كتاب Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications
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 كتاب Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications  Emptyالجمعة 20 أبريل 2018, 11:17 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications
Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology
Golam Kibria , B. Bhattacharyya , J. Paulo Davim Editors  

كتاب Non-traditional Micromachining - Processes Fundamentals and Applications  N_t_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Contents
1 Non-traditional Micromachining Processes: Opportunities
and Challenges 1
S. Debnath, S. Kunar, S.S. Anasane and B. Bhattacharyya
2 Recent Advancement on Ultrasonic Micro Machining
(USMM) Process . 61
S. Das, B. Doloi and B. Bhattacharyya
3 Electrical Discharge Micro-hole Machining Process
of Ti–6Al–4V: Improvement of Accuracy and Performance 93
Golam Kibria, I. Shivakoti, B.B. Pradhan and B. Bhattacharyya
4 Advancements in Micro Wire-cut Electrical Discharge
Machining 145
Asit Baran Puri
5 Laser Micro-turning Process of Aluminium Oxide Ceramic
Using Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser . 179
Golam Kibria, B. Doloi and B. Bhattacharyya
6 Fiber Laser Micro-machining of Engineering Materials 227
A. Sen, B. Doloi and B. Bhattacharyya
7 Laser Beam Micro-cutting . 253
N. Roy, A.S. Kuar and S. Mitra
8 Electrochemical Micromachining (EMM): Fundamentals
and Applications . 275
V. Rathod, B. Doloi and B. Bhattacharyya
9 Electrochemical Micromachining of Titanium
and Its Alloys 337
Sandip S. Anasane and B. Bhattacharyya
xi10 Electrochemical Discharge Micro-machining of Engineering
Materials . 367
B.R. Sarkar, B. Doloi and B. Bhattacharyya
11 Travelling Wire Electrochemical Spark Machining:
An Overview 393
Anup Malik and Alakesh Manna
Index 413
Index
A
Abrasive assisted Micromachining (AM), 43
Abrasive Flow Finishing (AFF), 8, 46
Abrasive flow rate, 44
Abrasive grains, 11, 17
Abrasive grit size, 10
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), 4
Abrasive particle, 81
Abrasive slurry, 15, 44, 69, 89
Abrasive Slurry Jet Micro-machining (ASJM),
43
Abrasive Water Jet Machining (AWJM), 371
Absorptivity, 24
Accumulation of sludge, 351
Accuracy, 41
Acidic electrolyte, 284
Actuation, 5
Adaptive control, 159
Adequate laser energy, 214
Adequate surface finish, 62
Adhesion of carbon, 117
Advanced ceramics, 181
Aerospace, 111
AFM, 30
Aggressive anions, 37
Aircraft floors, 342
Al/Al2O3-MMC, 245
Alkaline chemical reagent, 34
Alkaline electrolyte, 284
Alloy steel, 7
Altered Material Zones (AMZ), 172
Alumina, 15
Aluminium oxide, 9, 79
Amorphous oxide, 349
Amplitude, 115
Analysis of variance, 197
Anode and shaped tool, 277
Anodic dissolution, 4, 279
Anodic workpiece, 38
Aqueous solution, 348
Arcing state, 115
Aspect ratio, 183
Assist air pressure, 192
Atomic weight, 290
Attenuation for minimizing, 24
Automotive, 111
Auxiliary electrode, 369, 384, 395
Axial feed, 180
Axial feed rate, 187
B
Beam gun, 32
Beam polarization, 263
Beam scanning speed, 186
Beer-Lambert law, 256
Bi-metal, 33
Biocompatibility, 363
Biomedical, 94
Bio-medical applications, 232
Biomedical implants, 186, 332
Biomedicine, 327
Black sand, 340
Bond energy, 263
Boron carbide, 15, 79, 117
Borosilicate glass, 18, 21
Brazing or soft soldering, 17
Breakdown of oxide film, 349
Breakdown strength of the dielectric and IEG,
99
Breakdown voltage (Vb), 147, 155
Brittle fracture, 9, 74
Brittleness properties, 185
Building block, 255
Burrs free surfaces, 280
C
Capability, 48
Capillary electrophoresis, 43
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017
G. Kibria et al. (eds.), Non-traditional Micromachining Processes,
Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-52009-4
413Capillary tube, 28
Carbide, 7, 15
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP), 240
Cathode, 12
Cations, 282
Cavitation, 18, 89, 111
Cavitations effect, 316
Ceramic bearing ring, 180
Ceramics, 7, 51
Ceramic spikes, 180
Changing polarity, 136
Charge Couple Device Camera (CCD), 237
Charging loop, 155
Chemical Dissolution (CD), 4
Chemical Machining (CHM), 4
Chemical reaction, 18
Chipping, 71
Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA), 231
Circumferential direction, 201
Circumferential Overlap (COp), 186
Cladding, 228
Cleaning and descaling, 9
Close tolerances, 276
CMM, 12
CMP process, 47
CNC EBM, 33
CO and CH4, 117
Coatings, 4
CO2 lasers, 227
Cold emission, 148
Collet, 189
Collimator, 237
Colloidal suspension, 148
Commercially Pure, 111
Complex features, 3
Complex micro structures, 398
Complex part geometries, 276
Composite materials, 39
Composites, 51
Composition, 13
Compressive pressure wave, 148
Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC), 307
Concentration, 16
Conical microtool, 311, 317, 318
Conjugate image, 64
Consecutive laser scanned widths, 208
Contour grinding, 4
Controllability, 50
Controlled anodic dissolution, 276
Controlled dissolution, 4
Controlled fracture technique, 258
Control unit, 97
Conventional turning, 65
Cooling ability, 149
Cooling blade, 6
Cooling holes, 183
Corner radius, 169
Corrosion resistant, 62, 111
Corrosive electrolyte, 13
Counter electrode, 394
Coupler, 78
Coupling laser beam, 234
Crevice, 111
Crosstalk, 151
Crystallographic, 356
Crystallographic damage, 49
Current distribution, 291
Current efficiency, 290, 297
Cutting front, 182
Cycloid, 168
Cylindrical microtools, 311
D
Damp proof structure, 303
3D cavities, 16
Debri particles, 95
Debris, 175
Debris formation, 246
Decarburized, 35
Decreasing load, 71
Deep cut, 263
Deep ultraviolet, 261
Defect, 75
Defocusing, 211
Defocusing positions, 191
Degree of dissociation, 300
De-ionized water, 117, 121, 149
Density, 101
Deposition, 29
Depth deviation, 199
Desirability Function (D), 271
Desired precision, 25
Deteriorate, 36
Detrimental thermal effect, 32
Diameteral difference, 104
Diameteral variance, 126
Diameteral variance at entry and exit hole, 104
Diamond, 7
Dielectric, 22
Dielectric chamber, 126
Dielectric circulating unit, 97
Dielectric fluid, 96, 97
Dielectric fluid circulation, 107
Dielectric flushing pressure, 96
Dielectric jet, 109
Dielectric medium, 149
Dielectric pumping, 117
Dielectric strength, 101
414 IndexDie-sinking tool, 106
Difficult-to-cut, 11
Difficult-to-cut materials, 7
Diffusion and convection, 354
Diffusion layer, 316
Diffusion layer thickness, 291
Digital storage oscilloscope, 307
Dimensional accuracy, 13, 168
Dipping, 34
Direct Current (DC), 41, 394
Discharge current, 98
Discharge energy, 96, 99, 130
Discharge gap, 11
Discharge loop, 155
Discharge phenomenon, 369
Displacement function, 163
Displacement sensitivity, 152
Disposable wire, 146
Disposal, 340
Dissipate, 77
Dissolution, 40
Dissolution-diffusion, 344
Dissolution machining, 43
3D microfeatures, 294
2D microstructures, 281
3D microstructures, 311, 327, 389
Downward defocus, 213
Dressing of micro-grinding tools, 43
Drilling, 3
Dross formation, 259
Dross free cut, 262
Dross inclusion, 240
Dry micro-EDM, 107
Duty cycle, 103
Duty factor (t), 100, 136
Duty ratio, 111
Dynamic polishing, 48
E
EDM wire, 7
E-glass fibre composite, 402
E-glass fibre epoxy composite, 384, 403
Electrical and thermal conductivity, 101
Electrical circuits, 153
Electrical conductivity, 148
Electrical discharge grinding, 146
Electrical double layer, 286
Electrical potential gradient, 291
Electrical pulse, 96
Electrical Spark Discharge (ESD), 368
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM), 66, 94
Electric motors, 7
Electrochemical cell, 282, 290
Electrochemical Discharge Machining
(ECDM), 14, 41
Electrochemical Grinding (ECG), 14, 40
Electrochemical Machining (ECM), 3, 276
Electrochemical Micromachining (EMM), 13,
38, 280
Electrochemical reaction, 290
Electrochemical Slurry Jet Machining (ESJM),
43
Electrode-electrolyte combination, 304
Electro deposition, 276
Electrodes, 94
Electro Discharge Machining (EDM), 3
Electrodynamic, 149
Electrolysis corrosion, 149
Electrolyte, 277, 299
Electrolyte circulation, 315
Electrolyte circulation system, 299
Electrolyte concentration, 42, 302, 385
Electrolyte flow, 303
Electrolyte properties, 301
Electrolyte temperature, 296
Electromagnetic actuators, 21
Electromagnetic brake gear, 170
Electromechanical systems, 88
Electron Beam Machining (EBM), 3, 4
Electron–phonon interaction, 256
Electrostatic, 28, 149
Electrostatic induction feeding, 177
Elevated elastic modulus, 181
Erbium (Eb3+), 229
Erosion, 9, 43
Erosion effect, 146
Erosion front, 182
Erosion mechanism, 161
Etchant, 34
Ethylene glycol and sodium bromide, 348
Excellent corrosion, 111
Excessive burrs, 322
Exothermic reaction, 260
Explosive pressure, 147
Extraction electrode, 28
Extrusion pressure, 47
F
Fabricate 3D micro tools, 15
Fabricating, 13
Fabricating precise, 27
Fabrication, 2, 88, 94
Fabrication of micro features, 341
Fabrication of micro-grooves, 388
Index 415Fabrication of micropatterns, 355
Faraday’s law, 350
Faraday’s law of electrolysis, 282
Feedback control, 152
Feeding mechanism, 383
Feeding spool, 146
Feed rate, 299
Femtosecond ablation, 234
Femtosecond pulses, 248
Ferromagnetic, 11
FIB, 12
Fiber laser, 227
Ficrobiological Induced Corrosion (MIC), 341
Field-assisted, 50
Filter, 117, 126
Fine-grained Ni, 30
Finishing processes, 50
Fish-bone diagram, 98
Flash point, 101
f-h lens, 238
Flexibility, 13
Flow rate of slurry, 16
Fluoropolymers, 26
Flushing pressure (Pr), 104, 111, 112, 136, 150
Focus spot size, 233
Fragile materials, 65
Fundamental mode, 249
G
Gallium, 10, 28
Gap voltage, 98, 102
Gas bubbles, 316
Gas turbine impeller, 6
Gaussian beam, 263
Gaussian energy distribution, 188
Gaussian mode (TEM00), 189
Geometric accuracy, 17
Geometrical features, 111
Glass-based micro-fluidic systems, 375
Glass substrates, 389
Gouy-Chapman layer, 287
Gravity-feed, 387
Grinding, 14
Grooves, 14
H
Hall current sensor, 303
Hammering, 74
Hard coated plastic, 235
Hardest abrasive, 79
Hard-to-cut materials, 180
Harmonic wavelength, 234
Hastelloy, 41
Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), 12, 14, 257
Heat effected zone, 26
Heat energy, 136
Heating and melting, 183
Height of micro-peaks, 211
Helix angle, 112
H2 gas bubbles, 394
High aspect ratio, 110, 146, 183, 329
High aspect ratio holes, 12
High discharge voltage, 103
High-energy electrons, 4
Higher refractive index, 228
High focusability, 254
High precision, 94
High-precision ultrafine machining, 276
High Reflector (HR), 231
High-speed impact printers, 322
High-strength alloys, 277
High Strength and Temperature Resistive
(HSTR), 149
Horn, 78
Horn and tool assembly, 64
Hot spot, 344
Hybrid micromachining technique, 44
Hybrid technology, 374
Hydraulic, 149
Hydraulic accumulator, 9
Hydrocarbon oils, 149
Hydrodynamic transport, 291
Hydrogen bubbles, 41, 396
Hydrogen film, 386
Hysteresis loss, 77
I
IC fabrication, 33
IC-patterns, 27
Ignition delay period, 151
Ignition delay time, 159
Implantation, 28, 29
Improper flushing, 309
Inconel, 41
Inconel 625 superalloy, 272
Indentation, 75
Indenter geometry, 73
Industrial applications, 111
Industrial chemicals, 111
Infrared Region (IR), 234
Inject nozzle, 22
Inorganic glasses, 63
Inorganic salt, 344
In situ fabrication, 21
Instantaneous current, 155
Integrated Circuit (IC), 13
Integrated circuit boards, 45
Integrity, 87
416 IndexIntensifiers, 9
Inter Electrode Gap (IEG), 37, 96, 99, 278,
282, 296, 304, 339
Internal cylindrical surfaces, 11
Ion Beam Machining (IBM), 3, 27
Irregular micro-peaks, 211
Irregular topographies, 49
Ishikawa diagram, 295
Iso-frequency, 160
Isolation transformer, 236
J
Jet-ECM, 14
Jet-EMM, 324
K
Kerf width, 164, 270
Kerosene, 94
Kerosene dielectric, 116
Kinetic energy, 30, 82
L
Lack-of-fit test, 268
Lamp current, 270
Laser Beam Machining (LBM), 3, 4, 62
Laser energy, 12
Laser fusion cutting, 259
Laser irradiance, 257
Laser irradiated zone, 206
Laser irradiation, 180
Laser micro-turning, 180
Laser peak fluence, 241
Laser polarization, 25
Laser scan passes, 211
Lateral cracks, 71
Letter H blind, 113
LIGA process, 281
Limiting current density, 291
Lithography, 27, 28
Localization of dissolution, 362
Localized current density, 346
Localized deformation, 71
Localized joule heating, 150
Localized temperature, 95
Lost wax method, 6
Low-frequency tool vibration, 315
Lubrication film, 48
M
Machine controller unit, 307
Machine spindle, 68
Machining accuracy, 309, 316
Machining efficiency, 101, 134
Machining zone, 49, 82, 115, 131, 146
Magnetostrictively, 63
Magnetostrive, 77
Manufacture, 94
Manufacturer engineers, 117
Marking process, 247
Maskants, 34
Maskless EMM, 294
Mass transfer, 291, 299
Mass transport, 329
Material evaporation, 198
Material removal, 48
Material Removal Rate (MRR), 3, 65, 99, 240
Mechanical failure, 173
Median crack, 72
Medical fields, 5
Melt film, 259
Melt pool, 270
Metal Anisotropic Reactive Ion etching with
Oxidation (MARIO), 360
Metal hydroxides, 284
Metallic salt, 34
Metallurgical damage, 40
Metallurgical property, 32
Metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor, 151
Methanol sulfuric acid, 348
Mettler Toledo, 119
Microcantilever, 326
Microchannel, 43, 228, 318
Microcontact, 327
Microdimple, 323
Microdrilling process, 182
Micro-ECDM process, 367
Micro-ECM (lECM), 6, 62
Micro-EDG, 108, 109
Microelectrodes, 185
Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS),
5, 10, 43
Microelectrical Discharge Machining
(µ-EDM), 6, 10, 94, 107, 118
Microelectrochemical discharge machining, 43
Microfabrication, 146
Microfeature, 2, 12, 43, 66, 180
Microfixtures, 276
Microfluidic channels, 243
Microfluidics, 17
Microfuel cells, 5
Microgear, 39
Microgear dies, 176
Micrographs, 140
Microgroove, 5, 45, 184
Microhemisphere, 319
Microhole, 5, 119
Microhole generation, 141
Index 417Microhole geometry, 105
Microhole walls, 105
Microjoule, 248
Micromachining, 8, 40
Micromachining process, 94
Micro-meso machining, 7
Micrometal parts, 327
Micromilling, 281
Micronozzles, 317
Micron sized peaks, 210
Microparts, 62
Micropeaks, 208, 211, 223
Micropins, 320
Microproducts, 5, 111
Microreactor, 39, 278
Microregime, 4
Microscope (SEM) micrographs, 117
Microsensors, 5
Microshapes, 7
Microslice width, 399
Microslots, 5, 14, 309
Microsmooth surfaces, 322
Microspark, 11
Microstructure, 141
Microstructured glass, 88
Microsurgery, 5
Microtexturing, 26
Microthree-dimensional complex features, 6
Microtool, 10, 16, 22, 96, 297
Microtool fabrication, 280
Microtool feeding movement, 310
Microtool geometry, 109
Microtool insulation, 299
Microtool material, 298
Microtool movement, 309
Microtool vibration, 308, 354
Microtungsten wire, 330
Microturning, 186
Microturning depth deviation, 194
Microvalves, 5
Micro WEDM, 146
Microwire, 170
Microwire EDM, 105
Microwire electrode, 328
Millijoule, 248
Miniaturization, 21, 94
Miniaturization technologies, 5
Miniaturized, 51, 62
Minimizing machining time, 17
Mobility, 302
Modulation frequency, 246
Molybdenum wire, 149
Monochromaticity, 254
MRUM, 67
Multi-channel discharges, 174
Multilevel microstructure, 326
Multi objective optimization, 202
Multipass cuts, 152
Multipass micro-turning, 190
Multiple reflections, 259
Multipoint cutting tool, 10
N
NaBr electrolytes, 357
Nanocomposte materials, 257
Nanofabrication, 325
Nanosecond, 232
Nanosecond pulses, 327
Narrow IEG, 304
Nd:YAG laser, 180
Near Infrared (NIR), 263
Neodymium (Nd3+), 229
Neurosurgical instruments, 22
Nickel alloys, 15
Non-conductive materials, 3, 10
Non-conducting medium, 147
Non-conventional machining, 3
Non-conventional technologies, 6
Non-linear effects, 231
Non-reactive gas, 258
Non-traditional machining, 62
Non-traditional processes, 2
Number of passes, 191
O
Open circuit voltage, 158
Open pulses, 159
Optical micrographs, 134, 139
Optical microscope, 122
Optimum efficiency, 76
Opto-electro-mechanical, 181
Opto-electronics, 9
Orthogonal array, 404
Oscillating system, 76
Oscillator-amplifier system, 240
Outer Helmholtz Plane (OHP), 286
Overcut (OC), 113, 118, 121
Overload indicator, 76
Oxidation potential, 283
Oxide Film Laser Lithography, 45
Oxide layer, 40, 46
P
Painless surgery, 320
Paraffin oil, 94
Parameter, 82
Parametric combination, 203
Passivating effect, 345
418 IndexPassivation, 300, 345
Passivation phenomenon, 346
Patterned photoresists, 357
Peak current (Ip), 111, 112, 121, 137
Performance criteria, 119, 193
pH, 283, 300
Phenanthrene, 29
Photochemical, 36
Photo-chemical process, 234
Photolithography, 360
Photon energy, 261
Photoreactive, 45
Photoresist, 34, 326, 355
Photoresist mask, 356
Photothermal ablation, 262
Physical phenomena, 254
Picosecond, 232
Piezoelectric, 15, 151
Piezoelectric effect, 77
Piezoelectric oscillators, 45
Piezoelectric Transducer (PZT), 38
Plasma, 98
Plasma channel, 95, 96
Plasma formation, 184
Plastically, 74
Plastics, 51
Pneumatic sensors, 45
Polarity, 100
Polarity techniques, 140
Polarization, 263
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), 9, 244, 249
Polynomial regression model, 194
Porous anodization, 348
Positional accuracy, 20
Powder mixed dielectrics, 127
Precise disc shape, 320
Precise machining, 5
Precision, 20
Precision engineering, 111
Precision industries, 39
Precursor, 29
Preheated condition, 262
Pre-magnetizing, 77
Pressure flushing, 102
Pressure-regulating, 117
Print bands, 322
Process parameters, 83, 295
Prototyping, 26
Pulsating current, 297
Pulsating DC power, 4
Pulse burst, 248
Pulsed DC, 41, 381
Pulse direct current, 296
Pulsed laser, 24
Pulsed mode, 228
Pulsed Nd:YAG laser, 188
Pulsed Nd:YAG laser-based, 266
Pulse duration, 100, 103, 186, 297
Pulse energy, 147, 169
Pulse frequency, 100, 112, 320
Pulse generator, 98, 177, 307
Pulse interval, 159
Pulse-on-time, 111, 121, 169, 297
Pulse repetition rate, 186
Pulse width, 268
Pump energy, 230
Pure de-ionized, 117
Pure de-ionized water, 130
Pure kerosene, 117
Q
Q-switching, 262
Q-switch mode, 180
Quartz, 15
R
Random ionic migration, 160
R–C relaxation circuit, 155
Recast layer, 115, 184, 240
Reciprocating (to-and-fro) mechanism, 388
Recirculation pump, 63
Redeposition, 28
Reflective surfaces, 3
Regular pattern, 324
Re-ionization, 159
Relaxation circuit, 157
Reliability, 13, 38
Renewing electrolyte, 361
Repetitive and discrete spark, 146
Residual stresses, 65
Resistance capacitance, 19
Resistivity of electrolyte, 289
Resolidified material, 223
Response Surface Methodology (RSM), 112,
208
Reverse microtool, 311
Rhenium, 25
Rheological, 47
R-L-C circuit, 157
Rotary electrodes, 38
Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD),
194
Rotating electrodes, 132
Rotating micro-tool, 134
Index 419Rotating tool electrode, 134
Rotational effect, 133
Rotational speed of electrode, 112
Roundness error, 385
RUM, 65
S
S/N ratio, 405
Scaling down, 4
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), 116,
219, 405
Schematic diagram, 50
Secondary acoustic horn, 78
Secondary sparking, 129
Second order, 234
Sensitiveness, 66
Sensitivity analysis, 244
Servo feed control system, 101
Servo feed mechanism, 97
Shank height, 320
Sharp cutting tools, 3
Sharp edges, 41
Shielding effect, 257
Short circuit, 304
Short duration impulses, 153
Short wavelength, 263
Sidewall insulated microtool, 327
Sidewall insulation, 313
Silicon carbide, 79
Simulated emission, 253
Single blind hole, 113
Sintered Diamond (SD), 81
Sludge and gas bubbles, 354
Sludge and precipitates, 381
Sludge formation, 317
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2), 348
Solid-state EMM, 325
Space shuttle, 342
Spark, 148
Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving (SACE),
43, 368
Spark discharge time, 127
Spark gap, 19, 95, 148
Spark gap width, 403
Sparking, 109, 121, 136
Sparking phenomena, 309
Sparking points, 138
Spark radius, 20, 113
Spark resistance, 156
Spatial confinement, 330
Specific external load, 162
Specific heat, 101
Specific scavenger, 360
SPM, 30
Spot Overlap (SOp), 186
Spot overlapping, 242
Sprayed coatings, 247
Spring feeding mechanisms, 373
Sputtering, 29
Square holes, 10
Stabilized zirconium oxide, 181
Stagnant electrolyte, 290, 316, 380
Static deflection, 165
Static load, 83
Static pressure, 78
Step down transformer, 401
Stepper motor, 21
Stochastic behaviour, 150
Strain hardening, 17
Stress corrosion, 111
Striation, 261, 265
Structural ceramics, 181
SU-8, 358
Subsurface cracking, 12
Subsurface damages, 75
Successive laser scanning, 207
Super alloy, 6
Surface energy, 28
Surface finish, 3, 11, 99, 180
Surface oxide film, 346
Surface plot, 201
Surface quality, 175
Surface roughness (Rt), 11, 113, 217
Surface structuring, 324
Surface texture, 403
Surface topography, 117
Surgical equipments, 44
Synchrotron radiation optics, 49
T
Taguchi method, 402
Take-up spool, 146
Tantalum cathode filament, 31
Taper cutting, 105
Tapered, 32, 33
Temperature, 13
Temperature of electrolyte, 302
Temperature variation, 49
Thermal barrier coated super alloy, 241
Thermal conductivity, 101, 125
Thermal damage, 87
Thermal diffusivity, 256
Thermal effects, 38
Thermal energy density, 133
Thermal failure, 151
Thermal load, 152
Thermal stress, 24, 36
Thermoelectric power, 125
420 IndexThermo-mechanical analysis, 171
Thermo-mechanical stress, 259
Thin-foil devices, 363
Threshold voltage, 102
Through-mask EMM, 292, 293
Ti6Al4V, 138, 243, 324
Tight-tolerance, 88
Time domain, 134
Tissue stabilizer, 10
Titanium, 15
Titanium and its alloys, 343
Titanium and their alloys, 325
Titanium dioxide, TiO2, 341
Titanium gains, 345
Titanium oxide, 120
Tolerance, 3
Tolerance limit, 35
Tool feed rate, 299
Tool holder, 17, 305
Tool-holding unit, 378
Tool material, 20
Tool movement strategy, 316
Tool-surface bonding, 387
Tool wear, 4, 146
Tool Wear Rate (TWR), 103, 118
Tool wear ratio, 99
Topography, 29
Toxic acidic base electrolytes, 362
Toxic and reactive electrolytes, 350
Traditional manufacturing techniques, 2
Transducer, 21, 77
Transistors, 26
Transverse speed, 44
Travelling Wire Electrochemical Discharge
Machining (TW-ECDM), 368, 393
Trepanning, 25
Trim cut, 153
Tungsten, 298
Tungsten carbide (WC), 19, 81, 298
Tungsten micro tool, 17
Tungsten tool, 83
Tungsten tool tip, 330
Two consecutive pulses, 206
Type of media, 10
U
Ultra-precision, 7, 48
Ultra-short pulsed laser, 261
Ultrasonic Machining (USM), 3, 8, 15, 65
Ultrasonic micro machining, 81, 88
Ultrasonic vibration, 114
Ultrasonic wave, 16
Ultraviolet-patterned, 326
Uncharged gap width, 160
Uniform transpassive dissolution, 349
Unit Removal (UR), 5, 96
Upper wire guide, 105
Upward defocus conditions, 213
Upward defocusing position, 213
V
Vacuum job fixture, 238
Vaporization, 24
Vaporization point, 258
Vapour-liquid interface, 256
Verification experiment, 203
Vibration amplitude, 164
Vibration frequency, 175
Viscosity, 101
Voltage and current waveforms, 156
Voltage gradient, 369
W
Warburg Impedance (Rw), 288
Water Jet Cutting (WJC), 4
Water pressure, 44
Waveguides, 26
WC–Co, 22
Wear & tear, 254
Wear compensation, 108
Wear resistance, 108
Wedge-shape, 38
WEDM, 15
Weight per unit volume, 302
Wider crater formation, 200
Width of groove, 183
Wire electrode, 175
Wire electrode supply spool, 170
Wire Electro-Discharge Grinding (WEDG), 15,
66, 80, 379
Wire-electrolyte, 395
Wire feed, 151
Wire guides, 161
Wire lag, 169
Wire lagging, 165
Wire rupture, 150, 151
Wire tension, 165
Wire tension error, 171
Wire-tool vibration, 148
Wire transportation system, 170
Wire transport system, 171
Wire traveling, 329
Index 421Withstand pitting, 111
Work medium, 3
Workpiece, 109
Workpiece rotational speed, 191
Y
Yb: YAG fiber laser, 246
Y feed rate, 199
Ytterbium (Yb3+), 229
Z
Zirconate, 77
Zirconate Titanate, 18
422 Index


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