Cooperative Game . 900
16.6.2.5 Summary on Game Theory as Design Tool . 901
16.7 Summary 901
Questions and Exercises .902
References
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION 17
CHAPTER OUTLINE
17.1 Introduction .910
17.2 Optimization Problems 913
17.2.1 Problem Formulation 913
17.2.2 Problem Solutions 915
17.2.3 Classification of Optimization Problems 916
17.2.4 Solution Techniques .917
17.3 Optimality Conditions 918
17.3.1 Basic Concept of Optimality 919
17.3.1.1 Functions of a Single Variable . 919
17.3.1.2 Functions of Multiple Variables 920
17.3.2 Basic Concept of Design Optimization 923
17.3.3 Lagrange Multipliers .924
17.3.4 Karush–Kuhn–Tucker Conditions 927
17.4 Graphical Solutions 930
17.4.1 Linear Programming Problems .931
17.4.2 Nonlinear Programming Problems 933
17.5 Gradient-Based Approach 936
17.5.1 Generative Method 936
17.5.2 Search Methods .937
17.5.3 Gradient-Based Search 939
17.5.3.1 Steepest Descent Method . 940
17.5.3.2 Conjugate Gradient Method . 943
17.5.3.3 Quasi-Newton Method 944
17.5.3.4 The BFGS Method 944
17.5.4 Line Search 946
17.5.4.1 Concept of Line Search . 946
17.5.4.2 Secant Method . 948
17.6 Constrained Problems* .949
17.6.1 Basic Concept 950
17.6.2 ?-Active Strategy .952
17.6.3 The Sequential Linear Programming Algorithm 952
17.6.4 The Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm
17.6.5 Feasible Direction Method .957
17.6.6 Penalty Method 962
17.7 Non-Gradient Approach* .964
17.7.1 Genetic Algorithms .965
17.7.1.1 Basic Concepts . 965
17.7.1.2 Design Representation 965
17.7.1.3 Selection 966
17.7.1.4 Reproduction Process and Genetic Operations 966
17.7.1.5 Solution Process . 968
17.7.2 Simulated Annealing .968
17.7.2.1 Basic Concept 969
17.7.2.2 Solution Process . 970
17.8 Practical Engineering Problems .970
17.8.1 Tool Integration for Design Optimization .971
17.8.2 Interactive Design Process .975
17.8.2.1 Sensitivity Display . 975
17.8.2.2 What-if Study 976
17.8.2.3 Trade-off Determination 977
17.9 Optimization Software .978
17.9.1 Optimization in CAD .978
17.9.2 Optimization in FEA 979
17.9.3 Special-purpose Codes 980
17.10 Case Studies 980
17.10.1 Sizing Optimization of Roadwheel 981
17.10.1.1 Geometric Modeling and Design Parameterization . 981
17.10.1.2 Analysis Model . 981
17.10.1.3 Performance Measures . 983
17.10.1.4 Design Sensitivity Results and Display . 983
17.10.1.5 What-if Study 984
17.10.1.6 Trade-off Determination 985
17.10.1.7 Design Optimization 986
17.10.1.8 Postoptimum Study . 986
17.10.2 Shape Optimization of the Engine Connecting Rod 986
17.10.2.1 Geometric and Finite Element Models . 988
17.10.2.2 Design Parameterization and Problem Definition 989
17.10.2.3 Design Optimization 990
17.11 Tutorial Example: Simple Cantilever Beam .991
17.11.1 Using SolidWorks Simulation .993
17.11.2 Using Pro/MECHANICA Structure .995
17.12 Summary 996
Questions and Exercises .996
References
TRUCTURAL DESIGN
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS 18
CHAPTER OUTLINE
18.1 Introduction .1003
18.2 Simple Bar Example 1005
18.2.1 Differential Equation 1006
18.2.2 Energy Equation 1007
18.2.3 Finite Element Formulation 1009
18.3 Sensitivity Analysis Methods .1012
18.3.1 Analytical Derivative Method 1014
18.3.2 Overall Finite Difference 1015
18.3.3 Discrete Approach . 1017
18.3.3.1 Direct Differentiation Method . 1019
18.3.3.2 Adjoint Variable Method 1022
18.3.4 Continuum Approach . 1024
18.3.4.1 Direction Differentiation Method 1025
18.3.4.2 Adjoint Variable Method 1027
18.4 Sizing and Material Designs 1029
18.4.1 Principle of Virtual Work 1030
18.4.1.1 Differential Equation 1030
18.4.1.2 Energy Formulation . 1032
18.4.2 Variations . 1033
18.4.2.1 Definition 1033
18.4.2.2 Variations of the Energy Bilinear and Load Linear Forms 1036
18.4.3 Static Problems . 1037
18.4.3.1 Energy Formulation . 1038
18.4.3.2 Finite Element Discretization . 1040
18.4.3.3 Direct Differentiation Method of the Continuum-Discrete Approach 1043
18.4.3.4 Sensitivity of the Bending Stress 1044
18.4.3.5 Adjoint Variable Method of the Continuum-Discrete Approach 1046
18.4.3.6 Adjoint Variable Method of the Continuum-Analytical Approach 1050
18.4.4 Numerical Implementation . 1052
18.5 Shape Sensitivity Analysis* 1053
18.5.1 Domain Shape Sensitivity Analysis 1053
18.5.2 A Simple Cantilever Beam Example
18.5.3 Shape Design Parameterization . 1058
18.5.3.1 2-D Planar Structures . 1058
18.5.3.2 3-D Solid StructuresdFreeform Surfaces . 1061
18.5.3.3 3-D Solid StructuresdCAD-Generated Surfaces . 1063
18.5.4 Design Velocity Field Computation 1065
18.5.4.1 Design Velocity Field . 1066
18.5.4.2 Boundary Velocity Computation . 1068
18.5.4.3 Domain Velocity Computation 1075
18.5.5 Shape Sensitivity Analysis Using Finite Difference or Semi-Analytical Method 1080
18.5.6 Material Derivatives . 1082
18.5.7 Shape Sensitivity Analysis Using the Continuum Approach 1087
18.5.7.1 Shape Sensitivity Analysis for a Cantilever Beam 1088
18.6 Topology Optimization .1090
18.6.1 Basic Concept and Problem Formulation . 1091
18.6.2 Two-Dimensional Cantilever Beam Example . 1093
18.7 Case Study .1094
18.7.1 The Tracked Vehicle Roadarm . 1095
18.7.2 Topology Optimization . 1095
18.7.3 Boundary Smoothing 1095
18.7.4 Shape Parameterization and Design Velocity Field Computation 1096
18.7.5 Shape Design Optimization 1097
18.8 Summary 1099
Questions and Exercises .1099
References
ULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION
AND ADVANCED TOPICS 19
CHAPTER OUTLINE
19.1 Introduction .1107
19.2 Basic Concept 1110
19.2.1 Criterion Space and Design Space . 1110
19.2.2 Pareto Optimality 1111
19.2.3 Generation of Pareto Optimal Set 1113
19.3 Solution Techniques .1116
19.3.1 Normalization of Objective Functions 1116
19.3.2 Methods with a Priori Articulation of Preferences . 1117
19.3.2.1 Weighted-Sum Method 1117
19.3.2.2 Weighted Min–Max Method . 1122
19.3.2.3 Lexicographic Method . 1124
19.3.3 Methods with A Posteriori Articulation of Preferences . 1125
19.3.3.1 Normal Boundary Intersection Method 1126
19.3.4 Methods with No Articulation of Preference . 1130
19.3.5 Multiobjective Genetic Algorithms* . 1131
19.3.5.1 Pareto-Based Approaches . 1132
19.3.5.2 Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II . 1133
19.3.5.3 Sample MATLAB Implementation 1137
19.4 Decision-Based Design .1141
19.4.1 Utility Theory as a Design Tool: Cantilever Beam Example . 1141
19.4.2 Game Theory as a Design Tool: Pressure Vessel Example 1144
19.5 Software Tools .1145
19.5.1 Academic Codes 1145
19.5.2 Commercial Tools 1147
19.6 Advanced Topics* 1151
19.6.1 Reliability-Based Design Optimization . 1151
19.6.1.1 Failure Probability . 1152
19.6.1.2 RBDO Problem Formulation 1152
19.6.1.3 RBDO for a Tracked-Vehicle Roadarm . 1155
19.6.2 Design Optimization for Structural Performance and Manufacturing Cost 1158
19.6.2.1 Design Problem Definition and Optimization Process .1159
19.6.2.2 Manufacturing Cost Model 1160
19.6.2.3 Virtual Manufacturing 1161
19.6.2.4 Design Sensitivity Analysis
19.6.2.5 Software Implementation . 1163
19.6.2.6 Aircraft Torque Tube Example . 1165
19.7 Summary 1170
Questions and Exercises .1170
References


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