كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook    كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook  Emptyالثلاثاء 06 سبتمبر 2016, 12:28 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook
Paul J. Drake, Jr.

كتاب Dimensioning and Tolerancing Handbook  D_a_t_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Foreword . xxi
About the Editor . xxii
Contributors xxiii
Preface xxv
Acknowledgments xxix
Part History/Lessons Learned
Chapter : Quality Thrust . Ron Randall
. Meaning of Quality -
. The Evolution of Quality .
. Some Quality Gurus and their Contributions -
. W. Edwards Deming -
. Joseph Juran .
. Philip B. Crosby .
. Genichi Taguchi .
. The Six Sigma Approach to Quality -
. The History of Six Sigma -
. Six Sigma Success Stories .
. Six Sigma Basics .
. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) -
. References .
Chapter : Dimensional Management Robert H. Nickolaisen, P.E.
. Traditional Approaches to Dimensioning and Tolerancing .
. Engineering Driven Design -
. Process Driven Design -
. Inspection Driven Design -
. A Need for Change -
. Dimensional Management -
. Dimensional Management Systems .
. Simultaneous Engineering Teams -
. Written Goals and Objectives .
. Design for Manufacturability (DFM) and Design for Assembly (DFA) -
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) .
. Key Characteristics -
. Statistical Process Control (SPC) -
. Variation Measurement and Reduction -
. Variation Simulation Tolerance Analysis -
. The Dimensional Management Process -
. References .
. Glossary -
Contentsvi Contents
Chapter :Tolerancing Optimization Strategies Gregory A. Hetland, Ph.D.
. Tolerancing Methodologies -
. Tolerancing Progression (Example # ) -
. Strategy # (Linear) .
. Strategy # (Combination of Linear and Geometric) -
. Strategy # (Fully Geometric) -
. Tolerancing Progression (Example # ) -
. Strategy # (Linear) .
. Strategy # Geometric Tolerancing ( ) Regardless of Feature Size -
. Strategy # (Geometric Tolerancing Progression At Maximum
Material Condition) .
. Strategy # (Tolerancing Progression “Optimized”) -
. Summary -
. References .
Part Standards
Chapter : Drawing Interpretation Patrick J. McCuistion, Ph.D
. Introduction -
. Drawing History .
. Standards .
. ANSI -
. ISO -
. Drawing Types .
. Note -
. Detail -
. Cast or Forged Part -
. Machined Part -
. Sheet Stock Part -
. Assembly .
. Border .
. Zones and Center Marks -
. Size Conventions -
. Title Blocks .
. Company Name and Address .
. Drawing Title -
. Size -
. FSCM/CAGE .
. Drawing Number .
. Scale -
. Release Date -
. Sheet Number -
. Contract Number .
. Drawn and Date -
. Check, Design, and Dates -
. Design Activity and Date -
. Customer and Date .
. Tolerances -
. Treatment .
. Finish .
. Similar To -
. Act Wt and Calc Wt -
. Other Title Block Items -
. Revision Blocks .
. Parts Lists -
. View Projection . Contents vii
. First-Angle Projection -
. Third-Angle Projection .
. Auxiliary Views -
. Section Views -
. Full Sections .
. Half Sections -
. Offset Sections -
. Broken-Out Section -
. Revolved and Removed Sections -
. Conventional Breaks -
. Partial Views -
. Conventional Practices -
. Feature Rotation -
. Line Precedence .
. Isometric Views -
. Dimensions -
. Feature Types -
. Taylor Principle / Envelope Principle .
. General Dimensions .
. Technique .
. Placement .
. Choice .
. Tolerance Representation .
. Surface Texture .
. Roughness .
. Waviness -
. Lay -
. Flaws .
. Notes .
. Drawing Status -
. Sketch .
. Configuration Layout -
. Experimental -
. Active .
. Obsolete .
. Conclusion .
. References .
Chapter : Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing . Walter M. Stites
.Paul Drake, P.E.
. Introducing Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) .
. What is GD&T? .
. Where Does GD&T Come From?—References .
. Why Do We Use GD&T? .
. When Do We Use GD&T? -
. How Does GD&T Work?—Overview .
. Part Features .
. Nonsize Features -
. Features of Size -
. Screw Threads .
. Gears and Splines -
. Bounded Features .
. Symbols .
. Form and Proportions of Symbols -
. Feature Control Frame .
. Feature Control Frame Placement -
. Reading a Feature Control Frame -
. Basic Dimensions . viii Contents
. Reference Dimensions and Data -
. “Square” Symbol -
. Tabulated Tolerances .
. “Statistical Tolerance” Symbol .
. Fundamental Rules .
. Nonrigid Parts -
. Specifying Restraint .
. Singling Out a Free State Tolerance -
. Features of Size—The Four Fundamental Levels of Control .
. Level —Size Limit Boundaries .
. Material Condition .
. Modifier Symbols -
. Method for MMC or LMC .
. Level —Overall Feature Form .
. Level —Virtual Condition Boundary for Orientation .
. Level —Virtual Condition Boundary for Location .
. Level or Virtual Condition Equal to Size Limit (Zero Tolerance) -
. Resultant Condition Boundary -
. Method for RFS -
. Tolerance Zone Shape .
. Derived Elements -
. Alternative “Center Method” for MMC or LMC -
. Level and Adjustment—Actual Mating/Minimum Material Sizes -
. Level Adjustment—Actual Local Sizes -
. Disadvantages of Alternative “Center Method” .
. Inner and Outer Boundaries .
. When do we use a Material Condition Modifier? .
. Size Limits (Level Control) -
. Symbols for Limits and Fits -
. Limit Dimensioning -
. Plus and Minus Tolerancing -
. Inch Values .
. Millimeter Values -
. Form (Only) Tolerances (Level Control) -
. Straightness Tolerance for Line Elements -
. Straightness Tolerance for a Cylindrical Feature .
. Flatness Tolerance for a Single Planar Feature -
. Flatness Tolerance for a Width-Type Feature -
. Circularity Tolerance -
. Circularity Tolerance Applied to a Spherical Feature .
. Cylindricity Tolerance .
. Circularity or Cylindricity Tolerance with Average Diameter .
. Application Over a Limited Length or Area .
. Application on a Unit Basis -
. Radius Tolerance .
. Controlled Radius Tolerance -
. Spherical Radius Tolerance .
. When Do We Use a Form Tolerance? -
. Datuming .
. What is a Datum? .
. Datum Feature .
. Datum Feature Selection .
. Functional Hierarchy .
. Surrogate and Temporary Datum Features .
. Identifying Datum Features .
. True Geometric Counterpart (TGC)—Introduction .
. Datum -
. Datum Reference Frame (DRF) and Three Mutually Perpendicular
Planes - Contents ix
. Datum Precedence .
. Degrees of Freedom -
. TGC Types -
. Restrained versus Unrestrained TGC -
. Nonsize TGC .
. Adjustable-size TGC .
. Fixed-size TGC .
. Datum Reference Frame (DRF) Displacement .
. Relative to a Boundary of Perfect Form TGC .
. Relative to a Virtual Condition Boundary TGC .
. Benefits of DRF Displacement -
. Effects of All Datums of the DRF .
. Effects of Form, Location, and Orientation -
. Accommodating DRF Displacement -
. Simultaneous Requirements .
. Datum Simulation -
. Unstable Datums, Rocking Datums, Candidate Datums -
. Datum Targets .
. Datum Target Selection -
. Identifying Datum Targets .
. Datum Target Dimensions .
. Interdependency of Datum Target Locations -
. Applied to Features of Size .
. Applied to Any Type of Feature -
. Target Set with Switchable Precedence -
. Multiple Features Referenced as a Single Datum Feature .
. Feature Patterns .
. Coaxial and Coplanar Features .
. Multiple DRFs .
. Orientation Tolerance (Level Control) .
. How to Apply It .
. Datums for Orientation Control -
. Applied to a Planar Feature (Including Tangent Plane Application) .
. Applied to a Cylindrical or Width-Type Feature .
. Zero Orientation Tolerance at MMC or LMC -
. Applied to Line Elements -
. The Cases .
. Profile Tolerance for Orientation .
. When Do We Use an Orientation Tolerance? .
. Positional Tolerance (Level Control) .
. How Does It Work? -
. How to Apply It -
. Datums for Positional Control .
. Angled Features .
. Projected Tolerance Zone -
. Special-Shaped Zones/Boundaries .
. Tapered Zone/Boundary -
. Bidirectional Tolerancing .
. Bounded Features -
. Patterns of Features -
. Single-Segment Feature Control Frame -
. Composite Feature Control Frame .
. Rules for Composite Control .
. Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames -
. Rules for Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames .
. Coaxial and Coplanar Features .
. Coaxiality and Coplanarity Control . x Contents
. Runout Tolerance -
. Why Do We Use It? -
. How Does It Work? .
. How to Apply It .
. Datums for Runout Control .
. Circular Runout Tolerance .
. Total Runout Tolerance -
. Application Over a Limited Length -
. When Do We Use a Runout Tolerance? .
. Worst Case Boundaries .
. Profile Tolerance .
. How Does It Work? .
. How to Apply It .
. The Basic Profile .
. The Profile Tolerance Zone .
. The Profile Feature Control Frame -
. Datums for Profile Control -
. Profile of a Surface Tolerance -
. Profile of a Line Tolerance -
. Controlling the Extent of a Profile Tolerance .
. Abutting Zones -
. Profile Tolerance for Combinations of Characteristics -
. With Positional Tolerancing for Bounded Features -
. Patterns of Profiled Features .
. Single-Segment Feature Control Frame -
. Composite Feature Control Frame .
. Stacked Single-Segment Feature Control Frames -
. Optional Level Control -
. Composite Profile Tolerance for a Single Feature .
. Symmetry Tolerance -
. How Does It Work? .
. How to Apply It .
. Datums for Symmetry Control .
. Concentricity Tolerance .
. Concentricity Tolerance for Multifold Symmetry about a Datum Axis .
. Concentricity Tolerance about a Datum Point .
. Symmetry Tolerance about a Datum Plane -
. Symmetry Tolerancing of Yore (Past Practice) .
. When Do We Use a Symmetry Tolerance? .
. Combining Feature Control Frames .
. “Instant” GD&T -
. The “Dimension Origin” Symbol -
. General Note to Establish Basic Dimensions -
. General Note in Lieu of Feature Control Frames -
. The Future of GD&T -
. References .
Chapter : Differences Between US Standards and Other Standards .
. Alex Krulikowski
Scott DeRaad
. Dimensioning Standards .
. US Standards -
. International Standards .
. ISO Geometrical Product Specification Masterplan .
. Comparison of ASME and ISO Standards .
. Organization and Logistics .
. Number of Standards .
. Interpretation and Application - Contents xi
. ASME -
. ISO -
. Other Standards -
. National Standards Based on ISO or ASME Standards .
. US Government Standards -
. Corporate Standards -
. Multiple Dimensioning Standards .
. Future of Dimensioning Standards .
. Effects of Technology .
. New Dimensioning Standards -
. References .
Chapter : Mathematical Definition of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Principles
Mark A. Nasson
. Introduction -
. Why Mathematical Tolerance Definitions? .
. Metrology Crisis (The GIDEP Alert) .
. Specification Crisis .
. National Science Foundation Tolerancing Workshop .
. A New National Standard -
. What are Mathematical Tolerance Definitions? .
. Parallel, Equivalent, Unambiguous Expression .
. Metrology Independent .
. Detailed Descriptions of Mathematical Tolerance Definitions .
. Introduction -
. Vectors -
. Vector Addition and Subtraction -
. Vector Dot Products .
. Vector Cross Products -
. Actual Value / Measured Value .
. Datums -
. Candidate Datums / Datum Reference Frames .
. Degrees of Freedom -
. Form tolerances -
. Circularity .
. Cylindricity -
. Flatness -
. Where Do We Go from Here? -
. ASME Standards Committees -
. International Standards Efforts -
. CAE Software Developers .
. Acknowledgments .
. References .
Chapter : Statistical Tolerancing Vijay Srinivasan, Ph.D
. Introduction -
. Specification of Statistical Tolerancing .
. Using Process Capability Indices -
. Using RMS Deviation Index -
. Using Percent Containment -
. Statistical Tolerance Zones .
. Population Parameter Zones -
. Distribution Function Zones .
. Additional Illustrations .
. Summary and Concluding Remarks .
. References . xii Contents
Part Design
Chapter : Traditional Approaches to Analyzing Mechanical Tolerance Stacks .
Paul Drake
. Introduction -
. Analyzing Tolerance Stacks -
. Establishing Performance/Assembly Requirements -
. Loop Diagram .
. Converting Dimensions to Equal Bilateral Tolerances -
. Calculating the Mean Value (Gap) for the Requirement -
. Determine the Method of Analysis .
. Calculating the Variation for the Requirement -
. Worst Case Tolerancing Model -
. RSS Model .
. Modified Root Sum of the Squares Tolerancing Model .
. Comparison of Variation Models .
. Estimated Mean Shift Model .
. Analyzing Geometric Tolerances .
. Form Controls .
. Orientation Controls .
. Position .
. Position at RFS .
. Position at MMC or LMC -
. Virtual and Resultant Conditions .
. Equations -
. Composite Position -
. Runout .
. Concentricity/Symmetry -
. Profile -
. Profile Tolerancing with an Equal Bilateral Tolerance Zone -
. Profile Tolerancing with a Unilateral Tolerance Zone -
. Profile Tolerancing with an Unequal Bilateral Tolerance Zone .
. Composite Profile .
. Size Datums .
. Abbreviations -
. Terminology .
. References .
Chapter : Statistical Background and Concepts Ron Randall
. Introduction -
. Shape, Locations, and Spread -
. Some Important Distributions -
. The Normal Distribution .
. Lognormal Distribution .
. Poisson Distribution .
. Measures of Quality and Capability .
. Process Capability Index .
. Process Capability Index Relative to Process Centering (Cpk) -
. Summary -
. References .
. Appendix . Contents xiii
Chapter : Predicting Assembly Quality (Six Sigma Methodologies to Optimize
Tolerances) Dale Van Wyk
. Introduction .
. What is Tolerance Allocation? .
. Process Standard Deviations -
. Worst Case Allocation .
. Assign Component Dimensions -
. Determine Assembly Performance, P .
. Assign the process with the largest si to each component -
. Calculate the Worst Case Assembly, twc -
. Is P³t
wc ? .
. Estimating Defect Rates -
. Verification -
. Adjustments to Meet Quality Goals -
. Worst Case Allocation Summary -
. Statistical Allocation -
. Calculating Assembly Variation and Defect Rate .
. First Steps in Statistical Allocation .
. Calculate Expected Assembly Performance, P .
. Is P³P
? -
. Allocating Tolerances -
. Statistical Allocation Summary -
. Dynamic RSS Allocation .
. Static RSS analysis .
. Comparison of the Techniques -
. Communication of Requirements -
. Summary .
. Abbreviations .
. References -
Chapter : Multi-Dimensional Tolerance Analysis (Manual Method) Dale Van Wyk
. Introduction -
. Determining Sensitivity .
. A Technique for Developing Gap Equations .
. Utilizing Sensitivity Information to Optimize Tolerances -
. Summary -
Chapter : Multi-Dimensional Tolerance Analysis (Automated Method)
Kenneth W. Chase, Ph.D.
. Introduction -
. Three Sources of Variation in Assemblies .
. Example D Assembly – Stacked Blocks -
. Steps in Creating an Assembly Tolerance Model -
. Steps in Analyzing an Assembly Tolerance Model -
. Percent rejects -
. Percent Contribution Charts -
. Sensitivity Analysis -
. Modifying Geometry .
. Summary -
. References . xiv Contents
Chapter : Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation Kenneth W. Chase, Ph.D.
. Tolerance Allocation Using Least Cost Optimization .
.D Tolerance Allocation -
.D Example: Shaft and Housing Assembly .
. Advantages / Disadvantages of the Lagrange Multiplier Method .
.D and -D Tolerance Allocation -
. True Cost and Optimum Acceptance Fraction -
.D Example: One-way Clutch Assembly .
. Vector Loop Model and Assembly Function for the Clutch .
. Allocation by Scaling, Weight Factors .
. Proportional Scaling by Worst Case .
. Proportional Scaling by Root-Sum-Squares .
. Allocation by Weight Factors .
. Allocation by Cost Minimization .
. Minimum Cost Tolerances by Worst Case -
. Minimum Cost Tolerances by RSS -
. Tolerance Allocation with Process Selection -
. Summary -
. References .
. Appendix: Cost-Tolerance Functions for Metal Removal Processes .
Chapter : Automating the Tolerancing Process . Charles Glancy
James Stoddard
. Marvin Law
. Background Information -
. Benefits of Automation -
. Overview of the Tolerancing Process -
. Automating the Creation of the Tolerance Model -
. Characterizing Critical Design Measurements .
. Characterizing the Model Function .
. Model Definition -
. Model Form -
. Model Scope -
. Characterizing Input Variables .
. Automating Tolerance Analysis .
. Method of System Moments -
. Distribution Fitting -
. Monte Carlo Simulation .
. Automating Tolerance Optimization -
. Automating Communication Between Design and Manufacturing .
. Manufacturing Process Capabilities .
. Manufacturing Process Capability Database .
. Database Administration -
. Design Requirements and Assumptions .
. CAT Automation Tools .
. Tool Capability -
. Ease of Use .
. Training .
. Technical Support .
. Data Management and CAD Integration -
. Reports and Records .
. Tool Enhancement and Development .
. Deployment -
. Summary -
. References . Contents xv
Chapter : Working in an Electronic Environment .Paul Matthews
. Introduction -
. Paperless/Electronic Environment -
. Definition .
. Development Information Tools -
. Product Development Automation Strategy -
. Master Model Theory .
. Template Design .
. Template Part and Assembly Databases .
. Template Features -
. Templates for Analyses -
. Templates for Documentation -
. Component Libraries .
. Information Verification .
. Product Information Management .
. Configuration Management Techniques .
. Data Management Components -
. Workspace .
. Product Vault -
. Company Vault .
. Document Administrator .
. File Cabinet Control -
. Software Automation .
. Information Storage and Transfer .
. Internet .
. Electronic Mail -
. File Transfer Protocol .
. Media Transfer -
. Manufacturing Guidelines .
. Manufacturing Trust .
. Dimensionless Prints -
. Sheetmetal .
. Injection Molded Plastic .
. Hog Out Parts .
. Castings -
. Rapid Prototypes .
. Database Format Standards -
. Native Database .
.D Formats -
. Data eXchange Format (DXF) .
. Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HPGL) -
.D Formats -
. Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) .
. STandard for the Exchange of Product (STEP) -
. Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) -
. STereoLithography (STL) -
. General Information Formats .
. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) -
. Portable Document Format (PDF) .
. Graphics Formats .
. Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) .
. Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) -
. Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) -
. Conclusion .
. Appendix A IGES Entities - xvi Contents
Part Manufacturing
Chapter : Collecting and Developing Manufacturing Process Capability Models
. Michael D. King
. Why Collect and Develop Process Capability Models? .
. Developing Process Capability Models -
. Quality Prediction Models - Variable versus Attribute Information -
. Collecting and Modeling Variable Process Capability Models .
. Collecting and Modeling Attribute Process Capability Models .
. Feature Factoring Method .
. Defect Weighting Methodology -
. Cost and Cycle Time Prediction Modeling Variations .
. Validating and Checking the Results of Your Predictive Models -
. Summary .
. References -
Part Gaging
Chapter : Paper Gage Techniques .Martin P. Wright
. What is Paper Gaging? .
. Advantages and Disadvantages to Paper Gaging .
. Discrimination Provided By a Paper Gage -
. Paper Gage Accuracy .
. Plotting Paper Gage Data Points .
. Paper Gage Applications .
. Locational Verification -
. Simple Hole Pattern Verification -
. Three-Dimensional Hole Pattern Verification -
. Composite Positional Tolerance Verification -
. Capturing Tolerance From Datum Features Subject to Size Variation .
. Datum Feature Applied on an RFS Basis .
. Datum Feature Applied on an MMC Basis -
. Capturing Rotational Shift Tolerance from a Datum Feature
Applied on an MMC Basis -
. Determining the Datum from a Pattern of Features -
. Paper Gage Used as a Process Analysis Tool .
. Summary -
. References .
Chapter : Receiver Gages — Go Gages and Functional Gages James D. Meadows
. Introduction -
. Gaging Fundamentals -
. Gage Tolerancing Policies .
. Examples of Gages .
. Position Using Partial and Planar Datum Features .
. Position Using Datum Features of Size at MMC -
. Position and Profile Using a Simultaneous Gaging Requirement .
. Position Using Centerplane Datums .
. Multiple Datum Structures -
. Secondary and Tertiary Datum Features of Size . Contents xvii
. Push Pin vs. Fixed Pin Gaging .
. Conclusion .
. References .
Part Precision Metrology
Chapter : Measurement Systems Analysis Gregory A. Hetland, Ph.D.
. Introduction -
. Measurement Methods Analysis -
. Measurement System Definition (Phase ) .
. Identification of Variables -
. Specifications of Conformance -
. Measurement System Capability Requirements .
. Identification of Sources of Uncertainty (Phase ) .
. Machine Sources of Uncertainty -
. Software Sources of Uncertainty .
. Environmental Sources of Uncertainty .
. Part Sources of Uncertainty -
. Fixturing Sources of Uncertainty .
. Operator Sources of Uncertainty .
. Measurement System Qualification (Phase ) -
. Plan the Capabilities Studies -
. Production Systems .
. Calibrate the System -
. Conduct Studies and Define Capabilities .
. Quantify the Error Budget (Phase ) -
. Plan Testing (Isolate Error Sources) .
. Analyze Uncertainty -
. Optimize Measurement System (Phase ) -
. Identify Opportunities -
. Attempt Improvements and Revisit Testing .
. Revisit Qualification -
. Implement and Control Measurement System (Phase ) -
. Plan Performance Criteria .
. Plan Calibration and Maintenance Requirements .
. Implement System and Initiate Control -
. CMM Operator Competencies -
. Business Issue .
. CMM Performance Test Overview -
. Environmental Tests (Section ) -
. Temperature Parameters .
. Other Environmental Parameters -
. Machine Tests (Section ) .
. Probe Settling Time -
. Probe Deflection -
. Other Machine Parameters .
. Multiple Probes .
. Feature Based Measurement Tests (Section ) .
. Number of Points Per Feature -
. Other Geometric Features -
. Contact Scanning -
. Surface Roughness -
. CMM Capability Matrix -
. References . xviii Contents
Part Applications
Chapter : Predicting Piecepart Quality . Dan A. Watson, Ph.D.
. Introduction -
. The Problem -
. Statistical Framework -
. Assumptions .
. Internal Feature at MMC -
. Internal Feature at LMC .
. External Features -
. Alternate Distribution Assumptions .
. Non-Size Feature Applications .
. Example .
. Summary -
. References -
Chapter : Floating and Fixed Fasteners .Paul Zimmermann
. Introduction -
. Floating and Fixed Fasteners -
. What is a Floating Fastener? .
. What is a Fixed Fastener? .
. What is a Double-Fixed Fastener? .
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (Cylindrical Tolerance Zone
Versus +/- Tolerancing) -
. Calculations for Fixed, Floating and Double-fixed Fasteners .
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Floating Fastener -
. How to Calculate Clearance Hole Diameter for a Floating Fastener Application -
. How to Calculate Counterbore Diameter for a Floating Fastener Application -
. Why Floating Fasteners are Not Recommended -
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Fixed Fasteners -
. How to Calculate Fixed Fastener Applications -
. How to Calculate Counterbore Diameter for a Fixed Fastener Application .
. Why Fixed Fasteners are Recommended .
. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Rules/Formulas for Double-fixed
Fastener .
. How to Calculate a Clearance Hole .
. How to Calculate the Countersink Diameter, Head Height Above and Head
Height Below the Surface .
. What Are the Problems Associated with Double-fixed Fasteners? .
. Nut Plates: Floating and Nonfloating (see Fig. ) -
. Projected Tolerance Zone .
. Comparison of Positional Tolerancing With and Without a Projected Tolerance
Zone .
. Percent of Actual Orientation Versus Lost Functional Tolerance .
. Hardware Pages -
. Floating Fastener Hardware Pages .
. Fixed Fastener Hardware Pages -
. Double-fixed Fastener Hardware Pages .
. Counterbore Depths - Pan Head and Socket Head Cap Screws -
. Flat Head Screw Head Height - Above and Below the Surface .
. References . Contents xix
Chapter : Fixed and Floating Fastener Variation .Chris Cuba
. Introduction -
. Hole Variation .
. Assembly Variation -
. Fixed and Floating Fasteners -
. Fixed Fastener Assembly Shift -
. Fixed Fastener Assembly Shift Using One Equation and Dimension Loop .
. Fixed Fastener Equation -
. Fixed Fastener Gap Analysis Steps .
. Floating Fastener Gap Analysis Steps -
. Summary -
. References .
Chapter : Pinned Interfaces . Stephen Harry Werst
. List of Symbols (Definitions and Terminology) -
. Introduction -
. Performance Considerations .
. Variation Components of Pinned Interfaces .
. Type I Error .
. Type II Error -
. Types of Alignment Pins .
. Tolerance Allocation Methods - Worst Case vs. Statistical -
. Processes and Capabilities -
. Design Methodology -
. Proper Use of Material Modifiers -
. Temperature Considerations -
. Two Round Pins with Two Holes .
. Fit -
. Rotation Errors -
. Translation Errors .
. Performance Constants -
. Dimensioning Methodology -
. Round Pins with a Hole and a Slot -
. Fit -
. Rotation Errors -
. Translation Errors .
. Performance Constants -
. Dimensioning Methodology -
. Round Pins with One Hole and Edge Contact -
. Fit -
. Rotation Errors -
. Translation errors .
. Performance Constants -
. Dimensioning Methodology -
. One Diamond Pin and One Round Pin with Two Holes .
. Fit -
. Rotation and Translation Errors .
. Performance Constants -
. Dimensioning Methodology -
. One Parallel-Flats Pin and One Round Pin with Two Holes .
. Fit -
. Rotation and Translation Errors .
. Performance Constants -
. Dimensioning Methodology -
. References . xx Contents
Chapter : Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R) Calculations .
. Gregory A. Hetland, Ph.D.
. Introduction -
. Standard GR&R Procedure -
. Summary -
. References .
Part The Future
Chapter : The Future . Several contributors
Figures . F-
Tables . T-
Index I- I-
Symbols
-D stackups. See Tolerance analysis, -D
-D stackups. See Tolerance analysis, -D
-D stackups. See Tolerance analysis, -D
- rule. See Pareto principle
A
Abutting profile tolerance zone. See Profile
tolerance abutting zones
Accuracy -
Active drawing -
Actual
feature -
local size -
mating envelope - ,
restraint of - ,
simulation of -
mating local size -
mating size - ,
minimum material envelope -
restraint of -
simulation of -
minimum material local size -
minimum material size -
value -
Algorithms -
Alignment
between parts. See Mating parts
pins -
error - ,
, -
one diamond and one round/two holes -
, -
one parallel flats and one round/two holes
- ,
two round/hole and edge contact -
, -
two round/hole and slot - ,
two round/two holes - ,
types of -
All around symbol - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
All over note - ,
Allocation
by scaling/resizing/weight factor. See
Tolerance allocation by scaling/resizing/
weight factor
cost. See Tolerance allocation by cost
minimization
cost versus tolerance. See Cost versus
tolerance allocation
DRSS. See Dynamic Root Sum of the
Squares (DRSS) allocation
manufacturing process. See Tolerance
allocation by manufacturing processes
RSS. See Root Sum of the Squares (RSS)
allocation
Six Sigma tolerance. See Six Sigma tolerance
allocation
statistical tolerance. See Statistical tolerance
allocation
tolerance. See Tolerance allocation
worst case. See Worst case allocation
Alternative center method - ,
, -
disadvantages -
Level adjustment -
Level adjustment -
Level adjustment -
American National Standards -
ASME Y . M (the "Math Standard") -
, -
IndexI- Index
ASME Y . M - ,
, -
budgeting of coverage - ,
differences in standards - ,
, -
discrepancies in -
future of -
recommendations/suggestions -
Institute (ANSI) - ,
superceding -
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) - ,
Analysis
computer. See Computer analysis
Estimated Mean Shift. See Estimated Mean
Shift analysis
Fixed fastener. See Fixed fastener tolerance
analysis
Floating fastener. See Floating fastener
tolerance analysis
Future of. See Future of tolerance analysis
GD&T. See Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing (GD&T) analysis
GR&R. See Gage repeatability and producibility (GR&R), analysis of
graphical inspection. See Graphical inspection analysis
measurement methods. See Measurement
methods analysis
MRSS. See Modified Root Sum of the
Squares (MRSS) analysis
process. See Process analysis
RSS. See Root Sum of the Squares (RSS)
analysis
SRSS. See Static Root Sum of the Squares
(SRSS) analysis
tolerance. See Tolerance analysis
worst case. See Worst case analysis
Anderson-Darling test for normality -
Angle
° basic. See Implied ° basic angle
basic. See Basic dimension, implied
dimension
° implied. See Implied ° angle
dimension
erroneous wedge-shaped tolerance zone for
-
plus and minus tolerance - ,
transition between features -
Angled
datum -
feature -
Angularity tolerance -
analysis of -
comparison of US and ISO -
for a cylindrical feature -
for a width-type feature -
symbol -
ANSI. See American National Standards
Institute (ANSI)
Approximation model -
Arc length symbol - ,
Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. (ABB) -
ASME
standards -
Y . See American National Standards
ASME Y . M
Assemblability
worst case - ,
Assembly - ,
clearance. See Fixed fastener
formula; Floating fastener
formula; Mating parts; Maximum
Material Condition (MMC), when to
apply; Virtual condition boundary
datum feature selection for - ,
deformation -
drawing - ,
drawings -
equation. See Gap equation
for dynamic balance - ,
force -
graph -
interface -
centering -
process variation -
restraint of parts in -
sequence -
shift -
standards -
tolerance - ,
tolerance models
-D - . See also Tolerance model, steps
in creating ( -D/ -D)
closed loop - ,
critical features - Index I-
datum paths - ,
datum reference systems - ,
degrees of freedom -
geometric variations - , . See
also Variation
graph -
key characteristics -
kinematic joints - ,
modeling -
modeling rules - ,
open loop - ,
performance requirements. See Performance requirements
redundant vectors -
steps in creating. See Tolerance model,
steps in creating
vector loops - ,
, -
vectors. See Vectors
variation sources -
Attribute
data -
process capability models -
Automated verification -
Automation -
Auxiliary
dimension
comparison of US and ISO -
view -
Average diameter -
Axis
datum. See Datum axis
feature, control of. See Feature control frame
B
Baldrige. See Malcolm Baldrige National
Quality Award
Bar stock -
Base line dimensioning -
Basic
angle - , . See also Angle,
basic; Basic dimension
dimension -
defining a basic profile -
established by general note -
for profile boundary offset -
frame -
implied. See Implied basic dimension
limiting length or area of tolerance zone -
. See also Limited length/area indication
locating a datum target -
locating termination of tolerance zone -

locating true position. See True position
methods for establishing
shown as reference -
symbol (frame) -
zero implied. See Implied basic dimension
dimension symbol
comparison of US and ISO -
profile - . See also Profile tolerance
defined by basic dimensions -
defined by CAD/CAM model -
defined by grid system -
defined by mathematical formula -
showing termination of tolerance zone -

tolerance boundary offset from -
tool path along - ,
size -
Beta distribution -
Between symbol - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
Bidirectional positional tolerance - ,
, -
Bilateral profile tolerance. See Profile tolerance, bilateral
equal. See Profile tolerance, equal-bilateral
analysis of -
unequal. See Profile tolerance, unequal
bilateral
analysis of -
Binomial distribution -
Bolt circle - ,
Bonus tolerance
at LMC -
at MMC -
Boundary
at LMC - ,
at MMC - ,
inner, outer -
of perfect form -
at LMC - ,
at MMC -
not required - , I- Index
resultant condition. See Resultant condition
boundary
size limit. See Size limit boundary
spherical -
tapered -
tolerance -
virtual condition. See Virtual condition
boundary
Bounded feature - ,
as a datum feature - ,
composite profile tolerance for a single
feature -
datum targets applied to -
positional tolerance for. See Positional
tolerance for a bounded feature
Broken-out section -
C
CAD. See Computer Aided Design (CAD)
CAD/CAM. See Computer Aided Design
(CAD); Computer Aided Manufacturing
(CAM)
CAE. See Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)
CAM. See Computer Aided Manufacturing
(CAM)
Candidate
datum - ,
reference -
datum reference frame -
Cartesian coordinates - ,
Casting -
drawing -
Castings/forgings - ,
CAT - , . See also
Computer Aided Tolerancing (CAT)
Cauchy distribution -
Center
line - , .
implied ° angle -
marks -
method
alternative. See Alternative center method
plane - ,
control of. See Feature control frame
control of feature - ,
, -
datum -
derived - ,
establishing a datum from a feature -
establishing a datum from feature -
feature -
point - ,
Centering - . See also Regardless of Feature
Size (RFS), when to apply
Central tolerance zone - ,
Certification of GD&T professionals -
Chain
dimensioning -
line - ,
Characteristic symbol. See Geometric characteristic symbol
Circular runout tolerance - ,
, -
symbol -
Circularity (roundness) tolerance - ,
analysis of -
control by limits of size -
control of lobes. See Lobes, circularity
control
for a nonspherical feature -
for a spherical feature - ,
in the free state -
not affecting size, taper, or straightness -
, -
not modifiable to MMC or LMC -
symbol -
with average diameter -
Clearance fit. See Fixed fastener
formula; Floating fastener
formula; Mating parts; Maximum
Material Condition (MMC), when to
apply; Virtual condition
Clocking - ,
Closed loop. See Assembly tolerance model,
closed loop
CM/PDM. See Configuration Management/
Product Data Management
CMM. See Coordinate measuring machine
(CMM)
Co-datums. See Hyphenated co-datums
Coaxial/coplanar pattern of features - ,
, -
Combined controls -
Company vault -
Component
deformation - Index I-
libraries -
Composite tolerance
positional. See Positional tolerance, pattern
control, composite
analysis of -
comparison of US and ISO -
verification -
profile
analysis of -
for a pattern of features. See Profile
tolerance, composite, for a pattern of
features
for a single feature. See Profile tolerance,
composite, for a single feature
rules for. See Rules for pattern control,
composite
Computer
Aided Design (CAD) - ,
, -
Aided Design (CAD)/Manufacturing (CAM)
-
Aided Engineering (CAE) -
Aided Tolerancing (CAT) -
analysis -
Concentricity tolerance - ,
, -
analysis of -
comparison of US and ISO -
comparison with other methods -
control of lobes. See Lobes, concentricity
control
for multifold symmetry -
symbol -
Concurrent
engineering -
index -
Condition
material. See Material condition
resultant. See Resultant condition
virtual. See Virtual condition
Configuration
layout -
Management -
Management/Product Data Management -

Conical
surface
control of - ,
tolerance zone -
Constraints -
Contribution chart. See Percent contribution
chart
Control
combined. See Combined controls
extent of profile tolerance. See Extent of
profile tolerance
four levels of. See Levels of control
Controlled radius -
symbol - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
tolerance -
Conventional
breaks -
practices -
Coordinate
dimensioning -
measuring machine (CMM) - ,
, -
system
Cartesian. See Cartesian coordinates
polar. See Polar coordinate system
rectangular. See Rectangular coordinate
system
Coplanarity -
positional tolerance for -
profile tolerance for -
Corporate standards -
Cost - ,
appraisal -
failure -
minimization/optimization - ,
prevention -
versus tolerance - ,
, -
allocation -
curves -
function -
functions -
models -
Counterbore
depth
pan head -
socket head -
symbol -
comparison of US and ISO - I- Index
Countersink. See Double-fixed fastener; Fixed
fastener
comparison of US and ISO -
symbol -
Critical features. See Assembly tolerance
models, critical features
Critical-to-quality (CTQ) characteristic -
, -
Crosby Quality College -
Cross product -
CTQ. See Critical to Quality (CTQ) characteristic
Customer -
external -
internal -
satisfaction -
Cylinder, pitch. See Pitch cylinder
Cylindrical
surface, control of - ,
tolerance zone -
Cylindricity tolerance - ,
analysis of -
symbol -
with average diameter -
D
D-shaped feature. See Bounded feature
Data eXchange Format (DXF) -
Data Management -
Data Points -
Database Format Standards -
Datum - ,
accuracy -
angled. See Angled datum
axis - ,
, -
, -
comparison of US and ISO -
candidate. See Candidate datum
comparison of US and ISO - ,
, -
degrees of freedom - ,
feature -
angled. See Angled feature
identification -
selection -
subject to size variation -
surrogate/temporary -
symbol - ,
symbol placement - ,
unstable (rocking) -
from a feature pattern - ,
generating line as
comparison of US and ISO -
hyphenated co-datums. See Hyphenated codatums
implied. See Implied datum
letter
comparison of US and ISO -
mathematically defined surface
comparison of US and ISO -
origin from. See Origin from a datum
reference frame
paths. See Assembly tolerance models, datum
paths
plane - ,
point - ,
precedence - , . See
also Degrees of freedom
reference -
reference frame (DRF) - ,
candidate. See Candidate datum reference
frame
displacement - ,
establishing -
general note -
multiple. See Multiple DRFs
origin from - ,
simultaneous/separate requirements. See
Simultaneous/separate requirements
using in a tolerance analysis. See Assembly
tolerance models datum reference systems
sequence
comparison of US and ISO -
simulation/simulator - , . See
also True Geometric Counterpart (TGC)
sequence -
symbol
placement - ,
target.
application - ,
any feature -
feature of size -
math-defined feature -
revolute -
stepped surfaces - Index I-
dimensions -
identification of -
interdependency of -
switchable precedence -
symbol - ,
types of -
target line
comparison of US and ISO -
Defects
absence of -
assembly - ,
comparison of variation models - ,

RSS -
calculating
assembly - ,
comparison of GD&T -
part/component -
using GD&T -
fabrication -
machine uncertainty -
modeling with Poisson -
part/component -
per million opportunities (dpmo) -
cost of poor quality -
per opportunity (dpo) -
per unit (DPU) - ,
estimating yield -
how to calculate -
Six Sigma measurement -
rate -
Six Sigma philosophy -
Six Sigma quality -
weighting methodology - . See also
Tolerance allocation by scaling/resizing/
weight factor
Degrees of freedom - , . See also
Assembly tolerance models degrees of
freedom; Datum degrees of freedom
Deming, W. Edwards -
points -
Deming Prize -
Department of Defense (DoD) -
Depth symbol -
comparison of US and ISO -
Derived
element -
median line - , . See also Straightness tolerance, derived median plane/line
control -
median plane - , . See also Straightness tolerance, derived median plane/line
Design
engineering driven -
for assembly -
for assembly (DFA) -
for manufacturability (DFM) -
inspection driven -
process driven -
requirements. See Performance requirements
Detail drawings -
DFA. See Design for assembly (DFA)
DFM. See Design for manufacturability (DFM)
Diameter
average. See Average diameter
spherical. See Spherical diameter
symbol - ,
application of -
comparison of US and ISO -
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) -
Dimension -
assembly -
auxiliary
comparison of US and ISO -
basic. See Basic dimension
chains -
component - ,
controlled -
decimal value
inch - ,
millimeter - ,
dependent -
independent -
limit. See Limit dimensioning
loop. See Vector loop. See Loop diagram
nominal. See Nominal dimension
origin symbol - ,
path. See also Loop diagram
paths -
redundant -
reference -
theoretically exact
comparison of US and ISO -
Dimensional management -
future of -
process - , I- Index
system -
team -
Dimensioning
and tolerancing - ,
methods
baseline. See Baseline dimensioning
chain. See Chain dimensioning
fundamental rules. See Fundamental rules
limit dimensioning. See Limit dimensioning
limits and fits. See Limits and fits
plus and minus tolerancing. See Plus and
minus tolerance
polar coordinate. See Polar coordinate
system
rectangular coordinate. See Rectangular
coordinate system
Dimensionless print -
Dimensions. See Dimension
Discrimination -
Displacement, DRF. See Datum reference
frame (DRF) displacement
Disposition of profile tolerance zone. See
Profile tolerance, disposition of zone
Distribution -
Beta. See Beta distribution
binomial. See Binomial distribution
Cauchy. See Cauchy distribution
Exponential. See Exponential distribution
fitting -
function - . See also Probability distribution function
zone -
Gamma. See Gamma distribution
Gaussian. See Gaussian distribution
Hypergeometric. See Hypergeometric
distribution
information -
Johnson. See Johnson distribution
Lambda. See Lambda distribution
Laplace. See Laplace distribution
Logistic. See Logistic distribution
Lognormal. See Lognormal distribution
manufacturing. See Manufacturing distribution
non normal. See Non normal distribution
normal. See Normal distribution
Pearson. See Pearson distribution
Poisson. See Poisson distribution
type of -
uniform. See Uniform distribution
Weibull. See Weibull distribution
DoD. See Department of Defense (DoD)
Dot product -
Double-fixed fastener - ,
calculation
clearance hole -
countersink diameter -
head height -
examples -
formula -
sizes/tolerances
clearance hole diameter - ,
countersink diameter - ,
nonfloating nut plate -
tapped hole -
dpmo. See Defects per million opportunities
(dpmo)
dpo. See Defects per million opportunities
(dpmo)
DPU. See Defects per unit (DPU)
Drawing
GD&T -
history -
interpretation -
number -
scale of a -
status -
title -
DRF. See Datum reference frame
DRSS. See Dynamic Root Sum of the Squares
(DRSS)
Dynamic Root Sum of the Squares (DRSS) -
, -
allocation - ,
Dynamic RSS
allocation. See Dynamic Root Sum of the
Squares (DRSS) allocation
E
E-mail -
Each
element -
radial element -
Electronic
automation - Index I-
mail -
Elliptical cylinder -
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) -
Engineering driven design -
English language to control part features -
Envelope -
(Taylor) principle. See Taylor Principle
actual mating. See Actual mating envelope
actual minimum material. See Actual mating/
minimum material envelope
boundary of perfect form. See Boundary of
perfect form
Equal
bilateral tolerance - ,
converting an external feature at LMC to
-
converting an external feature at MMC to
-
converting an internal feature at LMC to
-
converting an internal feature at MMC to
-
precedence datums. See Hyphenated codatums
Error sources -
Estimated Mean Shift analysis -
Estimates of manufacturability -
Evolution of quality -
Experimental drawing -
Exponential distribution -
Extension
(projection) lines - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
of principle - ,
Extent of profile tolerance - ,
External/internal features of size -
F
FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) - ,
, -
, -
, -
, -
Fastener
double-fixed. See Double-fixed fastener
fixed. See Fixed fastener
floating. See Floating fastener
Feature -
axis - ,
bounded. See Bounded feature
center plane - ,
center point - ,
control frame -
comparison of US and ISO -
placement - ,
reading -
D-shaped. See Bounded feature
datum. See Datum feature
factoring method -
nonsize. See Nonsize feature
of size
internal/external. See External/internal
features of size
pattern. See Pattern of features
relating tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)
-
rotation -
spherical. See Spherical feature
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) -
FIM. See Full Indicator Movement (FIM)
FIR. See Full Indicator Runout (FIR)
First-angle projection -
Fit, clearance. See Fixed fastener
formula; Floating fastener
formula; Mating parts; Maximum
Material Condition (MMC), when to
apply; Virtual condition boundary
Fits, limits and. See Limits and fits
Five Sigma rule of thumb -
Fixed and floating fastener. See Fixed
fastener; Floating fastener
Fixed fastener - ,
calculation
assembly shift -
clearance hole diameter -
counterbore diameter -
double. See Double-fixed fastener
examples -
formula - ,
projected tolerance zone. See Projected
tolerance zone
sizes/tolerances
clearance hole diameter - ,
counterbore hole diameter - ,
countersink diameter - ,
floating nut plate - I- Index
head height -
nonfloating nut plate -
tapped hole -
tolerance analysis of -
Flat
head screw
calculating head height -
pattern layout drawing -
Flatness tolerance - ,
analysis of -
comparison of US and ISO -
derived median plane - ,
for a width-type feature - ,
per unit area -
single planar surface -
symbol -
Flaws -
Floating and fixed fastener. See Fixed
fastener; Floating fastener
Floating fastener - ,
calculation
clearance hole diameter -
counterbore diameter -
examples -
formula -
sizes/tolerances
clearance hole diameter - ,
counterbore hole diameter - ,
floating nut plate -
tolerance analysis of -
Ford Motor Company -
Forgings/castings. See Castings/forgings
Form
qualifying notes
comparison of US and ISO -
control. See Form tolerance
Form tolerance - , . See also Levels of
control, Level : overall form
analysis of -
circularity (roundness). See Circularity
(roundness) tolerance
comparison of US and ISO - ,
cylindricity. See Cylindricity tolerance
flatness. See Form tolerance
limits of size. See Levels of control, Level :
overall form; Limits of size
profile. See Profile tolerance
runout. See Runout tolerance
straightness. See Straightness tolerance
when to use -
Formula
double-fixed fastener. See Double-fixed
fastener formula
fixed fastener. See Fixed fastener formula
floating fastener. See Floating fastener
formula
resultant condition -
virtual condition - ,
Frame
basic dimension. See Basic dimension frame
datum feature symbol. See Datum feature
symbol
datum reference. See Datum reference frame
feature control. See Feature control frame
Framework of boundaries/zones -
feature relating (FRTZF). See Feature
relating tolerance zone framework
(FRTZF)
pattern locating (PLTZF). See Pattern
locating tolerance zone framework
(PLTZF)
Free state
application - ,
symbol - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
Freedom, degrees of. See Datum degrees of
freedom; Degrees of freedom
FRTZF. See Feature Relating Tolerance Zone
Framework (FRTZF); Feature relating
tolerance zone framework (FRTZF)
FTP. See File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Full
Indicator
Movement (FIM) -
Runout (FIR) -
sections -
Functional
gaging - ,
hierarchy - ,
requirements - ,
Gages -
Fundamental
levels of control. See Levels of control
rules -
Future of
academia - Index I-
dimensional management - ,
dimensioning and tolerancing -
GD&T - ,
global standards and business perspective
-
research -
software tools - ,
standards -
dimensioning/tolerancing - ,
metrology -
tolerance analysis - ,
tolerancing -
in academics - ,
in business -
G
Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R)
-
analysis -
Gaging
functional -
tolerances -
virtual -
Galvin, Bob -
Gamma distribution -
Gap equation. See Performance
requirements; Tolerance analysis equations, vector loop ( -D)
-D - ,
-D/ -D - ,
Gauss, Karl Frederick -
Gaussian distribution -
GD&T. See Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing (GD&T)
Gears/splines -
General
dimensions - ,
tolerance
comparison of US and ISO -
Generation templates -
Geometric
characteristic symbol - ,
Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) -
, -
advice -
analysis of -
certification of GD&T professionals -
future of. See Future of GD&T
instant -
overview -
symbols - ,
what is it? -
when to use - ,
why to use -
Product Specification -
tolerance -
tolerancing - ,
variation. See Variation, geometric
Geometrical
Product Specification (GPS)
Masterplan -
GIDEP -
GO gages -
GR&R. See Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R)
Graphical inspection analysis -
Groove - ,
H
Half sections -
Harry, Mikel J.
Histogram -
Hog Out Parts -
Hole
angled. See Angled feature
counterbored. See Counterbore
countersunk. See Countersink
pattern verification -
slotted. See Slotted hole
Horizontal loop - . See also Assembly
tolerance models, vector loops
HPGL -
Hypergeometric distribution -
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) -
Hyphenated co-datums - ,
, -
I
IBM -
IGES -
Implied
° angle dimension -
° basic angle dimension - ,
, -
basic dimension - I- Index
datum -
parallelism/perpendicularity -
symmetry -
Independency Principle -
Indication of limited length/area. See Limited
length/area indication
Indicator movement/swing - ,
Injection molded plastic -
Inner/outer boundary -
using in a tolerance analysis -
Inspection driven design -
Instant GD&T - ,
Integrated
design process -
product team - ,
Interchangeability -
Internal/external features of size. See External/
internal features of size
International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) -
, -
standards -
Telephone and Telegraph Corporation -
Internet -
Interrupted surface -
Intranet -
ISO. See International Organization for
Standardization (ISO)
ISO -
Isometric views -
J
Johnson distribution -
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) -

Juran Institute, Inc.
Juran, Joseph -
K
Key characteristics - , . See also
Assembly tolerance models, key characteristics
Kinematic joints. See Assembly tolerance
model, kinematic joints
degrees of freedom -
incoming -
outgoing -
path across -
types -
cylindrical slider - ,
edge slider - ,
parallel cylinders - ,
planar -
planar joint -
Kinematic model -
Kodak -
Kurtosis -
L
Lagrange Multiplier -
Method -
Lambda distribution -
Language -
"Language of management is money" -
Laplace distribution -
Lay -
Layout Gaging -
Least
Material Condition (LMC) -
for feature control -
symbol - ,
when to apply - ,

zero tolerance at. See Zero tolerance at
MMC/LMC
squares -
Levels of control -
Level : size and -D form - ,
Level : overall form - ,
Level : orientation - ,
Level : location - ,
Limit dimensioning - ,
Limited length/area indication - ,
Limits
and fits -
and fits symbol -
of size - . See also Rules, #
boundary. See Size limit boundary
circularity control. See Circularity
(roundness) tolerance control by limits of
size
cylindrical feature -
width-type feature -
Line
center. See Center lineIndex I-
chain. See Chain line
derived median. See Derived median line
extension. See Extension lines
phantom. See Phantom line
precedence -
profile. See Profile tolerance of a line
profile of a. See Profile tolerance, of a line
Linear
tolerance - , . See also Plus and
minus tolerance
comparison with GD&T - ,
LMC. See Least Material Condition (LMC)
Lobes
circularity control - ,
concentricity control - ,
cylindricity control -
Location tolerance. See Levels of control, Level
: location
Logistic distribution -
Lognormal -
distribution -
approximation to Normal distribution -
transforming values -
Loop. See Vector loop
closed. See Closed loop
diagram. See Assembly tolerance models,
vector loops
equation. See Tolerance analysis equations,
vector loop ( -D)
horizontal. See Horizontal loop
open. See Open loop
vertical. See Vertical loop
Lower specification limit -
M
Machined part - ,
drawing -
Machining processes -
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award -
, -
design and production processes are coordinated -
differs from ISO -
Motorola -
Manufacturing
guidelines -
process - ,
capability data. See Process capability
data
distributions -
variation. See Variation sources, process
process capability. See Process capability
Master Model -
Theory -
Material condition - . See also Least
Material Condition (LMC); Maximum
Material Condition (MMC); Regardless of
Feature Size (RFS)
analysis of -
least. See Least Material Condition (LMC)
maximum. See Maximum Material Condition
(MMC)
modifier symbol - ,
modifiers
analysis of -
proper use of -
regardless of feature size. See Regardless of
Feature Size (RFS)
Math Standard
ASME Y . M (the "Math Standard"). See
American National Standards, ASME
Y . M (the "Math Standard")
Mathematically defined surface - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
datum targets for -
profile control for -
Mathematization -
Mating parts - ,
. See also Fixed fastener
formula; Floating fastener
formula; Maximum Material Condition
(MMC), when to apply; Virtual condition
Maximum
inscribed circle -
Material Condition (MMC) - ,
for feature control - ,
symbol - ,
when to apply - ,
zero tolerance at. See Zero tolerance at
MMC/LMC
MBNQA. See Malcolm Baldrige National
Quality Award
MCS. See Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS)
Mean - ,
gap. See Gap equation
Measured value - I- Index
Measurement
methods analysis -
temperature -
Median
line
derived. See Derived median line
plane
comparison of US and ISO -
derived. See Derived median plane
Method of System Moments (MSM) - ,
, -
Metrology - ,
Minimum circumscribed circle -
Minimum cost. See Tolerance allocation by
cost minimization
Minimum radial separation -
Minimum stock protection. See Least Material
Condition (LMC), when to apply
Minitab - ,
Modern manufacturability -
Modified Root Sum of the Squares (MRSS)
analysis -
Modifying symbol - ,
when to apply -
Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) - ,
, -
Motorola -
Baldrige Award -
Six Sigma is a trademark of -
MRSS. See Modified Root Sum of the Squares
(MRSS)
MSM. See Method of System Moments (MSM)
Multiple
Datum Structures -
DRFs -
N
National
Science Foundation (NSF) -
Standards -
Native database -
NOGO gages -
Nominal dimension -
Non normal distribution -
Nonrigid part -
average diameter. See Average diameter
comparison of US and ISO -
restraint. See Restraint of nonrigid part
Nonsize feature - ,
Normal distribution -
Normality -
Note -
all over. See All over note
drawing -
for "instant" GD&T -
for runout control -
general datum reference frame -
restraining. See Free state; Restraint of
nonrigid part
to modify tolerance - ,
NSF. See National Science Foundation (NSF)
Number of places -
symbol -
Numerical notation
comparison of US and ISO -
Nut plates - . See also Double-fixed
fastener; Fixed fastener; Floating
fastener
O
O-ring groove - , . See also
Groove
Obsolete drawing -
Offset sections -
Open loop. See Assembly tolerance models,
open loop
Optimizing
unstable (rocking) datum feature -
Optimum acceptance fraction -
Order of precedence. See Datum precedence
Organize for quality improvement -
Orientation control. See Orientation tolerance
Orientation tolerance - . See also Levels of
control, Level : orientation
analysis of -
angularity. See Angularity tolerance
applications table - ,
applied to line elements -
comparison of US and ISO -
datum application -
how to apply -
parallelism. See Parallelism tolerance
perpendicularity. See Perpendicularity
tolerance
when to use -
with tangent plane. See Tangent planeIndex I-
zero. See Zero tolerance at MMC/LMC
orientation
Origin
dimension origin symbol. See Dimension
origin symbol
from datum reference frame - ,

Outer/inner boundary -
using in a tolerance analysis -
Outline, profile. See Basic profile
Over limited length/area. See Limited length/
area indication
P
Paper gaging -
advantages and disadvantages -
Paperless/electronic environment - ,
Parallelism tolerance - ,
analysis of -
symbol -
Pareto principle -
Partial views -
Pattern
Locating Tolerance Zone Framework
(PLTZF) -
of features - ,
composite tolerance for positional. See
Positional tolerance, pattern control,
composite
profile. See Profile tolerance, composite
radial. See Radial feature pattern
PDF. See Portable Document Format (PDF)
Pearson distribution -
Per area/length unit - ,
Percent
containment -
contribution chart -
Perfect form. See Boundary of perfect form
boundary at LMC. See Boundary of perfect
form at LMC
boundary at MMC. See Boundary of perfect
form at MMC
not required. See Boundary of perfect form
not required
Performance
expected assembly -
requirements - ,
, -
Perpendicularity tolerance - ,
analysis of -
symbol -
Personal computer -
Phantom line - ,
Piecepart tolerance. See Tolerance, piecepart
Pin
diamond -
parallel-flats -
Pins. See Alignment pins
Pitch cylinder -
Pitch diameter rule
comparison of US and ISO -
Placement
datum feature symbol. See Datum symbol
placement
feature control frame. See Feature control
frame placement
Plane
center. See Center plane
datum. See Datum plane
derived median. See Derived median plane
feature center. See Feature center plane
median
comparison of US and ISO -
mutually perpendicular - ,
tangent. See Tangent plane
tolerance. See Tolerance plane, sweeping
PLTZF. See Pattern Locating Tolerance Zone
Framework (PLTZF)
Plus and minus tolerance - , . See also
Angle plus and minus tolerance; Linear
tolerance
comparison with GD&T - ,
Point
center. See Center point
datum. See Datum point
Poisson distribution - ,
Polar coordinate system - ,
Population -
parameter zone -
Portable Document Format (PDF) -
Positional control. See Positional tolerance
Positional tolerance -
analysis of -
comparison of US and ISO - ,
, -
datum application - I- Index
for a bounded feature - ,
for coaxiality to a datum - ,
how to apply -
pattern control
coaxial/coplanar features -
composite -
single-segment -
stacked segments - ,
symbol -
true position. See True position
with implied datums -
with projected tolerance zone -
at LMC -
at MMC -
at RFS -
zero. See Zero tolerance at MMC/LMC
positional
Precedence, datum. See Datum precedence
switchable. See Datum target switchable
precedence
Principle
Envelope (Taylor). See Taylor Principle
extended/extension. See Extension of
principle
of Independency
comparison of US and ISO -
Probabilities
additive -
Probability distribution function -
Probe -
Process
analysis -
capability -
data - , . See also Manufacturing process capability data
defined by industry -
for generating holes -
index (Cp) - ,
relative to process centering (Cpk) -
indices -
long-term - ,
matrix -
models -
short-term - ,
changes to the design or manufacturing -
driven design -
manufacturing. See Manufacturing process
selection -
shift -
variation -
Product -
Data Management (PDM) -
development process -
documentation -
financial success -
performance -
product feature -
product satisfaction -
vault -
Profile
basic. See Basic profile
control. See Profile tolerance
outline. See Basic profile
Profile tolerance - ,
abutting zones -
analysis of -
application -
basic profile. See Basic profile
bilateral -
comparison of US and ISO - ,
composite -
analysis of -
for a pattern of features - ,
for a single feature -
controlling the extent of -
datum application -
disposition of zone - ,
equal bilateral
analysis of -
equal-bilateral -
extent of. See Extent of profile tolerance
for a combination of attributes -
for coplanarity -
for form control - ,
for math-defined surfaces -
for stepped surfaces -
how to apply -
of a line -
of a surface - ,
symbol -
unequal bilateral -
analysis of -
unilateral -
analysis of -
Projected tolerance zone -
application - , Index I-
comparison of US and ISO -
comparison with no projection -
comparison without projected zone -
symbol - ,
Projection view -
Proportional scaling -
Push pin versus fixed pin gaging -
Q
Quality -
control -
Crosby Quality College -
evolution of -
improvement -
organize for -
is free -
planning -
prediction models -
Six Sigma approach -
Quantitative measure of manufacturability -
Question (Frequently Asked Question). See
FAQ
R
Radial feature pattern -
Radius -
controlled. See Controlled radius
spherical. See Spherical radius
symbol - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
tolerance -
zone -
Rapid prototypes -
Receiver Gages -
Rectangular coordinate system -
Reference
dimension -
application -
comparison of US and ISO -
symbol - ,
frame (DRF)
multiple -
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) -
comparison of US and ISO -
for feature control - ,
when to apply - ,
Release procedures -
Removed section -
Repeatability -
Requirements. See Performance requirements
functional. See Functional requirements
simultaneous/separate. See Simultaneous/
separate requirements
Research -
Resize. See Tolerance allocation by scaling/
resizing/weight factor
factor. See Tolerance allocation by scaling/
resizing/weight factor
Restraint
of minimum material envelope. See Actual
minimum material envelope, restraint of
of nonrigid part -
using a note -
Restrictive tolerance
comparison of US and ISO -
Resultant condition -
boundary -
LMC -
MMC - ,
using in a tolerance analysis - ,
Revision blocks -
Revolute - ,
control
with circularity -
with concentricity - ,
with runout -
datum targets applied to -
Revolved section -
RFS. See Regardless of feature size (RFS)
RMS (root-mean-square) deviation index -
Rocking. See Datum feature, unstable (rocking)
Root Sum of the Squares (RSS) - ,
, -
allocation
by cost minimization -
by manufacturing processes - ,
, -
by scaling/resizing/weight factor -
analysis - ,
expression -
Rotation -
Rotational shift tolerance -
Roughness -
Roundness. See Circularity
RSS. See Root Sum of the Squares (RSS)I- Index
Rules
# - ,
comparison of US and ISO -
exceptions. See Boundary of perfect form
not required; Independency principle
#
comparison of US and ISO -
a
comparison of US and ISO -
assembly tolerance models. See Assembly
tolerance models, modeling; Assembly
tolerance models, modeling rules
Five Sigma rule of thumb. See Five sigma
rule of thumb
for pattern control
composite -
stacked single segment -
fundamental. See Fundamental rules
pitch diameter
comparison of US and ISO -
Runout control. See Runout tolerance
Runout tolerance -
analysis of -
circular - . See also Circular runout
tolerance
datum application


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