كتاب Heat Treatment - Principles and Techniques
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Heat Treatment - Principles and Techniques

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Heat Treatment - Principles and Techniques
SECOND EDITION
T.V. Rajan, C.P. Sharma and Ashok Sharma
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Jaipur
Contents
Foreword xiii
Preface xv
Preface to the First Edition xvii
1. Introduction 1–5
Heat Treatment Process Variables 3
Questions 5
2. Nature of Metals and Alloys 6–28
Introduction 6
2.1 Crystal Structure 7
2.1.1 Cubic Crystal Structure 7
2.1.2 Hexagonal Close Packed Crystal Structure 8
2.2 Properties of Metals and Alloys—Role of Heat Treatment 8
2.3 Nature of Alloys 9
2.3.l When Two Metals show Complete Solid Solubility 12
2.3.2 When Two Metals have no Solid Solubility in Each Other 12
2.3.3 When Two Metals are Soluble to Limited Extent in Solid State 13
2.4 Phase Diagrams 13
2.4.l Isomorphous System 14
2.4.2 Eutectic System 14
2.4.3 Eutectoid System 16
2.4.4 Peritectic System 16
2.4.5 Phase Diagram Showing the Presence of Intermetallic Compounds 16
2.5 Metallography 17
2.5.1 Macroexamination 17
2.5.2 Microexamination 19
2.6 Metallurgical Microscope 20
2.7 Electron Microscope 23
2.8 Imperfections in Metal Crystals 24
2.8.1 Point Defects 24
2.8.2 Line Defects 26
2.8.3 Surface Defects 27
2.8.4 Volume Defects 28
2.9 Significance of Imperfections in Heat Treatment 28
Questions 28
vvi Contents
3. Iron-Cementite Phase Diagram 29–48
Introduction 29
3.1 Allotropic Changes in Iron 29
3.2 Transformation Temperatures: Notation 30
3.3 Recalescence 31
3.4 Iron-cementite Phase Diagram 31
3.4.1 Steels 32
3.4.2 Cast Irons 35
3.4.3 Lever Rule 38
3.4.4 Iron-Graphite Phase Diagram 40
3.4.5 Effect of Alloying Elements on the Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram 42
3.5 Classification of Steels 46
Questions 48
4. Principles of Heat Treatment of Steels 49–85
Introduction 49
4.1 Formation of Austenite on Heating 49
4.1.1 Kinetics of Formation of Austenite 52
4.2 Austenitic Grain Size 55
4.3 Determination of Austenitic Grain Size 58
4.4 Importance of Austenitic Grain Size 59
4.5 Decomposition of Austenite 60
4.6 Time-Temperature Transformation Curves 61
4.6.1 Effect of Alloying Elements on TTT Diagram 65
4.6.2 Continuous Cooling Transformation 66
4.7 Pearlitic Transformation 68
4.7.1 Mechanism of Transformation 68
4.7.2 Kinetics of Transformation 70
4.7.3 Effect of Alloying Elements on Transformation 71
4.7.4 Interlamellar Spacing 71
4.8 Bainitic Transformation 72
4.8.1 Mechanism of Bainitic Transformation 72
4.8.2 Bainitic Structures 73
4.9 Martensitic Transformation 76
4.9.1 Mechanism of Transformation 76
4.9.2 Kinetics of Transformation 77
4.9.3 M
s-Mf Temperatures 78
4.9.4 Effect of Applied Stress on Transformation 79
4.9.5 Athermal and Isothermal Martensites 79
4.9.6 Reversibility of Transformation 80
4.9.7 Habit Planes 80
4.9.8 Bain Distortion Model 80
4.9.9 Hardness of Martensite 81
4.10 Retained Austenite 83
Questions 84Contents vii
5. Heat Treatment Processes for Steels 86–107
Introduction 86
5.1 Stress Relieving 86
5.2 Annealing 87
5.2.1 Full Annealing 88
5.2.2 Isothermal Annealing 89
5.2.3 Diffusion Annealing 90
5.2.4 Partial Annealing 90
5.2.5 Recrystallization Annealing 91
5.2.6 Process Annealing 91
5.3 Spheroidizing 92
5.4 Normalizing 94
5.4.1 Normalizing Versus Annealing 95
5.5 Hardening 95
5.5.1 Factors Affecting Hardening Process 97
5.5.2 Hardening Methods 98
5.6 Tempering 100
5.6.1 Structural Changes during Tempering 100
5.6.2 Effect of Alloying Elements on Tempering 101
5.6.3 Temper Brittleness 102
5.6.4 Temper Colours 103
5.7 Austempering 104
5.8 Martempering 105
5.9 Sub-zero treatment 105
5.10 Patenting 106
Questions 107
6. Hardenability 108–122
Introduction 108
6.1 Significance of Hardenability 109
6.2 Relationship of Hardenability with Transformation Rates 109
6.3 Determination of Hardenability 111
6.3.1 Grossman’s Critical Diameter Method 111
6.3.2 Jominy End Quench Test 113
6.3.3 Estimation of Hardenability from Chemical Composition 117
6.3.4 Fracture Test 118
6.4 Factors Influencing Hardenability 118
6.4.1 Effect of Austenite Grain Size 118
6.4.2 Effect of Carbon Content on Hardenability 119
6.4.3 Effect of Alloying Elements 119
Questions 122
7. Quenchants 123–129
Introduction 123
7.1 Removal of Heat during Quenching 123
7.2 Characteristics of Quenchants 124viii Contents
7.3 Quenching Media 125
7.3.1 Water 125
7.3.2 Aqueous Solutions 126
7.3.3 Oil 127
7.3.4 Air 128
7.3.5 Gases 128
7.3.6 Salt Baths 128
7.3.7 Synthetic Quenchants 129
Questions 129
8. Chemical Heat Treatment of Steels 130–144
Introduction 130
8.1 Carburizing 130
8.1.1 Pack Carburizing 131
8.1.2 Liquid Carburizing 132
8.1.3 Gas Carburizing 132
8.2 Vacuum Carburizing 133
8.3 Post-carburizing Heat Treatments 135
8.4 Cyaniding and Carbonitriding 137
8.4.1 Cyaniding 137
8.4.2 Carbonitriding 137
8.5 Nitriding 138
8.6 Plasma Nitriding (Ion Nitriding) 139
8.7 Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing 140
8.8 Boronizing 141
8.9 Chromizing 142
8.10 Toyota Diffusion (TD) Process 143
Questions 144
9. Surface Hardening 145–153
Introduction 145
9.1 Flame Hardening 145
9.2 Induction Hardening 146
9.3 Electron Beam Hardening 148
9.4 Laser Hardening 148
9.5 Case Depth Measurements in Steels 151
9.5.1 Hardness Method 152
9.5.2 Chemical Method 153
9.5.3 Macrostructure Method 153
9.5.4 Microscopic Method 153
Questions 153
10. Thermomechanical Treatment 154–163
Introduction 154
10.1 Classification 155
10.2 Controlled Rolling 156Contents ix
10.3 Hot-cold Working 156
10.4 Ausforming 157
10.5 Isoforming 158
10.6 Marstraining 158
10.7 Cryoforming 159
10.8 Preliminary Thermomechanical Treatment 159
10.9 Thermomechanical Annealing 160
10.10 Thermomechanical Treatment of Non-ferrous Alloys 161
Questions 163
11. Heat Treatment Furnaces and Atmospheres 164–181
Introduction 164
11.1 Heat Treatment Furnaces 164
11.2 Classification of Heat Treatment Furnaces 164
11.3 Batch Furnaces 166
11.4 Continuous Furnaces 169
11.5 Salt Bath Furnaces 170
11.6 Controlled Atmospheres 171
11.6.1 Chemistry of Controlled Atmosphere Processes 172
11.6.2 Commercially Available Atmospheres 178
11.6.3 Control of Furnace Atmospheres 180
Questions 180
12. Temperature Measurement and Control 182–193
Introduction 182
12.1 Concept of Temperature 182
12.2 Measurement of Temperature 183
12.3 Thermometers 183
12.4 Thermo-couples 185
12.4.1 Choice of Thermo-couple Materials 185
12.4.2 Thermo-couple Materials 186
12.4.3 Temperature Measurement by Thermocouples 188
12.4.4 Calibration of Thermo-couples 188
12.5 Indirect Methods of Temperature Measurement 189
12.5.1 Optional Pyrometer 190
12.5.2 Radiation Pyrometer 191
12.6 Temperature Control 192
Questions 193
13. Possible Defects, Causes and Remedies in Heat Treatment 194–208
Introduction 194
13.1 Low Hardness and Strength after Hardening 194
13.2 Soft Spots 195
13.3 Oxidation and Decarburization 196x Contents
13.4 Overheating and Burning of Steel 197
13.4.1 Detection of Overheating and Burning 198
13.4.2 Factors Responsible for Overheating and Burning 199
13.5 Quench Cracks 199
13.6 Distortion and Warping 200
13.6.1 Control of Distortion 201
13.6.2 Methods to Reduce Distortion During Main Heat Treatment 202
13.6.3 Treatments for Stabilizing Dimensions 204
Questions 208
14. Heat Treatment of Commercial Steels 209–254
Introduction 209
14.1 Plain Carbon Steels 209
14.1.1 Low Carbon Steels 209
14.1.2 Medium Carbon Steels 211
14.1.3 High Carbon Steels 211
14.2 Alloy Steels 213
14.2.1 Manganese Steels 213
14.2.2 Silicon Steels 215
14.2.3 Chromium Steels 217
14.2.4 Nickel Steels 221
14.2.5 Molybdenum Steels 222
14.2.6 Chromium-Molybdenum Steels 223
14.2.7 Nickel-Molybdenum Steels 224
14.2.8 Nickel-Chromium Steels 225
14.2.9 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Steels 226
14.3 Structural and Tool Steels 230
14.3.1 Hot-rolled Steels 230
14.3.2 Cold-drawn and Cold-rolled Steels 230
14.3.3 Structural Steel Castings 231
14.3.4 Water Hardening Tool Steels 233
14.3.5 Shock-resisting Tool Steels 233
14.3.6 Cold Work Tool Steels 234
14.3.7 Hot Work Tool Steels 236
14.3.8 High Speed Steels 239
14.3.9 Stainless Steels 242
14.3.10 Maraging Steels 247
14.3.11 Spring Steels 248
14.3.12 Valve Steels 249
14.3.13 Heat Resisting Steels 250
Questions 253
15. Cast Irons and Their Heat Treatment 255–276
Introduction 255
15.1 Grey Cast Iron 255
15.2 White Cast Iron 259Contents xi
15.3 Malleable Cast Iron 259
15.3.1 Malleabilization of White Cast Iron 260
15.3.2 Pearlitic Malleable Iron 262
15.3.3 Special Malleable Iron 265
15.4 Spheroidal Graphite (SG) Iron 265
15.5 Alloy Cast Irons 269
15.5.1 Ni-Hard Martensitic White Cast Iron 270
15.5.2 Ni-Resist Cast Irons 272
Questions 276
16. Heat Treatment of Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys 277–309
Introduction 277
16.1 Aluminium and Its Alloys 277
16.1.1 Heat Treatable Aluminium Alloys 279
16.1.2 Non-heat Treatable Aluminium Alloys 279
16.1.3 Classification of Heat Treatment Processes for Aluminium Alloys 280
16.1.4 Heat Treatment of Wrought Aluminium Alloys 286
16.1.5 Heat Treatment of Cast Aluminium Alloys 293
16.2 Magnesium Alloys 297
16.2.1 Types of Heat Treatment 300
16.2.2 Heat Treatment of Mg-Al-Zn Alloys 301
16.3 Titanium Alloys 302
16.3.1 Heat Treatment of Titanium Alloys 304
16.4 Copper and Its Alloys 306
16.4.1 Heat Treatment of Copper 306
16.4.2 Heat Treatment of Brasses 306
16.4.3 Heat Treatment of Bronzes 307
16.5 Nickel Alloys 307
16.5.1 Heat Treatment of Nickel Alloys 307
Questions 309
17. Inspection and Quality Control in Heat Treatment 310–322
Introduction 310
17.1 Inspection 310
17.1.1 Steps in Inspection 311
17.1.2 Objectives of Inspection 311
17.1.3 Manner of Inspection 311
17.1.4 Process of Inspection 312
17.1.5 Inspection Methods 312
17.1.6 Stages of Inspection 313
17.1.7 Common Characteristics Inspected 313
17.2 Quality 314
17.2.1 Factors Controlling Quality 315
17.3 Quality Control 316
17.3.1 Objectives of Quality Control 316
17.3.2 Functions of Quality Control Department 317
17.3.3 Advantages of Quality Control 317
17.3.4 Quality Control—Everybody’s Business 317xii Contents
17.4 Statistical Quality Control 318
17.5 Quality Control in Heat Treatment 318
17.5.1 Product Design 319
17.5.2 Heat Treatment Specifications 319
17.5.3 Material Selection 319
17.5.4 Dimensional Considerations 320
17.5.5 Selection of Equipment, Instrument and Auxiliary Accessories 320
17.5.6 Heat Treatment Shop Layout 321
17.5.7 Heat Treatment Flow Sheet 321
17.5.8 Quality of Consumable Items 321
17.5.9 Working of Equipment 322
17.6 Inspection in Heat Treatment 322
Questions 322
18. Materials Testing 323–341
Introduction 323
18.1 Hardness Test 323
18.1.1 Brinell Hardness Test 324
18.1.2 Vickers Hardness Test 326
18.1.3 Rockwell Hardness Test 326
18.2 Tensile Test 328
18.3 Impact Test 332
18.4 Fatigue Test 334
18.5 Creep Test 336
18.6 Non-destructive Testing Methods 336
18.6.1 Magnetic Particle Inspection 337
18.6.2 Liquid Penetration Inspection 338
18.6.3 Eddy Current Inspection 338
18.6.4 Radiographic Inspection 339
18.6.5 Ultrasonic Inspection 339
Questions 340
19. Energy Economy in Heat Treatment 342–346
Introduction 342
19.1 Energy Economy through Change of Material 343
19.2 Energy Economy through Heat Treatment Practice 344
19.3 Energy Economy through Processing 345
19.4 Air Pollution in Heat Treatment 346
Appendices 347–370
Bibliography 371–372
Question Bank 373–381
Index 383–390
Ageing, 289, 301, 305, 308
Allotropy in iron, 29–30
Alloy (definition), 7
Alloy cast iron, 269–276
Ni-hard martensitic white cast iron, 270–272
Ni-resist cast iron, 272, 276
Alpha iron, 29, 30
Aluminium alloy(s), 277–279
annealing of, 280, 284, 285, 287–288
designation of, 277–279
heat treatable, 279
heat treatment of cast, 293–297
heat treatment of wrought, 286–293
non-heat treatable, 279–281
precipitation hardening of, 285–286
solution heat treatment of, 284–285
temper of, 278
Annealing, 87–92, 256–257, 266, 280, 284–285, 300,
304–305, 307
classification of, 87–88
diffusion, 90
fast, 287–288
ferritizing, 256
first-order, 87
full, 87, 88–89, 257, 287–289
graphitizing, 257
high temperature, 287
incomplete, 87, 90–91
instantaneous, 288
intercritical, 90–91
isothermal, 89–90
partial, 98, 90–91
process, 91–92
purpose of, 87
recrystallization, 91
second-order, 87
spheroidize, 275
subcritical, 87, 91
Artificial ageing, 288
Athermal martensite, 79
Ausforming, 157–158
Austempering, 104, 268
Austenite, 30, 49–55, 60–61
decomposition of, 60–61
formation of, 49–55
retained, 83–84
Austenite grain size, 55–60
actual, 55
ASTM designation, 56–58
determination of, 58–59
effect on
creep strength, 59
fatigue strength, 59
hardenability, 59
impact transition temperature, 59
machinability, 60
yield stress, 59
importance of, 59–60
original, 55
Austenite stabilizers, 43
Austenitic stainless steel, 242–244
chemical composition, 244
heat treatment temperatures, 244
sensitization of, 243–244
sigma phase in, 243
stabilization of, 243–244
Bain distortion model, 80–85
Bainite, 73–75
lower, 74–75
upper, 74–75
Bainitic transformation, 72–76
active nucleus for, 75
at Bf temperature, 72, 73
at Bt temperature, 72, 73
mechanism of, 72, 73
Ball bearing steel, 218–220
applications of, 219
chemical composition of, 220
heat treatment temp
Beta iron, 29, 30
Boronizing, 141–142
Box type furnace, 167
Brinell hardness number, 324
Bull’s eye structure, 264
Burning of steels, 197–198
detection of, 199
factors responsible for, 198
Carbon equivalent value, 255
Carbonitriding, 137–138
Carburizing, 130–134
gas, 132–133
liquid, 132–133
pack, 131–132
vacuum, 133–134
Case depth measurement of steel, 151–153
chemical method, 153
hardness method, 152–153
macrostructure method, 153
microscopic method, 153
Cast iron, 35–38, 39–40, 255–276
alloy, 269–276
eutectic, 37, 39
grey, 35, 255–259
hypereutectic, 37
hypoeutectic, 36–37
malleable, 259–265
pearlitic malleable, 259, 262–264
spheroidal graphite, 265–269
white, 35, 259
C-curve, 62
CCT diagram, 66–67
Chromium–molybdenum steels, 223–224
high carbon low alloy, 223–224
low carbon low alloy, 223
applications, 223
chemical compositions, 223
heat treatment temperatures, 223
medium carbon low alloy, 223–234
applications, 224
chemical compositions, 224
heat treatment temperatures, 224
Chromium steels, 217–220
high carbon low alloy, 217
applications, 217
chemical compositions, 220
heat treatment temperatures, 220
medium carbon low alloy, 217
applications, 217
chemical compositions, 219
heat treatment temperatures, 217, 219
Chromizing, 142–143
Cold treatment, 105–106
Compound, 12–13, 16
electron, 13
electrochemical, 12
intermetallic, 16
Continuous type furnace, 169–170
Controlled atmospheres, 171–180
Controlled rolling, 156
Conventional quenching, 99
Conveyor furnace, 169
Copper alloy (heat treatments), 306–307
brasses, 306–307
bronzes, 307
Creep, 336
definition of, 336
primary, 336
secondary, 336
tertiary, 336
Creep curve, 336
Creep strength, 59, 336
dependence on grain size, 59
factors affecting, 336
Creep test, 336
Critical diameter, 110
Cryforming, 159
Crystal structure, 7–8
cubic, 7
hexagonal, 8
Cyaniding, 137
Decalescence, 31
Decarburization, 196–197, 262
Defects in heat treatment (steels)
burning, 197–198
decarburization, 196–197
distortion, 200–204
low hardness and strength, 194–195
overheating, 197–198
oxidation, 196–197
quench cracks, 199–200
soft spots, 195
Delta iron, 29, 30
Diffusion annealing, 90
Dimensional stabilization treatment, 275
Distortion, 200–204
control of, 201–202
methods to reduce, 202–204
shape, 200–201
size, 200–201
Eddy current inspection, 338
Edge dislocation, 26
Electrochemical compounds, 12
Electron beam hardening, 148


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