كتاب Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
Inrropcra , Dewhl , Bergman , L.avine  

كتاب Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer  F_o_h_10
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Contents
Symbols
Chapter I
Introduction 1
Li What and How?
1.2 Physical Origins and Rate Equations
1.2.1 Conduction 3
1.2.2 Convection 6
1.2.3 Radiation 9
1.2.4 Relationship to Thermodynamics 12
1.3 the Conservation of Energy Requirement
1.3. 1 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume 13
1.3.2 the Surface Energy Balance 25
L .3.3 Application of the Conservation Laws:
Methodology 28
1.4 Analysis of Heat Transfer Problems: Methodology
Chapter 4
Two-dimei
1.5 Relevance of Heat Transfer
1.6 Units and Dimensions
1.7 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 2
Introduction to Conduction 57
2.1 the Conduction Rate Equation
2.2 the Thermal Properties of Matter
2.2. 1 Thermal Conductivity 60
2.2.2 Other Relevant Properties 67
2.3 the Heat Diffusion Equation
2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions
2.5 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 3
One-dimensional,steady-state Conduction 95
3.1 the Plane Wall
3.1.1 Temperature Distribution 96
3.1.2 Thermal Resistance 98
3.1.3 the Composite Wall 99
3.1.4 Contact Resistance 101
An Alternative Conduction Analysis
Radial Systems
3.3. 1 the Cylinder 116
3.3.2 the Sphere 122
Summary of One-dimensional Conduction Results
Conduction With Thermal Energy Generation
3.5.1 the Plane Wall 127
3.5.2 Radial Systems 132
3.5.3 Application of Resistance Concepts 137
Heat Transfer From Extended Surfaces
3.6.1 a General Conduction Analysis 139
3.6.2 Fins of Uniform Cross-sectional Area 141
3.6.3 Fin Performance 147
3.6.4 Fins of Nonuniform Cross-sectional Area 150
3.6.5 Overall Surface Efficiency 153
The Bioheat Equation
Summary
References
Problems
96
Chapter 5
Transient
Chapter 4
Two-dimensional 9 Steady-state Conduction
4.1 Alternative Approaches
4.2 the Method of Separation of Variables
4.3 the Conduction Shape Factor and the Dimensionless Conduction Heat Rate
4.4 Finite-difference Equations
4.4.1 the Nodal Network 213
4.4.2 Finite-difference Form of the Heat Equation 214
4.4.3 the Energy Balance Method 215
4.5 Solving the Finite-difference Equations
4.5. 1 the Matrix Inversion Method 222
4.5.2 Gauss-seidel Iteration 223
4.5.3 Some Precautions 229
4.6 Summary
References
Problems
4s.1 the Graphical Method
4s.1.1 Methodology of Constructing a Flux Plot W-l
4s.1.2 Determination of the Heat Transfer Rate W-2
45.1.3 the Conduction Shape Factor W-3
References
Problems
Chapter 5
Transient Conduction 255
5.1 the Lumped Capacitance Method
Validity of the Lumped Capacitance Method
General Lumped Capacitance Analysis
Spatial Effects
The Plane Wall With Convection
5.5. 1 Exact Solution 272
5.5.2 Approximate Solution 273
5.5.3 Total Energy Transfer 274
5.5.4 Additional Considerations 275
Radial Systems With Convection
5.6. 1 Exact Solutions 276
5.6.2 Approximate Solutions 277
5.6.3 Total Energy Transfer 277
5.6.4 Additional Considerations 278
The Semi-infinite Solid
Objects With Constant Surface Temperatures or Surface Heat Fluxes
5.8.1 Constant Temperature Boundary Conditions 290
5.8.2 Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions 292
5.8.3 Approximate Solutions 293
Periodic Heating
5.10 Finite-difference Methods
5.10.1 Discretization of the Heat Equation: the Explicit Method 302
5.10.2 Discretization of the Heat Equation: the Implicit Method 3 Jo
5.11 Summary
References
Problems
55.1 Graphical Representation of One-dimensional, Transient
Conduction in the Plane Wall, Long Cylinder, and Sphere
55.2 Analytical Solution of Multidimensional Effects
References
Problems
302 Chapter 4
External
Chapter 6
Introduction to Convection 347
6.1 the Convection Boundary Layers 348
6.1.1 the Velocity Boundary Layer 348
6.1.2 the Thermal Boundary Layer 349
6.1.3 the Concentration Boundary Layer 350
6.1 .4 Significance of the Boundary Layers 352
Local and Average Convection Coefficients
6.2.1 Heat Transfer 352
6.2.2 Mass Transfer 353
6.2.3 the Problem of Convection 355
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
6.3.1 Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers 359
6.3.2 Laminar and Turbulent Thermal and Species
Concentration Boundary Layers 361
The Boundary Layer Equations
6.4.1 Boundary Layer Equations for Laminar Flow 365
Boundary Layer Similarity: the Normalized Boundary Layer Equations
6.5.1 Boundary Layer Similarity Parameters 368
6.5.2 Functional Form of the Solutions 368
Physical Significance of the Dimensionless Parameters
Boundary Layer Analogies
6.7.1 the Heat and Mass Transfer Analogy 377
6.7.2 Evaporative Cooling 381
6.7.3 the Reynolds Analogy 384
The Convection Coefficients
Summary
References
Problems
Derivation of the Convection Transfer Equations
65.1.1 Conservation of Mass W-21
65.1.2 Newton’s Second Law of Motion W-22
65.1.3 Conservation of Energy W -26
6s.1.4 Conservation of Species W-28
References
Problems
6.2 352
6.3 359
Chapter
Interm
Chapter 7
External Flow 401
317
7.1 the Empirical Method
The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow
7.2. 1 Laminar Flow Over an Isothermal Plate: a Similarity Solution 405
7.2.2 Turbulent Flow Over an Isothermal Plate 410
7.2.3 Mixed Boundary Layer Conditions 411
1.2.4 Unheated Starting Length 412
7.2.5 Flat Plates With Constant Heat Flux Conditions 413
7.2.6 Limitations on Use of Convection Coefficients 414
Methodology for a Convection Calculation
The Cylinder in Cross Flow
7.4.1 Flow Considerations 423
7.4.2 Convection Heat and Mass Transfer 425
The Sphere
Flow Across Banks of Tubes
Impinging Jets
7.7.1 Hydrodynamic and Geometric Considerations 447
7.7.2 Convection Heat and Mass Transfer 449
Packed Beds
Summary
References
Problems
Chapter U
Internal Flow
8.1 Hydrodynamic Considerations
8.1.1 Flow Conditions 486
8.1.2 the Mean Velocity 487
8.1.3 Velocity Profile in the Fully Developed Region 488
8.1.4 Pressure Gradient and Friction Factor in Fully Developed Flow 490
Thermal Considerations
8.2.1 the Mean Temperature 492
8.2.2 Newton’s Law of Cooling 493
8.2.3 Fully Developed Conditions 493
The Energy Balance
8.3. 1 General Considerations 497
8.3.2 Constant Surface Heat Flux 498
8.3.3 Constant Surface Temperature 501
Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes: Thermal Analysis and
Convection Correlations
8.4. 1 the Fully Developed Region 505
8.4.2 the Entry Region 512
Convection Correlations: Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes
Convection Correlations: Noncircular Tubes and the Concentric Tube Annulus
Heat Transfer Enhancement
8.8 Microscale Internal Flow
8.8. 1 Flow Conditions in Microscale Internal Flow 524
8.8.2 Thermal Considerations in Microscale Internal Flow 525
8.9 Convection Mass Transfer
8.10 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter 9
Free Convection 559
9.1 Physical Considerations
9.2 the Governing Equations
9.3 Similarity Considerations
9.4 Laminar Free Convection on a Vertical Surface
9.5 the Effects of Turbulence
9.6 Empirical Correlations: External Free Convection Flows
9.6.1 the Vertical Plate 571
9.6.2 Inclined and Horizontal Plates 574
9.6.3 the Long Horizontal Cylinder 579
9.6.4 Spheres 583
9.7 Free Convection Within Parallel Plate Channels
9.7. 1 Vertical Channels 585
9.7.2 Inclined Channels 587
9.8 Empirical Correlations: Enclosures
9.8.1 Rectangular Cavities 587
9.8.2 Concentric Cylinders 590
9.8.3 Concentric Spheres 591
9.9 Combined Free and Forced Convection
9.10 Convection Mass Transfer
9.11 Summary
References
Problems
Chapte1
566 Heat L
Chapter 10
Boiling and Condensation 619
Chaptl
10.1 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation Radii
10.2 Boiling Modes
10.3 Pool Boiling
10.3.1 the Boiling Curve 622
10.3.2 Modes of Pool Boiling 624
10.4 Pool Boiling Correlations
10.4. 1 Nucleate Pool Boiling 627
10.4.2 Critical Heat Flux for Nucleate Pool Boiling 629
10.4.3 Minimum Heat Flux 629
10.4.4 Film Pool Boiling 630
10.4.5 Parametric Effects on Pool Boiling
627contents Xix
10.5 Forced Convection Boiling
10.5.1 External Forced Convection Boiling 637
10.5.2 Two-phase Flow 637
10.5.3 Two-phase Flow in Microchannels 640
10.6 Condensation: Physical Mechanisms
10.7 Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Plate
10.8 Turbulent Film Condensation
10.9 Film Condensation on Radial Systems
10.10 Film Condensation in Horizontal Tubes
10.11 Dropwise Condensation
10.12 Summary
References
Problems
Chapter11
566 568 Heat Exchangers 669
571
11.1 Heat Exchanger Types
11.2 the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
11.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis: Use of the Log Mean Temperature Difference
11.3. 1 the Parallel-flow Heat Exchanger 676
11.3.2 the Counterflow Heat Exchanger 679
11.3.3 Special Operating Conditions 679
11.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis: the Effectiveness-ntu Method
11.4.1 Definitions 686
11.4.2 Effectiveness-ntu Relations 688
11.5 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Calculations:
Using the Effectiveness-ntu Method
11.6 Compact Heat Exchangers
11.7 Summary
References
Problems
11s.1 Log Mean Temperature Difference Method for Multipass
And Cross-flow Heat Exchangers
References
Problems
Chapter 12
620 Radiation: Processes and Properties 723
621
12.1 Fundamental Concepts
12.2 Radiation Intensity
12.2. 1 Mathematical Definitions 727
12.2.2 Radiation Intensity and Its Relation to Emission 728
12.2.3 Relation to Irradiation 733
12.2.4 Relation to Radiosity 735
12.3 Blackbody Radiation
12.3. 1 the Planck Distribution 737
12.3.2 Wien’s Displacement Law
736xx Contents
12.3.3 the Stefan-boltzmann Law 738
12.3.4 Band Emission 739
Emission From Real Surfaces
Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission by Real Surfaces
12.5.1 Absorptivity 754
12.5.2 Reflectivity 755
12.5.3 Transmissivity 756
12.5.4 Special Considerations 757
Kirchhoff S Law
The Gray Surface
Environmental Radiation
Summary
References
Problems
Appendix
Chapter 13 Thermoj
Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 811
Appendix
13.1 the View Factor Mathem
13.1. 1 the View Factor Integral 812
13.1.2 View Factor Relations 813
Radiation Exchange Between Opaque, Diffuse, Gray Surfaces in an Enclosure
13.2. 1 Net Radiation Exchange at a Surface 823
13.2.2 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 824
13.2.3 Blackbody Radiation Exchange 830
13.2.4 the Two-surface Enclosure 831
13.2.5 Radiation Shields 832
13.2.6 the Reradiating Surface 835
Multimode Heat Transfer
Radiation Exchange With Participating Media
13.4. 1 Volumetric Absorption 843
13.4.2 Gaseous Emission and Absorption 843
Summary
References
Problems
13.2 822 Appendix
Thermal
General
Appendix
849 Appendix
Bounda
Chapter 14
Diffusion Mass Transfer 879 Appendix
An Inte±
14.1 Physical 14.1. 1 Physical Originsorigins and Rate 880 Equations for Parc
14.1.2 Mixture Composition 881
14.1.3 Fick’s Law of Diffusion 882
14.1.4 Mass Diffusivity 883
Mass Transfer in Nonstationary Media
14.2.1 Absolute and Diffusive Species Fluxes 885
14.2.2 Evaporation in a Column 888
The Stationary Medium Approximation
880
Index
14.2 885
14.3 893contents X X I
14.4 Conservation of Species for a Stationary Medium
14.4.1 Conservation of Species for a Control Volume 894
14.4.2 the Mass Diffusion Equation 894
14.4.3 Stationary Media With Specified Surface Concentrations 897
Boundary Conditions and Discontinuous Concentrations at Interfaces
14.5. 1 Evaporation and Sublimation 901
14.5.2 Solubility of Gases in Liquids and Solids 902
14.5.3 Catalytic Surface Reactions 905
Mass Diffusion With Homogeneous Chemical Reactions
Transient Diffusion
Summaryreferences
Problems
Appendix a
Thennophysical Properties of Matter 927
811
Appendix B
812 Mathematical Relations and Functions 959
822
Appendix C
Thermal Conditions Associated With Uniform Energy
Generation in One-dimensional,steady-state Systems
Osure
965
Appendix D
The Convection Transfer Equations 973
839
842 D.l Conservation of Mass
D.2 Newton ’s Second Law of Motion
D.3 Conservation of Energy
D.4 Conservation of Species
Appendix E
Boundary Layer Equations for Turbulent Flow
Appendix F
An Integral Laminar Boundary Layer Solution
For Parallel Floiv Over a Flat Plate
Index  


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