كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
Robert C. Juvinall
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Michigan
Kurt M. Marshek
Professor of Mechanical Engineering
University of Texas at Austin  

كتاب Fundamentals of Machine Component Design  F_o_m_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Preface v
Acknowledgments ix
Symbols xix
P A R T 1 FUNDAMENTALS 1
1 Mechanical Engineering Design in Broad Perspective 1
1.1 An Overview of the Subject 1
1.2 Safety Considerations 2
1.3 Ecological Considerations 7
1.4 Societal Considerations 8
1.5 Overall Design Considerations 10
1.6 Systems of Units 12
1.7 Methodology for Solving Machine Component Problems 14
1.8 Work and Energy 16
1.9 Power 18
1.10 Conservation of Energy 19
2 Load Analysis 39
2.1 Introduction 39
2.2 Equilibrium Equations and Free-Body Diagrams 39
2.3 Beam Loading 49
2.4 Locating Critical Sections—Force Flow Concept 52
2.5 Load Division Between Redundant Supports 54
2.6 Force Flow Concept Applied to Redundant Ductile Structures 56
3 Materials 84
3.1 Introduction 84
3.2 The Static Tensile Test—“Engineering” Stress–Strain Relationships 85
3.3 Implications of the “Engineering” Stress–Strain Curve 86
3.4 The Static Tensile Test—“True” Stress–Strain Relationships 89
3.5 Energy-Absorbing Capacity 90
3.6 Estimating Strength Properties from Penetration Hardness Tests 91
3.7 Use of “Handbook” Data for Material Strength Properties 94
3.8 Machinability 95
3.9 Cast Iron 95
3.10 Steel 96
3.11 Nonferrous Alloys 98
3.12 Plastics and Composites 100
3.13 Materials Selection Charts 105
3.14 Engineering Material Selection Process 107
xixii Contents
4 Static Body Stresses 121
4.1 Introduction 121
4.2 Axial Loading 121
4.3 Direct Shear Loading 123
4.4 Torsional Loading 124
4.5 Pure Bending Loading, Straight Beams 126
4.6 Pure Bending Loading, Curved Beams 127
4.7 Transverse Shear Loading in Beams 132
4.8 Induced Stresses, Mohr Circle Representation 138
4.9 Combined Stresses—Mohr Circle Representation 140
4.10 Stress Equations Related to Mohr’s Circle 143
4.11 Three-Dimensional Stresses 144
4.12 Stress Concentration Factors, Kt 148
4.13 Importance of Stress Concentration 151
4.14 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Axial Loading 153
4.15 Residual Stresses Caused by Yielding—Bending and Torsional Loading 157
4.16 Thermal Stresses 159
4.17 Importance of Residual Stresses 161
5 Elastic Strain, Deflection, and Stability 178
5.1 Introduction 178
5.2 Strain Definition, Measurement, and Mohr Circle Representation 179
5.3 Analysis of Strain—Equiangular Rosettes 181
5.4 Analysis of Strain—Rectangular Rosettes 183
5.5 Elastic Stress–Strain Relationships and Three-Dimensional Mohr Circles 185
5.6 Deflection and Spring Rate—Simple Cases 187
5.7 Beam Deflection 189
5.8 Determining Elastic Deflections by Castigliano’s Method 192
5.9 Redundant Reactions by Castigliano’s Method 203
5.10 Euler Column Buckling—Elastic Instability 207
5.11 Equivalent Column Length for Various End Conditions 209
5.12 Column Design Equations—J. B. Johnson Parabola 210
5.13 Eccentric Column Loading—the Secant Formula 214
5.14 Equivalent Column Stresses 215
5.15 Other Types of Buckling 216
5.16 Finite Element Analysis 217
6 Failure Theories, Safety Factors, and Reliability 227
6.1 Introduction 227
6.2 Types of Failure 229
6.3 Fracture Mechanics—Basic Concepts 230
6.4 Fracture Mechanics—Applications 231
6.5 The “Theory” of Static Failure Theories 240
6.6 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory 242
6.7 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory 242
6.8 Maximum-Distortion-Energy Theory (Maximum-Octahedral-Shear-Stress
Theory) 243
6.9 Mohr Theory and Modified Mohr Theory 245
6.10 Selection and Use of Failure Theories 246
6.11 Safety Factors—Concept and Definition 248
6.12 Safety Factors—Selection of a Numerical Value 250
6.13 Reliability 252Contents xiii
6.14 Normal Distributions 253
6.15 Interference Theory of Reliability Prediction 254
7 Impact 264
7.1 Introduction 264
7.2 Stress and Deflection Caused by Linear and Bending Impact 266
7.3 Stress and Deflection Caused by Torsional Impact 273
7.4 Effect of Stress Raisers on Impact Strength 276
8 Fatigue 287
8.1 Introduction 287
8.2 Basic Concepts 287
8.3 Standard Fatigue Strengths (Sn′ ) for Rotating Bending 289
8.4 Fatigue Strengths for Reversed Bending and Reversed Axial Loading 294
8.5 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Torsional Loading 295
8.6 Fatigue Strength for Reversed Biaxial Loading 296
8.7 Influence of Surface and Size on Fatigue Strength 297
8.8 Summary of Estimated Fatigue Strengths for Completely
Reversed Loading 299
8.9 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength 299
8.10 Effect of Stress Concentration with Completely Reversed Fatigue
Loading 308
8.11 Effect of Stress Concentration with Mean Plus Alternating Loads 310
8.12 Fatigue Life Prediction with Randomly Varying Loads 317
8.13 Effect of Surface Treatments on the Fatigue Strength of a Part 320
8.14 Mechanical Surface Treatments—Shot Peening and Others 322
8.15 Thermal and Chemical Surface-Hardening Treatments (Induction
Hardening, Carburizing, and Others) 323
8.16 Fatigue Crack Growth 323
8.17 General Approach for Fatigue Design 327
9 Surface Damage 341
9.1 Introduction 341
9.2 Corrosion: Fundamentals 341
9.3 Corrosion: Electrode and Electrolyte Heterogeneity 344
9.4 Design for Corrosion Control 345
9.5 Corrosion Plus Static Stress 348
9.6 Corrosion Plus Cyclic Stress 350
9.7 Cavitation Damage 350
9.8 Types of Wear 351
9.9 Adhesive Wear 351
9.10 Abrasive Wear 353
9.11 Fretting 354
9.12 Analytical Approach to Wear 355
9.13 Curved-Surface Contact Stresses 358
9.14 Surface Fatigue Failures 364
9.15 Closure 365
P A R T 2 APPLICATIONS 373
10 Threaded Fasteners and Power Screws 373
10.1 Introduction 373
10.2 Thread Forms, Terminology, and Standards 373xiv Contents
10.3 Power Screws 377
10.4 Static Screw Stresses 386
10.5 Threaded Fastener Types 390
10.6 Fastener Materials and Methods of Manufacture 392
10.7 Bolt Tightening and Initial Tension 392
10.8 Thread Loosening and Thread Locking 396
10.9 Bolt Tension with External Joint-Separating Force 399
10.10 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Static Loading 403
10.11 Bolt (or Screw) Selection for Fatigue Loading: Fundamentals 409
10.12 Bolt Selection for Fatigue Loading: Using Special Test Data 415
10.13 Increasing Bolted-Joint Fatigue Strength 418
11 Rivets, Welding, and Bonding 428
11.1 Introduction 428
11.2 Rivets 428
11.3 Welding Processes 429
11.4 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Axial and Direct Shear Loading 433
11.5 Welded Joints Subjected to Static Torsional and Bending Loading 436
11.6 Fatigue Considerations in Welded Joints 441
11.7 Brazing and Soldering 443
11.8 Adhesives 443
12 Springs 450
12.1 Introduction 450
12.2 Torsion Bar Springs 450
12.3 Coil Spring Stress and Deflection Equations 451
12.4 Stress and Strength Analysis for Helical Compression
Springs—Static Loading 456
12.5 End Designs of Helical Compression Springs 458
12.6 Buckling Analysis of Helical Compression Springs 459
12.7 Design Procedure for Helical Compression Springs—Static Loading 460
12.8 Design of Helical Compression Springs for Fatigue Loading 463
12.9 Helical Extension Springs 471
12.10 Beam Springs (Including Leaf Springs) 472
12.11 Torsion Springs 477
12.12 Miscellaneous Springs 479
13 Lubrication and Sliding Bearings 496
13.1 Types of Lubricants 496
13.2 Types of Sliding Bearings 496
13.3 Types of Lubrication 497
13.4 Basic Concepts of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 498
13.5 Viscosity 500
13.6 Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity 504
13.7 Petroff’s Equation for Bearing Friction 505
13.8 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory 507
13.9 Design Charts for Hydrodynamic Bearings 510
13.10 Lubricant Supply 516
13.11 Heat Dissipation and Equilibrium Oil Film Temperature 518
13.12 Bearing Materials 519
13.13 Hydrodynamic Bearing Design 521
13.14 Boundary and Mixed-Film Lubrication 526
13.15 Thrust Bearings 528
13.16 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 529Contents xv
14 Rolling-Element Bearings 535
14.1 Comparison of Alternative Means for Supporting Rotating Shafts 535
14.2 History of Rolling-Element Bearings 537
14.3 Rolling-Element Bearing Types 537
14.4 Design of Rolling-Element Bearings 543
14.5 Fitting of Rolling-Element Bearings 546
14.6 “Catalogue Information” for Rolling-Element Bearings 547
14.7 Bearing Selection 551
14.8 Mounting Bearings to Provide Properly for Thrust Load 558
15 Spur Gears 564
15.1 Introduction and History 564
15.2 Geometry and Nomenclature 565
15.3 Interference and Contact Ratio 573
15.4 Gear Force Analysis 576
15.5 Gear-Tooth Strength 579
15.6 Basic Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Stress (Lewis Equation) 580
15.7 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Basic Concepts 582
15.8 Refined Analysis of Gear-Tooth-Bending Strength: Recommended
Procedure 584
15.9 Gear-Tooth Surface Durability—Basic Concepts 590
15.10 Gear-Tooth Surface Fatigue Analysis—Recommended Procedure 593
15.11 Spur Gear Design Procedures 597
15.12 Gear Materials 601
15.13 Gear Trains 602
16 Helical, Bevel, and Worm Gears 616
16.1 Introduction 616
16.2 Helical-Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 617
16.3 Helical-Gear Force Analysis 621
16.4 Helical Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 624
16.5 Crossed Helical Gears 625
16.6 Bevel Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 626
16.7 Bevel Gear Force Analysis 628
16.8 Bevel Gear-Tooth-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 629
16.9 Bevel Gear Trains; Differential Gears 632
16.10 Worm Gear Geometry and Nomenclature 633
16.11 Worm Gear Force and Efficiency Analysis 635
16.12 Worm-Gear-Bending and Surface Fatigue Strengths 640
16.13 Worm Gear Thermal Capacity 642
17 Shafts and Associated Parts
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 653
17.1 Introduction 653
17.2 Provision for Shaft Bearings 653
17.3 Mounting Parts onto Rotating Shafts 654
17.4 Rotating-Shaft Dynamics 657
17.5 Overall Shaft Design 661
17.6 Keys, Pins, and Splines 665
17.7 Couplings and Universal Joints 668
18 Clutches and Brakes
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 681
18.1 Introduction 681xvi Contents
18.2 Disk Clutches 681
18.3 Disk Brakes 686
18.4 Energy Absorption and Cooling 687
18.5 Cone Clutches and Brakes 688
18.6 Short-Shoe Drum Brakes 690
18.7 External Long-Shoe Drum Brakes 693
18.8 Internal Long-Shoe Drum Brakes 699
18.9 Band Brakes 701
18.10 Materials 704
19 Belts, Chains, and Other Components
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 714
19.1 Introduction 714
19.2 Flat Belts 714
19.3 V-Belts 716
19.4 Toothed Belts 720
19.5 Roller Chains 720
19.6 Inverted-Tooth Chains 722
19.7 History of Hydrodynamic Drives 724
19.8 Fluid Couplings 724
19.9 Hydrodynamic Torque Converters 727
20 Micro/Nanoscale Machine Elements
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 737
20.1 Introduction 737
20.2 Micro and Nanoscale Actuators 738
20.3 Micro and Nanoscale Bearings 744
20.4 Micro and Nanoscale Sensors 748
20.5 Conclusions 760
21 Machine Component Interrelationships—A Case Study
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 763
21.1 Introduction 763
21.2 Description of Original Hydra-Matic Transmission 763
21.3 Free-Body Diagram Determination of Gear Ratios and
Component Loads 766
21.4 Gear Design Considerations 769
21.5 Brake and Clutch Design Considerations 771
21.6 Miscellaneous Design Considerations 772
22 Design and Fabrication of the Mechanical Systems for a Remote Control
Car—A Design Project Case Study
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 775
22.1 Case Study Summary 775
22.2 Project Components 776
22.3 Project Organization 778
22.4 System Design Considerations 779
22.5 RC Car Race 783
A Units 785
A-1a Conversion Factors for British Gravitational, English, and SI Units 785
A-1b Conversion Factor Equalities Listed by Physical Quantity 786
A-2a Standard SI Prefixes 788
A-2b SI Units and Symbols 789Contents xvii
A-3 Suggested SI Prefixes for Stress Calculations 790
A-4 Suggested SI Prefixes for Linear-Deflection Calculations 790
A-5 Suggested SI Prefixes for Angular-Deflection Calculations 790
B Properties of Sections and Solids 791
B-1a Properties of Sections 791
B-1b Dimensions and Properties of Steel Pipe and Tubing Sections 792
B-2 Mass and Mass Moments of Inertia of Homogeneous Solids 794
C Material Properties and Uses 795
C-1 Physical Properties of Common Metals 795
C-2 Tensile Properties of Some Metals 796
C-3a Typical Mechanical Properties and Uses of Gray Cast Iron 797
C-3b Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Malleable Cast Iron 798
C-3c Average Mechanical Properties and Typical Uses of Ductile (Nodular) Iron 799
C-4a Mechanical Properties of Selected Carbon and Alloy Steels 800
C-4b Typical Uses of Plain Carbon Steels 802
C-5a Properties of Some Water-Quenched and Tempered Steels 803
C-5b Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Carbon Steels 804
C-5c Properties of Some Oil-Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steels 805
C-6 Effect of Mass on Strength Properties of Steel 806
C-7 Mechanical Properties of Some Carburizing Steels 807
C-8 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought Stainless Steels
(Approximate Median Expectations) 808
C-9 Mechanical Properties of Some Iron-Based Superalloys 809
C-10 Mechanical Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some
Wrought Aluminum Alloys 810
C-11 Tensile Properties, Characteristics, and Typical Uses of Some
Cast-Aluminum Alloys 811
C-12 Temper Designations for Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys 812
C-13 Mechanical Properties of Some Copper Alloys 813
C-14 Mechanical Properties of Some Magnesium Alloys 814
C-15 Mechanical Properties of Some Nickel Alloys 815
C-16 Mechanical Properties of Some Wrought-Titanium Alloys 816
C-17 Mechanical Properties of Some Zinc Casting Alloys 817
C-18a Representative Mechanical Properties of Some Common Plastics 818
C-18b Properties of Some Common Glass-Reinforced and Unreinforced
Thermoplastic Resins 819
C-18c Typical Applications of Common Plastics 820
C-19 Material Names and Applications 821
C-20 Designer’s Subset of Engineering Materials 824
C-21 Processing Methods Used Most Frequently with Different Materials 825
C-22 Joinability of Materials 826
C-23 Materials for Machine Components 827
C-24 Relations Between Failure Modes and Material Properties 829
D Shear, Moment, and Deflection Equations for Beams
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 830
D-1 Cantilever Beams 830
D-2 Simply Supported Beams 831
D-3 Beams with Fixed Ends 833xviii Contents
E Fits and Tolerances
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 834
E-1 Fits and Tolerances for Holes and Shafts 834
E-2 Standard Tolerances for Cylindrical Parts 835
E-3 Tolerance Grades Produced from Machining Processes 836
F MIL-HDBK-5J, Department of Defense Handbook: Metallic Materials
and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 837
F-1 Introduction 837
F-2 Overview of Data in MIL-HDBK-5J 837
F-3 Advanced Formulas and Concepts Used in MIL-HDBK-5J 838
F-4 Mechanical and Physical Properties of 2024 Aluminum Alloy 842
F-5 Fracture Toughness and Other Miscellaneous Properties 848
F-6 Conclusion 850
G Force Equilibrium: A Vectorial Approach
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 852
G-1 Vectors: A Review 852
G-2 Force and Moments Equilibrium 853
H Normal Distributions
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 855
H-1 Standard Normal Distribution Table 855
H-2 Converting to Standard Normal Distribution 857
H-3 Linear Combination of Normal Distributions 857
I S-N Formula
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 858
I-1 S-N Formula 858
I-2 Illustrative Example 859
J Gear Terminology and Contact-Ratio Analysis
(online at www.wiley.com/college/juvinall) 860
J-1 Nominal Spur-Gear Quantities 860
J-2 Actual Quantities 862
J-3 Illustrative Example 863
Index
INDEX
A
ABEC see Annular Bearing Engineers’ Committee (ABEC)
Abrasive wear, 353–354, 591
ABS (acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene), 102
Acetal, 102
Acme threads, 377
Acrylic, 102
Acrylic adhesives, 445
Actuators
displacement-based, 742–744 (online, Ch 20)
force-based, 739–741 (online, Ch 20)
Addendum, 568
Adhesive bonding, 443
Adhesive wear, 351–353, 527
AFBMA (Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association), 546
AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association), 564
AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction), 428
Alkyd, 103
Alloying, 100
Alloys
aluminum (see Aluminum alloys)
cast iron, 95–96
copper, 99, 293, 813
magnesium, 99, 293–294, 812, 814
nickel, 99–100, 293, 815
nonferrous alloys, 98–100
steel (see Steel alloys)
superalloys, 98–100, 809
titanium, 100, 816
zinc, 100, 817
Allyl (diallyl phthalate), 103
Alternating loads/stress, 310–315
Aluminum
anodized, 346
cavitation of, 351
connecting rod, 212–214
corrosion of, 345–347
fretting of, 354–355
notch sensitivity of, 309
Aluminum alloys, 98–99
endurance limit of, 290
fatigue strength diagrams for, 290, 293
mechanical properties/uses of, 810, 811
temper designations for, 812
American Blower Company, 724
American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA), 564
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 428
American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI), 5
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 99, 434
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), 250, 374,
428, 722
American Welding Society (AWS), 434
Amino, 103
Anaerobic adhesives, 445
Anisotropic materials, 248
Annealing, 161, 349
Annular Bearing Engineers’ Committee (ABEC), 546
Anode, sacrificial, 343, 346
Anodized aluminum, 346
Anodizing, 345
ANSI see American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI)
Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA), 546
Approximations, 16
Ashby’s materials selection charts, 105–107
ASME see American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Asperity welding, 352–353
ASTM see American Society for Testing and Materials
Automatic transmission, 763 (online, Ch 21)
Automobiles
load analysis, 40–45
performance analysis, 20–23
power train components, 42–43
transmission components, 43–45
AWS (American Welding Society), 434
Axial impact, 270
Axial loads/loading, 121–123
and Castigliano’s method, 193
with power screws, 386
and residual stresses, 153–157
reversed, 294–295
with roller bearings, 552–553
sign convention for, 124
with springs, 455
with threaded fasteners, 386
B
Ball bearings
and axial loading, 553
dimensions of, 547–549
history of, 537
life requirement for, 551–552
radial, 536
rated capacities of, 549, 550
reliability requirement for, 552
865866 INDEX
Ball bearings (contd.)
rings for, 542
selection of, 551–556
shields/seals for, 541–542
and shock loading, 554
special, 544–545
surface damage to, 359–365
thrust load, mounting for, 558–559
types of, 538, 539
Ball-bearing screws, 383
Band brakes, 701–703 (online, Ch 18)
Bars
compression/tension, impacted in, 273–274
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 187
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of stress raiser
on, 278–280
stress concentration factors of, 152–153
Base units, 12
Basic design objective, 7
Basic hole system, 835 (online, Appendix E)
Beach marks, 287–288
Beam loading, 49–52
Beams
bending impact, with compound spring, 272–273
bent cantilever, deflection in, 197–198
centrally loaded, deflection in, 194–195
curved, bending of, 127–132
deflection in, 189–191, 830–833 (online, Appendix D)
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 187
extreme-fiber-bending stresses, 131–132
straight, bending of, 126–127
transverse shear loading in, 132–138
Beam springs, 472–477
Bearing(s)
ball (see Ball bearings)
bearings for shafts, 653–654 (online, Ch 17)
definition of, 744–748 (online, Ch 20)
micro and nanoscale, 744–748 (online, Ch 20)
rolling-element (see Rolling-element)
sliding (see Sliding bearings)
thrust, 528, 558–559
Bell crank, load analysis of, 46–47
Belt drive, with spur gears, 567
Belts
flat, 714–716
toothed (timing), 720
V-, 716–719
Bending
of beams, 49–50, 126–132
bevel gears, 629–632
and Castigliano’s method, 193
and fatigue strength, 289–295, 315–317
of gear teeth, 580–590
helical gears, 624–625
and residual stresses, 157–159
and shear stresses, 136–138
sign convention for, 50
worm gears, 640–642
Bending impact, 266–268, 272–273
Bevel gears, 616, 618, 626–633
bending stress with, 629–632
force analysis with, 628–629
geometry of, 626–627
large end, 626
pitch cones, 626
surface fatigue stress with, 629, 631
trains, gear, 632–633
and Tredgold’s approximation, 626
Zerol, 627
Biaxial effect (of stress raisers), 148
Biaxial loading, fatigue strength for reversed, 296–297
Biaxial stresses, 144, 146, 185
modified Mohr theory for, 245
Bioengineering, 48
Blind rivets, 429–430
Body stress(es), 121–162
from axial loading, 121–123
combined, 140–143
concentration factors, 148–151
from direct shear loading, 123–124
induced, 138–140
from pure bending loading, 126–132
residual (see Residual stresses)
thermal, 159–161
three-dimensional, 144–148
from torsional loading, 124–126
from transverse shear loading, 132–138
Bolted joint, shear load capacity of, 405–406
Bolts, 390
bracket attachment, selection for, 406–409
design for impact strength of, 278–280
fatigue loading, selection for, 409–414
fatigue strength, increasing, 418–419
initial tightening tension, 392–396, 410–412
pressure vessel flange bolts, selection of, 416–417
static loading, selection for, 403–409
tension of, with external joint-separating force, 399–403
and thread-bearing stress, 386–388
types of, 391
Bonderizing, 345
Bonding, adhesive, 443–445
Boundary lubrication, 498, 526–528
Bracket(s)
bolts for attachment of, 406–407
deflection of redundantly supported, 204–206
Brake(s), 681 (online, Ch 18)
band, 701–703 (online, Ch 18)
cone, 688–690 (online, Ch 18)
design considerations, 771–772 (online, Ch 21)
disk, 686–687 (online, Ch 18)
energy absorption/cooling with, 687–688 (online, Ch 18)
long-shoe drum, 693–699 (online, Ch 18)INDEX 867
materials for, 704–705 (online, Ch 18)
short-shoe drum, 690–693 (online, Ch 18)
Brasses, 99
Brazing, 443
Brinell hardness test, 91–94, 290
British Comets, 4
British Gravitational units, 12–14
British thermal unit, 17
British thermal units per second, 18
Brittle fracture, 229, 276
Brittle materials, 229, 252, 296
Bronzes, 99, 351
Buckingham, Earle, 592
Buckling, 207–209, 216–217
columns, 207–217
eccentric loading, secant formula for, 214–215
of helical compression springs, 460
local, 216–217
of power screws, 389
Building codes, 250
Butt welds, 434, 442
C
Cadmium, 346, 366
Camshafts
power requirement, 19–20
torque requirement, 17–18
Cantilever beams, 197–198, 830 (online, Appendix D)
Capacitive sensors, 749–750 (online, Ch 20)
Carbide, 344
Carbon fiber reinforcement, 102
Carbon nanotube–based piezoresistors, 753–754 (online, Ch 20)
Carbon nanotube–based rotary bearings, 747–748 (online, Ch 20)
Carbon steels, 96–97, 796, 800–802
Carburizing, 98, 323
Carburizing steel, 807
Cardan joint, 669 (online, Ch 17)
Case-hardening steels, 98
Castigliano, Alberto, 192
Castigliano’s method
elastic deflections determined by, 192–203
redundant reactions by, 203–206
Cast iron, 95–96
cavitation of, 351
endurance limit of, 290
fretting of, 354–355
mechanical properties/uses of (table), 797–798
surface factor for, 297, 298
Cathode, 343
Cavitation, 350–351
Cellulosics, 102
Chains
inverted-tooth, 722–723
roller, 720–722
Change, 10
Charpy test, 91, 277
Chemical surface-hardening treatments, 323
Chilling, 96
Chordal action, 721
Chrome plating, 321
Chromium, 344
Chrysler Corporation, 724
Clearance fits, 834 (online, Appendix E)
Clutch(es)
cone, 688–690 (online, Ch 18)
design considerations, 771–772 (online, Ch 21)
disk, 681–686 (online, Ch 18)
function of, 681 (online, Ch 18)
materials for, 704–705 (online, Ch 18)
Coating, 109, 112
Coining, 322
Cold rolling, 322
Column buckling, 207–217
end conditions, column length and, 209–210
equivalent stresses, 215–216
J.B. Johnson parabola for, 210–214
Column loading (of power screws), 389–390
Comb-drive actuators, 741 (online, Ch 20)
Comb-drive sensors, 749, 750 (online, Ch 20)
Combined stresses, 140–143
Compatibility, of materials, 8
Completely reversed loading, fatigue strength for,
299, 308–310
Components, mechanical, 1
Composites, 104–105
engineering, 104, 106, 821
material, 104–105
Compound springs, 272–273
Compression, 121, 122
Compression springs, helical see Helical compression springs
Concentration, stress see Stress concentration factors
Cone clutches/brakes, 688–690 (online, Ch 18)
Configuration factor, 232, 325
Conic threaded fasteners, 377
Connecting rods, determining diameter, 211–212
Conservation of energy, 19–23
Constant-force springs, 480
Constant-life fatigue diagram, 301, 304, 305
Contact modulus, 358
Contact ratio (CR), 573–575, 860–864 (online, Appendix J)
Copolymerization, 100
Copper alloys, 99, 293, 813
Copper, corrosion of, 346
Corrosion, 341–351
crevice, 345
with cyclic stress, 350–351
design for control of, 345–347
and electrode/electrolyte heterogeneity, 344–345
with static stress, 348–350
Corrosion engineering, 341
Cost(s)
of machined parts, 95868 INDEX
Cost(s) (contd.)
of materials, 84
of safety factor, 251
Coulomb, C. A., 242
Coulomb-Mohr theory, 245
Countershaft, internal loads in transmission, 50–52
Couplings
fluid, 724–727
shaft, 668–671 (online, Ch 17)
CR see Contact ratio
Crack
length, 231, 323–327
propagation, 230, 233, 324, 329
Cracks, stress-corrosion, 348–350
Crevice corrosion, 3445
Critical sections, 52–54
Critical stress intensity factor, 230
Crossed helical gears, 616, 625
Cross-linked plastics, 101
Curved surfaces, contact stresses with, 358–364
Cyaniding, 98
Cyclic stress, and corrosion, 350
Cylindrical threaded fasteners, 377
D
Damper, 264
Damping, 266
Dashpot, 264
Dedendum, 568
Deflection, 178
beam, 189–191
Castigliano’s method for determining, 192–203
caused by linear/bending impact, 266–273
caused by torsional impact, 273–276
formulas for, 187–188
and redundant reactions, 203–206
of springs, 451–456
torsional, 188
DeMoivre, 253
Density, and strength, 106–107
Design, 1–12
ecological objectives of, 7–8
overall considerations in, 10–12
process, 107
safety considerations in, 2–7
societal objectives of, 8–10
Design overload, 249
“Design stress,” 248
Diallyl phthalate (allyl), 103
Dimensionally homogeneous equations, 12
Dimensions, primary/secondary, 12
Direct shear loading, 123–124
Disk brakes, 686–687 (online, Ch 18)
Disk clutches, 681–686 (online, Ch 18)
Disk sander shaft, safety factor of, 315–317
Displacement-based actuators
electrochemical actuators, 744 (online, Ch 20)
piezoelectric actuators, 743 (online, Ch 20)
shape memory alloy, 744 (online, Ch 20)
thermomechanical actuators, 742–743 (online, Ch 20)
Distortion (plastic strain), 229
Double shear, 54, 124
Drum brakes
long-shoe, 693–699 (online, Ch 18)
short-shoe, 690–693 (online, Ch 18)
Ductile (nodular) iron, 96, 799
Ductile materials, 229
fatigue strength of, 295–296, 300
machinability of, 96
Ductility, 88, 807, 829
Durability (of materials), 8
Duranickel alloys, 99
Dynamic loading see Fatigue; Impact
E
Eccentricity ratio, 214
Eccentric loading
columns, 214–215
welds, 436–441
Ecological issues, 7–8
Economic issues, 365–366
Eddy current proximity sensors, 750–751 (online, Ch 20)
Efficiency (of power screws), 382–383
Elastic instability/stability, 207–209
Elasticity, modulus of, 85
Elastic limit, notation convention for, 85
Elastic region (true stress–strain curve), 90
Elastic strains, 178 see also Strains
Elastic stress–strain relationships, 185–186
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 529, 590
Electrical insulators, 346
Electrical resistance strain gages, 180
Electrochemical actuators, 744 (online, Ch 20)
Electrochemical reaction, 341–344
Electrolytes, 343, 347
Electromagnetic actuator, 739–740 (online, Ch 20)
Electromagnetic (EM) microactuators, 739–740 (online, Ch 20)
Electron beam welding, 432
Electroplating, 321, 343, 366
Electroslag welding, 432
Electrostatic actuator, 740–741 (online, Ch 20)
Elongation (at fracture), 87
End-quench test, Jominy, 97
Energy
conservation of, 19–23
and work, 16–18
Energy absorption capacity
bolt design modification to increase, 278–280
of brakes, 687–688 (online, Ch 18)
effect of stress raisers on, 271–272
of materials, 90–91, 270
Engineering, 1INDEX 869
Engineering model, 16
Engineering stress–strain curve, 86–88
Engineering values, 85
English Engineering units, 12–14
Epoxies, 103, 444–445
Equations
characteristic, 147
dimensionally homogeneous, 12
equilibrium, 39–49
Equiangular rosettes, 181–183
Equilibrium
and load determination, 39
and redundant reactions, 203
and residual stresses, 161
Euler, Leonhard, 207
Euler column buckling, 207–217
F
“Fail-safe” design, 4
Failure, 227–256 see also Fatigue; Surface damage
analysis, 327, 837 (online, Appendix F)
and axial stress, 123
definition of, 229
distortion, 229
fracture, 230–240
mode, 829
theories of, 240–248
Fasteners, threaded see Threaded fasteners
Fatigue, 287–289
life prediction, 317–320
S-N formula, 307, 858–859 (online, Appendix I)
surface fatigue failures, 364–365
and surface treatments, 320–322
in welded joints, 441–442
Fatigue life prediction, 317–320
Fatigue loading
bolt selection for, 409–418
screw selection for, 409–414
spring design for, 463–471
Fatigue strength, 289–317
for completely reversed loading, 299, 308–310
concentrated stress, effect of, 308–309
definition of, 290
increasing bolted-joint, 418–419
mean stress, effect of, 299–308, 310–317
for reversed bending/reversed axial loading, 294–295
for reversed biaxial loading, 296–297
for reversed torsional loading, 395–396
for rotating bending, 289–294
and safety factors, 248–249
and surface size, 297–299
surface treatments, effect of, 320–322
Fatigue zone, 287
FCAW (flux-cored arc welding), 432
Ferrite, 344
Ferrous materials, endurance limit of, 290
Fiber-reinforced plastics, 102
Fillet welds, 434–436
Finishing, 109, 112, 113
Finite element analysis, 217–218
steps of, 217–218
Fits, 834–836 (online, Appendix E)
Flame cutting, 161
Flame hardening, 98
Flat belts, 714–716
Flexural bearings, 745–746 (online, Ch 20)
Fluid couplings, 724–727
Fluoroplastics, 102
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 432
Flywheel, 18
Foot-pound force, 17
Force
units of, 14
work done by, 17
Force-based actuators
electromagnetic actuator, 739–740 (online, Ch 20)
electrostatic actuator, 740–741 (online, Ch 20)
optomechanical actuators, 741 (online, Ch 20)
Force flow
critical sections, location of, 52–54
with redundant ductile structures, 56–58
Formability, 112
Föttinger, H, 724
Fracture(s), 229–230, 287–289
Fracture mechanics, 230–240
of thick plates, 233–234
of thin plates, 231–233
Fracture toughness, 230
Free-body analysis of loads, 39
acceleration, automobile undergoing, 41–42
constant speed, automobile at, 40–41
internal loads, determination of, 45–46
power train components, automotive, 42–43
with three-force member, 46–49
transmission components, automotive, 43–45
Free-body diagram method, 766–769 (online, Ch 21)
Free-spinning locknuts, 397
Fretting, 354–355
Friction
with power screws, 381
with rolling-element bearings, 537
viscous, 505
Fusion (welding), 429
G
Galling, 353
Galvanic action, 341, 345, 347
Galvanic corrosion, 346
Galvanic series, 342
Garter springs, 480
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 431
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 431–432870 INDEX
Gas welding, 432
Gears, 564
bevel (see Bevel gears)
design considerations, 769–771 (online, Ch 21)
helical (see Helical gears)
materials for, 601
spur (see Spur gears)
terminology, 860–864 (online, Appendix J)
worm (see Worm gears)
Gear system, 763 (online, Ch 21)
Glass fiber reinforced plastics, 102
GMAW (gas metal arc welding), 431
Goodman lines, 304, 305
Government standards, 4–5
Graphene-based nanoelectromechanical resonators, 760
(online, Ch 20)
Gray iron, 95, 797
Greases, 496
Grinder, torsional impact in, 274–276
GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding), 431–432
Guest, J. J., 243
Guest’s law, 243
H
Hall effect sensors, 751 (online, Ch 20)
Hammer peening, 349
Hardness, and machinability, 95
Hardness tests
Brinell, 91–94
Jominy end-quench test, 97
penetration, 91–94
Rockwell, 91–94
Hastelloys, 99–100
Hazard, 5–6
Helical compression springs, 451–471
buckling analysis of, 459–460
end designs of, 458–459
fatigue loading, design procedure for, 463–471
static loading, design procedure for, 460–463
stress/strength analysis for, 456–458
Helical extension springs, 471–472
Helical gears, 617–625, 771 (online, Ch 21)
see also Spur gears
angle of, 617, 618
bending stress with, 624, 625
crossed, 616, 625
force analysis with, 621–624
geometry of, 617–621
meshing, 622–624
pitch of, 617, 618, 620, 621
surface fatigue stress with, 625
Helical threads, 373, 374
Hencky, H., 243
Hertz, Heinrich, 359, 362
Hertz contact stresses, 359, 362, 590, 592
Hierarchy of needs, 10
High-carbon steels, 96
High-molecular-weight polyethylene, 100
High-performance interferometers, 757 (online, Ch 20)
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels, 97
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 227
Hooke’s joint, 669 (online, Ch 17)
Hooke’s law, 85
Hoop tension, 54
Horsepower, 18, 19
HSLA (high-strength low-alloy) steels, 97
Hubs, 654 (online, Ch 17)
Hueber, M. T., 243
Hydra-Matic transmission
basic components, 764 (online, Ch 21)
design features, 766 (online, Ch 21)
power flow and gear ratios, 764, 765 (online,
766 (online, Ch 21)
Hydraulic control system, 763 (online, Ch 21)
Hydraulic springs, 450
Hydrodynamic bearings
design charts for, 510–516
design of, 521–526
Hydrodynamic drives, history of, 724
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 497–500, 507–509
Hydrodynamic torque converters, 714, 727–729
Hydrogen embrittlement, 321
Hydrostatic lubrication, 498
I
Impact, 264–280
bending, 266–268, 272–273
linear, 266–273
static loading vs., 264–266
torsional, 273–276
Impact factor, 252, 266
Impact loading, with roller bearings, 552–553
Impulsive loading see Impact
Inconel alloys, 100
Induced stresses, 138–140
Induction hardening, 98, 323
Inductive sensors, 750–751 (online, Ch 20)
Industry standards, 4–5
Inertia, moments of, 791
Inertia welding, 432
Ingenuity, 3–4
Instability, elastic, 207–209
Insulators, 346
Interference fits, 834 (online, Appendix E)
Interference points, 573–575
Interference theory of reliability prediction, 254–256
Internal loads
in free-body analysis, 45–46
in transmission countershaft, 50–52
International Standards Organization (ISO), 373, 503
Inverted-tooth chains, 722–723
Iron, 343 see also Cast ironINDEX 871
Iron-based superalloys, 98, 809
ISO see International Standards Organization
ISO screw threads, 373–374
Izod test, 91, 277
J
Jacks, screw-type, 377
Johnson, J. B., 210–211
Johnson column formula, 210–214
Joinability, 112, 826
Joint(s)
increasing fatigue strength of bolted, 418–419
riveted, 56–58
shear load capacity of bolted, 405–406
universal, 668–671 (online, Ch 17)
welded (see Welded joints)
Jominy, Walter, 97
Jominy end-quench test, 97
Joule, 17
Joule heating, 742 (online, Ch 20)
Joules per second, 18
K
Keyways (keyseats), 654, 667 (online, Ch 17)
Kilowatt, 18
L
Laplace, P., 253
Laser beam welding, 432
Leaf springs, 472–477
Leonardo da Vinci, 537, 564
Lewis, Wilfred, 580
Lewis equation, 580–582
Life cycle, total, 4
Life quality index (LQI), 9–10
Limit
elastic, 85
proportional, 85
Linear actuators see Power screws
Linear cumulative-damage rule, 317–318
Linear impact, 269–272
Linearly elastic stress–strain relationships, 185–186
Linear plastics, 101
Linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs), 750
(online, Ch 20)
Loads/loading, 39–58
axial (see Axial loads/loading)
with beams, 49–52
direct shear, 123–124
dynamic, 264, 265
eccentric, 214–215, 436–441
fatigue, 409–418, 463–471
and force flow, 52–54
with free bodies (see Free-body analysis of loads)
impact (see Impact)
pure bending, 126–132
and redundant ductile structures, 56–58
redundant supports, division between, 54–56
static, 264, 265
torsional loading, 124–126
transverse shear, 132–138, 389
Local buckling, 216–217
Locknuts, 397–398
Lock washers, 397
Long-shoe drum brakes, 693–699 (online, Ch 18)
internal long shoe, 699–701 (online, Ch 18)
nonpivoted long shoe, 693–699 (online, Ch 18)
pivoted long shoe, 699 (online, Ch 18)
Low-carbon steels, 96
Low-molecular-weight polyethylene, 100
LQI (Life quality index), 9–10
Lubricant(s)
supply of, 516–518
types of, 496
Lubrication see also Viscosity
boundary, 498, 526–528
elastohydrodynamic, 529, 590
hydrodynamic, 497–500, 507–509
hydrostatic, 498
mixed-film, 498, 527
self-, 527
M
Machinability, 95
Machine component problems, methodology for solving, 14–16
Machine components, 763 (online, Ch 21)
Magnesium, 346
fretting of, 354–355
notch sensitivity of, 309
Magnesium alloys, 99, 293
mechanical properties of, 814
temper designations for, 812
Magnesium bronze, 351
Malleable iron, 96
Manufacturing, 108–110, 113
Margin of safety, 252
Maslow, Abraham, 10
Material properties, 107–114
Materials, 84–114 see also specific materials
anisotropic, 248
for brakes/clutches, 704–705 (online, Ch 18)
brittle, 229, 245
for clutches/brakes, 704–705 (online, Ch 18)
compatibility of, 8
composites, 100, 104–105
corrosion of (see Corrosion)
database, property, 84
ductile, 229
ecological factors in selection of, 8
energy absorption capacity of, 90–91, 270
engineering stress–strain curve for, 86–88
ferrous, 290872 INDEX
Materials, (contd.)
for gears, 601
“handbook” data on strength properties of, 94
isotropic, 248
machinability of, 95
names of (table), 821–823
nonferrous (see Nonferrous metals/materials)
penetration hardness tests, 91–94
properties of, 108–109
relative durability of, 8
for rivets, 429
for screws/nuts/bolts, 392
selection charts for, 105–107
selection factors, 109–112
selection of, 107
selection procedure, 112–114
for sliding bearings, 519–520
for springs, 450
static tensile test for, 85–86, 89–90
strength charts for, 106–107
and stress concentration factors, 148–151
true stress–strain curve for, 89–90
value of, 84
Maximum-distortion-energy failure theory
(maximum-octahedral-shear-stress failure theory), 243–245
Maximum-normal-stress failure theory, 242
Maximum-shear-stress failure theory, 242–243
Maxwell, James Clerk, 243–244
Mean stress, and fatigue strength, 299–308, 310–317
Mechanical engineering, 1
Medium-carbon steels, 96
Melamine, 103
MEMS sensors, 748, 749 (online, Ch 20)
Metal-inert gas (MIG) welding, 431
Metal plates, corrosion of, 347–348
Metals see also specific metals
corrosion of, 341–344
database for properties of, 84
physical properties of (table), 795
tensile properties of (table), 796
Microactuators, 738–744 (online, Ch 20)
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, flexural
bearings in, 745–746 (online, Ch 20)
Micro/nanoscale machine elements
description, 737 (online, Ch 20)
low-cost production, 737 (online, Ch 20)
Microreyn, 500
Microscale piezoelectric actuator, 743 (online, Ch 20)
MIG (metal-inert gas) welding, 431
MIL-HDBK-5J, 84, 230, 295, 837–851 (online, Appendix F)
Millipascal-second, 500
Miner rule, 317
Mises, R. von, 243
Mixed-film lubrication, 498, 527
Mode I, 230
Modern gear-cutting machines, 771 (online, Ch 21)
Modulus of elasticity, 85
Modulus of resilience, 91, 272
Modulus of rupture, 273
Modulus of toughness, 91, 272
Mohr, Otto, 140
Mohr circle
combined stresses, 140–143
and failure prediction, 242–243
for induced stresses, 138–140
for strain, 179–181, 185–186
stress state representation, 143–144
three-circle diagram, 148
three-dimensional, 185–186
for two parallel cylinders, 362
Mohr theory
and fatigue strength, 297
modified, 245–246
Monomers, 100
Moore rotating-beam fatigue-testing machine, 289–290
N
Nanoscale actuators, 738–744 (online, Ch 20)
Nanoscale flexural bearings, 746 (online, Ch 20)
National Bureau of Standards, 341
Necking, 87
Needle bearings, 774 (online, Ch 21)
Needle roller bearings, 539, 542, 543
Newton • meter, 17
Newton’s law of viscous flow, 500
Newton’s second law, 12–14
Nickel alloys, 99–100, 293, 815
Nickel-based superalloys, 99–100
Nickel, corrosion of, 344
Nickel plating, 321
Nitriding, 98, 323
Nodular (ductile) iron, 96
Nominal mean stress method, 313
Non-feedback tunneling sensors, 757–758 (online, Ch 20)
Nonferrous alloys, 98–100
Nonferrous metals/materials
for columns, 216
electroplating, 321
endurance limit of, 290
Normal distribution, 253–254, 855–857 (online, Appendix H)
Notched impact tests, 277
Notches, 308, 539
Notch sensitivity factor, 309
Nuts
locknuts, 397
with power screws, 377–380
and thread-bearing stress, 386–388
Nylon (polyamide), 102
O
Ocvirk’s short bearing approximation, 509
Oil bath, 516INDEX 873
Oil collar, 516
Oil grooves, 517
Oil holes, 517
Oil lubricants, 496, 516–518
Oil pump, 517–518
Oil ring, 516, 517
Oldham coupling, 669 (online, Ch 17)
“The One-Hoss Shay,” (Oliver Wendell Holmes), 227–229
Optical heterodyne interferometers, 756–757 (online, Ch 20)
Optical sensors, 756–757 (online, Ch 20)
Optomechanical actuators, 741 (online, Ch 20)
OSHA, 4–5
Overdesign, 227
Overhauling power screws, 381
Overload, design, 249
Oxide coatings, 345
P
Packaging, 8
Paints, 346
Palmgren rule, 317
Parallel loading (welds), 433–436
Parallel plate actuators, 740–741 (online, Ch 20)
Parallel plate capacitive sensors, 749, 750 (online, Ch 20)
Parkerizing, 345
Pascal-seconds, 500
Passivation, 344, 347
Pearlite, 344
Performance
requirement, 107, 108
service, 109–110
Petroff’s equation, 505–506
Phase transformations, 161
Phenolic, 104
Phenylene oxide, 102
Phosphate coatings, 345
Photoelastic patterns, 579
Piezoelectric actuators, 743 (online, Ch 20)
Piezoelectric bimorph actuator, 743 (online, Ch 20)
Piezoelectric sensors, 754–755 (online, Ch 20)
Piezoresistive sensors, 751–755 (online, Ch 20)
Pillow block, 403–405
Pinion, 566
Piston ring, tangential deflection of, 198–203
Pitch cones, 626
Pitch diameter, 569, 620, 633, 634
Pitting, 364, 590, 592
Plain carbon steels, 96–97
Planes, principal, 139
Plane strain/stress, 230
Planet bearings, 773 (online, Ch 21)
Plasma arc welding, 432
Plastic distortion, 229
Plastics, 100–104
applications of, 820
designation of, 101
mechanical properties of, 818
reinforcement of, 102
thermoplastics, 102–103, 819
thermosets, 102–104
Plastic strain-strengthening region (true stress-strain curve), 90
Plates
corrosion of metal, 345–348
local buckling/wrinkling in, 216
stress concentration factors of, 154
thick, fracture mechanics of, 233–234
thin, fracture mechanics of, 231–233
Plating, 321, 343
Pneumatic springs, 450
Pole deflection, preventing, 203–204
Polyamide (nylon), 102
Polycarbonate, 103
Polyester, 103, 104
Polyethylenes, 100, 101, 103
Polyimide, 103
Polymerization, 100
Polymers, 100–101
Polyphenylene sulfide, 103
Polypropylene, 103
Polystyrene, 103
Polysulfone, 103
Polyurethane, 103, 104
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 103
Poncelet, 287
Power, 18–19
camshafts, 19–20
punch press motor, 36, 37
Power screws, 377–385
axial load with, 386
column loading of, 389–390
efficiency of, 382–383
friction coefficients, values of, 381
overhauling, 381–382
purpose of, 377
rolling contact in, 383–385
self-locking, 381–382
with square thread, 380, 382
thread angle in normal plane, values of, 381
thread bearing stress with, 386–388
thread forms for, 377
thread shear stress with, 388–389
thread sizes for, 377
thrust collar with, 380
torque applied to nut in, 377–380
torsional stresses with, 386
transverse shear loading with, 389
Power train, automotive, 42–43
Power transmission, 714–729
by belt, 714–716
by chain, 720–722
by gear (see Gears)
by hydrodynamic drive, 724874 INDEX
Press, screw, 389
Pressure, and viscosity, 350–351
Pressure vessel flange bolts, selection of, 416–417
Prevailing-torque locknuts, 397
Primary dimensions, 12
Primers, 346
Principal planes, 139
Processing, 8
Professional engineering, 1
Proportional limit, 85
Punch press flywheel, 36, 37
Punch press motor
with flywheel, 36, 37
without flywheel, 37
Pure bending loading, 126–132
with curved beams, 127–132
with straight beams, 126–127
PVC (polyvinyl chloride), 103
R
Racks, 571
Radial tension, 132
Rectangular strain rosettes, 183–185
Recycling, designing for, 7–8
Redundant ductile structures, 56–58
Redundant reactions, 203–206
Redundant supports, 54–56
Reinforcement
of plastics, 102
web, 55
Reliability, 227, 252–253
interference theory of reliability prediction, 254–256
and normal distributions, 253–254
Rene alloys, 100
Residual stresses, 153–159
and axial loading, 153–157
and bending, 157–159
and heat, 159–161
in steel, 161
and torsional loading, 157–159
Residual stress method, 312
Resilience
modulus of, 91, 272
Resistance welding, 432
Resonance-based mass sensors, 759 (online, Ch 20)
Resonance-based strain sensors, 759–760 (online, Ch 20)
Reversed bending, fatigue strength for, 308–310
Reversed loading
fatigue life prediction with, 317–320
fatigue strength for axial, 294–295
fatigue strength for biaxial, 299
fatigue strength for completely, 299, 308–310
fatigue strength for torsional, 295–296
Reyn, 500
Reynolds, Osbourne, 500
Reynolds equation for one-dimensional flow, 509
Reynolds equation for two-dimensional flow, 509
Rigidity, test for, 85
Riveted joints, 56–58
Rivets, 428–429
blind, 429–430
cost-effectiveness of, 429
materials for, 429
standards for, 428
threaded fasteners vs., 429
tubular, 429–430
Rockwell hardness test, 91–94
Rods
connecting, 211–214
deflection/stiffness formulas for, 187
energy-absorbing capacity, effect of stress raiser on, 271–272
straight, impacted in compression/tension, 269–270
Roller chains, 720–722
Rolling-element bearings, 535–559 see also Ball bearings
and axial loading, 553
catalogue information for, 547–549
cylindrical, 539, 540, 542
design of, 543–546
dimensions of, 547–549
fitting of, 546
friction with, 537
history of, 537
life requirement for, 551–552
needle, 539, 542, 543
rated capacities of, 549, 550
reliability requirement for, 552
selection of, 551–556
and shock loading, 554
sliding bearings vs., 535, 537
spherical, 539, 540, 543
surface damage to, 359–365
tapered, 539, 541, 543
thrust load, mounting for, 558–559
types of, 537–543
Rotating bending, fatigue strength for, 289–295
Rotating machine components, power transmitted by, 18–19
Rubber, energy absorption capacity of, 271
Rupture, modulus of, 273
Rust, 343
S
Sacrificial anode, 343, 346
Safety/safety factors, 2–7, 248–250
awareness of, 2
definition of, 248–250
estimation of, for steel pan, 247–248
and ingenuity, 3–4
and margin of safety, 252
nontechnical aspects, 6–7
selection of numerical value for, 250–251
techniques/guidelines for ensuring, 4–6
SAW (submerged arc welding), 432INDEX 875
Saybolt seconds, 501
Scoring, 352
Screw(s), 390–392 see also Power screws
ball-bearing, 380
fatigue loading, selection for, 409–414
fatigue strength, increasing, 418–419
static loading, selection for, 403–409
tamper-resistant, 392
types of, 391
Screw press, 389
Scuffing, 353
Secant formula, 214–215
Secondary dimensions, 12
Sections, properties of, 791–793
Self-locking power screws, 381
Self-locking screws, 396–399
Self-loosening (of screws), 396–399
Self-lubrication, 527
Sems, 390
Sensors micro and nanoscale, 748–760 (online, Ch 20)
Shaft(s), 653–671 (online, Ch 17)
bearings for, 653–654 (online, Ch 17)
definition of, 653 (online, Ch 17)
deflections in, 189–192
design considerations with, 661–665 (online, Ch 17)
dynamics of rotating, 657–660 (online, Ch 17)
fatigue with, 313–315
joining of, 665–668 (online, Ch 17)
mounting parts onto rotating, 654–656 (online, Ch 17)
rigid couplings for, 668 (online, Ch 17)
stresses in, 140–143
torque-transmitting connections with, 665–668 (online, Ch 17)
torsional stress/deflection of, 274–276
transmission countershaft, internal loads, 50–52
universal joints with, 669–670 (online, Ch 17)
Shape memory alloys (SMA), 744 (online, Ch 20)
Shear modulus of elasticity, and viscosity, 500, 501
Shear/shear loading
direct, 123–124
double, 54, 124
in load analysis, 49–52
and sign convention, 50
sign convention for, 124
Shear strains, 179, 180
Shear stresses
in beams, 132–138
and bending stresses, 136–138
and distortion, 229
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 430
Shock see Impact
Shock absorber, 264
Short-shoe drum brakes, 690–693 (online, Ch 18)
Shot peening, 322–323, 349
Significant strength, 249, 252
Significant stress, 249, 252
Silicon-based piezoresistors, 752–753 (online, Ch 20)
Silicone, 104
Sinclair, Harold, 724
SI units, 12–14
Size
and corrosion, 345
and fatigue strength, 297–299
Slenderness ratio (of column), 207–209
Sliding bearings
hydrodynamic bearings, 510–516, 521–522
materials for, 519–520
oil film temperature with, 518–519
rolling-element bearings vs., 535, 537
types of, 496–497
SMAW (shielded metal arc welding), 430
Snapfit assembly, 428
Snap rings, 655 (online, Ch 17)
S-N curves, 290–296, 304–310, 847–848
(online, Appendix F)
formula, 858–859 (online, Appendix I)
Snowmobile track drive shaft, 662–665 (online, Ch 17)
Societal objectives of, 8–10
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 374, 392, 502
Soldering, 443
Solids, mass/moments of inertia of homogeneous, 794
Solid-state welding, 432
Solutions, engineering, 1
Spalling, 364, 592
Spindles, 653 (online, Ch 17)
Spin welding, 432
“Splash,” 516
Splines, 655, 667–668 (online, Ch 17)
Split ring, tangential deflection of, 198–203
Spring(s), 450–480 see also Helical compression springs
beam, 472–477
compound, 272–273
constant-force, 480
definition of, 450
flat, 472
garter, 480
helical extension, 471–472
hydraulic, 450
leaf, 472–477
materials for, 450
pneumatic, 450
redundant supports using, 55
torsion, 477–479
torsion bar, 450–451
volute, 480
washers, spring, 479–480
wire forms, 480
Spring rate (spring constant/spring scale), 187–189
Spur gears, 564–606 see also Helical gears
belt drive with, 567
contact ratio for, 573–575, 860–864 (online, Appendix J)
design procedures, 597–601
force analysis, 576–579876 INDEX
Spur gears, (contd.)
geometry of, 565–573
interference with, 573–575
and law of conjugate gear-tooth action, 565, 566
manufacture of, 571–572
materials for, 601
with racks, 571
standards for, 569–572
strength, gear-tooth-bending, 579–588
stress, gear-tooth-bending, 580–582
surface durability, gear-tooth, 590–593
surface fatigue, gear-tooth, 593–597
trains, gear, 602–606
Square thread (power screws), 380, 382
S.S. Schenectady, 230
Stability, 178
elastic, 207–209
Stainless steels, 98
cavitation of, 351
corrosion of, 345
fretting of, 354
mechanical properties of, 808
Standards, government/industry, 4–5
Standard tensile test, 240
Start from Page 572
Static failure theories, 240–242
Static loading
bolt/screw selection for, 403–409
impact vs., 264–266
Static stress
and corrosion, 348–350
on springs, 451–456, 460–463
Static tensile test
and “engineering” stress–strain relationships, 85–90
and true stress–strain relationships, 89–90
Statistics, normal distribution, 253–254, 855–857 (online,
Appendix H)
Steel, 96–98 see also Stainless steels
brittle fracture in, 229
carburizing, 807
cathodic protection of, 343
cavitation of, 351
connecting rod, diameter of, 211–212
corrosion of, 341
electroplating, 321, 343, 366
energy absorption capacity of, 271
fatigue in, 305–308
hardness test for, 92–94
mass and strength of, 806
notch sensitivity of, 309
oil-quenched, 804, 805
pipe/tubing sections, 792–793
residual stresses in, 161
stress–strain in, 88
water-quenched/tempered, 803
Steel alloys, 97, 98
fatigue strength diagram for, 302
mechanical properties of, 795, 800–801
Stellite, 351
Stepped-shaft deflection, 189–192
Stiffness, 178
and redundant supports, 55–56
and strength, 104, 105
Strain gages, 180
electrical resistance, 180
online guide to, 181
Strain peening, 322–323
Strains
elastic stress–strain relationships, 185–186
engineering vs. true, 89
equiangular rosette analysis, 181–183
measurement of, 179–181
Mohr circle for, 179–181, 186
notation convention for, 85
rectangular rosette analysis, 183–185
state of, Mohr circle for, 186
and stress (see Stress–strain relationships)
Strength see also Fatigue strength
ceramics, charts for, 105–107
composites, charts for, 105–107
and density, 106–107
elastomers, charts for, 105–107
gear-tooth-bending, 580–590
metals, charts for, 105–107
notation convention for, 85
penetration hardness tests of, 91–94
polymers, charts for, 105–107
significant, 249, 252
and speed of loading, 265
and stiffness, 105, 106
tensile, and safety factors, 247–248
test data vs. “handbook” data for calculation of, 94
test for, 85–86
ultimate, 265, 290
yield, 86, 265
Stress(es) see also Body stress(es)
average vs. maximum, 121–123
biaxial (see Biaxial stresses)
column, 215–216
combined, 140–143
fluctuating, 299
induced, 138–140
from linear/bending impact, 266–273
maximum/minimum, 300
measurability of, 178
notation convention for, 85
principal shear, 147
principle normal, 146–148
residual (see Residual stresses)
reversed, 294–296, 299INDEX 877
shear (see Shear stresses)
significant, 249, 252
state of, Mohr circle for, 186
static (see Static stress)
three-dimensional, 144–148
from torsional impact, 264–266
uniaxial, 144
zero principal, 144, 145
Stress concentration factors, 148–151
completely reversed fatigue loading, 308–310
of cracks, 230–231
importance of, 151–153
mean plus alternating loads, 310–317
theoretical (geometric), 151
Stress–corrosion cracks, 348–350
Stress gradient, 151
Stress intensity factor, 235–240, 323–324, 328–329
Stress invariants, 147
Stress raisers, 151, 276–280
Stress–strain relationships
elastic, 185–186
“engineering,” 85–88
true, 89–90
Submerged arc welding(SAW), 432
Superalloys
iron-based, 98, 809
nickel-based, 99–100
Superposition, method of, 189
Surface
and fatigue strength, 320–323
gear-tooth, 590–597
Surface damage, 341–366
from cavitation, 351
from corrosion (see Corrosion)
from curved-surface contact stresses, 358–364
fatigue failure, surface, 364–365
from wear, 351–358
Surface fatigue, 351
Surface fatigue stress
bevel gears, 629, 631
failure, surface fatigue, 364–365
helical gears, 625
worm gears, 640–642
Surface treatments, and fatigue strength, 320–322
T
Tamper-resistant screws, 392
Tangent modulus, 56
Tapered roller bearings, 539, 541, 543
Temperature
and corrosion, 346
fretting of, 354–355
stresses, thermal, 159–161
transition, 229, 276–277
viscosity, effect on, 504–505
Temperature gradients, 160–161
Tensile loading, 230
Tensile strength, 248
Tensile test
standard, 240
static, 89–90
Tension, 121
hoop tension, 54
radial, 132
T-head, stress concentration factors of, 155
Thermal capacity (of worm gears), 642–645
Thermal stresses, 159–161
Thermal surface-hardening treatments, 323
Thermomechanical actuators (TMAs), 742–743
(online, Ch 20)
Thermoplastics, 102–103, 432, 821
Thermosets, 102–104
Thermosetting adhesives, 444–445
Thread angle (power screws), 381
Thread-bearing (compressive) stress,
386–388
Threaded fasteners see also Bolts; Nuts; Screw(s)
axial load with, 386
bearing stress, thread, 386–388
cylindrical vs. conic, 377
design considerations with, 373
design of threads for, 376–377
geometry of threads on, 373, 376
helical thread wound on, 373
initial tension of, 392–396
manufacture of, 392
materials for, 392
rivets vs., 429
self-loosening/locking of, 396–399
shear loading, transverse, 389
shear stress, thread, 388
standards for, 373–377
torsional stresses with, 386, 394–396
types of, 390–392
Thread shear stress, 388–389
Three-dimensional stresses, 144–148
Three-force member, load analysis for, 46–49
“Through-hardening” steels, 97
Thrust bearings, 528, 558–559
Thrust collar (power screws), 380
TIG (tungsten-inert gas) welding, 431–432
Timing (toothed) belts, 720
Timoshenko, S. P., 243
Tin, 343
Titanium, 294
corrosion of, 344
fretting of, 354–355
Titanium alloys, 100, 816
Tolerances, 834–836 (online, Appendix E)
Toothed (timing) belts, 720878 INDEX
Torque
camshaft, 17–18
punch press motor, 36, 37
transmission of (see Power transmission)
Torque converter, 763 (online, Ch 21)
Torsion
and Castigliano’s method, 193
notation convention for, 85
with power screws, 386
with threaded fasteners, 386, 392,
394–396
Torsional deflection, formulas for, 188
Torsional impact, 273–276
Torsional loading, 124–126
fatigue strength for reversed, 295–296
and residual stresses, 157–159
Torsion bar springs, 450–451
Torsion springs, 477–479
Total life cycle, 4
Toughness, 91
fracture, 230
modulus of, 91, 272
Tower, Beauchamp, 507
Trains, gear, 602–606, 632–633
Transitional fits, 834 (online, Appendix E)
Transition region (true stress–strain curve), 91
Transition temperature, 229, 276–277
Translation screws see Power screws
Transmission, 43–45 see also Power transmission
countershaft, internal loads in, 50–52
Transverse shear loading, 132–138, 389
in beams, 132–138
and Castigliano’s method, 193
in welds, 433–436
Tredgold’s approximation, 626
Tresca theory, 243
Triaxial effect (of stress raisers), 151
Triple-riveted butt joint, 56–58
True stress–strain curve, 89–90
Tubes, local buckling in, 216
Tubular rivets, 429–430
Tungsten-inert gas (T1G) welding, 431–432
Tunneling sensors, 757–758 (online, Ch 20)
U
Udden loading see Impact
Udimet alloys, 100
Ultimate strength
and fatigue strength, 290, 293
and speed of loading, 265
Ultrasonic welding, 432
UNC thread, 375–376
UNF thread, 375–376
Uniaxial stresses, 144, 186
Unified screw threads, 375–376
Units, 12–14
conversion factors for, 785–788
SI prefixes, standard, 788–790
Universal joints, 669–670 (online, Ch 17)
Urea, 103
Urethane adhesives, 445
User needs, 7
V
Value, of materials, 84
V-belts, 716–719
Vectors, 852–854 (online, Appendix G)
Vernier gauges, 758 (online, Ch 20)
Vibration, 265
with power screws, 382
Vibration welding, 432
Vidosic, Joseph, 251
Viscosity, 500–504
friction, viscous, 505
kinematic, 501–504
measurement of, 501
and shear modulus of elasticity, 500, 501
standards for, 503
temperature and pressure effects on,
504–505
units of, 500
Volute springs, 480
Vulcan-Werke A.G., 724
W
Warning information, 5
Washers, 390
spring, 479–480
Watt, 18
Wear, 351–358
abrasive wear, 353–354, 591
adhesive, 527
adhesive wear, 351–353
analytical approach to, 355–358
coefficients, 353, 355–358
discretization theory, 358
fretting, 354–355
surface similarity, 358
“Weathering” Steels, 345
Web reinforcement, 55
Welded joints, 433–436
fatigue considerations with, 441–442
static axial and direct shear loading, subject to,
433–436
static torsional and bending loading, subject,
436–441
Welding, 429–433
and adhesive wear, 352
asperity, 352–353
and residual tension, 161INDEX 879
White iron, 96
Wire forms, 480
Wood beams, 272–273
Work, 16–18
“Working stress,” 248
Worm gears, 616, 619, 633–645
bending stress with, 640–642
force/efficiency analysis with, 635–640
geometry of, 633–635
“recess action” with, 635
surface fatigue strength for, 640
thermal capacity of, 642–645
Wrinkling, 216, 217
Y
Yield point, 86
Yield strength
notation convention for, 86
and speed of loading, 265
Yoke connections, 52–54
Young’s modulus, 85, 90, 106
Z
Zerol bevel gears, 627
Zero principal stress, 144, 145
Zinc, 343–344
Zinc alloys, 100, 817


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