كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
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 كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition

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كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition   كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition Emptyالخميس 04 يوليو 2013, 10:46 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Pneumatic Handbook 8th Ed
Anthony Barber

كتاب Pneumatic Handbook - 8th Edition P_h_8_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Sect. 1 Basic Principles
Sect. 2 The Compressor
Sect. 3 Energy and Efficiency
Sect. 4
Compressed Air Transmission and
Treatment
Sect. 5 Applications
Sect. 6 Valves and Sensors
Sect. 7 Actuators
Sect. 8 Seals
Sect. 9 Applied Pneumatics
Sect. 10 Vacuum and Low Pressure
Sect. 11 Engineering Data
Advertisers Buyers Guide
Editorial Index
SECTION 1
Basic Principles
NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
PROPERTIES OF AIR AND GASES
GAS LAWS AND THERMODYNAMICSNOMENCLATURE AND UNITS
Nomenclature
Unless otherwise specified in the text, the following symbols are used consistently
throughout this book:
A = cross sectional area (m 2)
Cp = specific heat at constant pressure (J/kg K)
c~ = specific heat at constant volume (J/kg K)
C = flow coefficient for orifices and nozzles = discharge coefficient
corrected for velocity of flow = Cd (1-~ 4)
Cd = discharge coefficient for orifices
D = internal diameter of pipe (m)
d = internal diameter of pipe (mm)
f - Darcy-Weisbach friction factor
g = gravitational constant (9.81 m/s 2)
K = coefficient of heat transmission W/(m 2 K)
k = thermal conductivity W/(m K)
L = length of pipe (m)
M = mass(kg)
N~ = Nusselt number = Q1/kA0 m see text
N = rotational speed (r/min)
n = rotational speed (r/s)
P = absolute pressure (N/m 2)
P" = gauge pressure (N/m 2 )
p = absolute pressure (bar)
p
"
Pr =
Q _ -
q =
Ro =
gauge pressure (bar)
Prandtl number = (Cpg)/k m see text
heat (J)
flow rate (m3/s)
universal gas constant = 8.314 J/(K mol) = 8314 J/(K kmol)4 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
R = individual gas constant (J/kg K) = Ro/M where M = molecular weight of
the gas
Re = Reynolds number = pvl/lx ~ see text
S = stroke length (m)
t = time (s)
T = absolute temperature (K) = temperature in °C + 273
V = volume (m 3)
V~ = specific volume (m 3/kg)
V = velocity (m/s)
w = mass of gas (kg)
W = work done (kW)
Z = compressibility factor
Greek letters
13 = ratio of small to large diameter in orifices and pipes
3, = ratio of specific heats = cp/c~
A = signifies an increment in a unit
e = absolute roughness of pipes (mm)
v = kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
Ix = dynamic viscosity (Pa s)
p = fluid density (kg/m 3)
t~ = relative humidity
11 = efficiency
rla = isentropic (adiabatic) efficiency
rlv = volumetric efficiency
V = ratio of air consumed to air delivered by compressor
Subscripts for diameters and areas
defines smaller
2 defines larger
Subscripts for fluid flow, pressures, temperatures and volumes
0 defines base or reservoir conditions
defines initial, inlet or upstream
2 defines final, outlet or downstream
Other subscripts are defined as they occur
Note on units
SI units are used consistently throughout this handbook. Certain conventions within the
SI structure are used generally throughout the European compressed air industry. These
are as follows:NOMENCLATURE AND UNITS 5
Compressor
capacity:
Specific power
consumption:
Pressure:
Length:
Mass:
Torque:
Rotational speed:
Moisture content:
the traditional unit for compressor capacity is m3/min,
which most manufacturers prefer to quote. Litre/s (l/s) is
however the recommended unit (1 Us = 0.06 m3/min).
kW h/m 3 or J/l.
bar is preferred usage for air pressure, although Pascal is
theoretically better (1 bar = 10SPa). MPa is also found.
metre for dimensions greater than 1 metre, millimetre for
dimensions less than 1 metre.
kilogram or tonne.
Newton metre (N m).
rev/min is widely used although rev/s is the preferred unit.
kg/m 3 or g/m 3
Conversion factors
For the convenience of those readers more familiar with Imperial units, the following
conversion factors may be used.
The values quoted are adequate for most engineering purposes, ie accurate to at least 3
significant figures:
Acceleration 1 ft/s2 = 0.305 m/s 2
Area 1 ft2 = 0.093 m 2
Density 1 lb/ft 3 = 16.02 kg/m 3
Energy, work, heat 1 ft lbf = 1.356 J
1 Btu = 1055.06 J
Entropy 1 Btu/°F = 1899 J/K
Force 1 lbf = 4.448 N
1 tonf = 9.964 kN
Length 1 in = 0.0254 m
1 ft = 0.3048 m
Mass 1 lb = 0.4536 kg
1 ton = 1.016 tonne
Moment of inertia 1 lb ft2 = 0.04214 kg m 2
Power 1 hp = 0.746 kW
Pressure 1 lbf/in 2 = 0.06895 bar = 6895 Pa
Specific capacity 1 (ft3/min)/hp = 0.03797 (m3/min)/kW
Specific energy 1 Btu/ft 3 = 0.01035 kWh/m 3
Temperature 1 °F = 9/5 °C + 32
Torque 1 lbf ft = 1.356 N m6 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
Velocity
Volume
V o l u m e flow
Viscosity (dynamic)
Viscosity (kinematic)
1 ft/s = 0.305 m/s
1 f t 3 = 0.0283 m 3
1 fta/s = 0.0283 m3/s
1 lb s/ft 2 = 47.88 Pa s
(n.b. 1 centipoise = 10.3 Pa s)
1 ft2/s = 0.0929 m2/s
(n.b. 1 centistoke = 10~ m2/s)TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Terms and definitions used in the Compressor Industry (see also BS 1571 and BS 5791):
Adiabatic compression
Aftercooling
Clearance volume
Compressibility factor
Compression ratio
Compressor
Compressor, booster
Compressor, displacement
Compressor, dynamic
Compressor, multistage
Compressor capacity
One in which the compression takes place with no heat
transfer across its enclosure.
(See isentropic.)
Removal of heat from the air after compression is
completed.
The volume remaining inside a compression space at
the end of the compression stroke.
Ratio of the actual volume of a compressed gas to its
volume calculated in accordance with the ideal gas
laws.
Ratio between discharge and final pressure.
A machine which draws in air or gas at one pressure
and delivers it at a higher pressure.
In which the inlet gas has already been compressed.
In which the pressure rise is achieved by allowing
successive volumes of air to be inspired and exhausted
from an enclosed space by displacement of a moving
member, eg piston, screw and sliding vane.
In which the pressure rise is achieved by converting
kinetic energy into pressure energy in its passage
through the machine, eg radial and axial fixed vane.
In which the increase in pressure takes place in two or
more stages.
The volumetric flow rate of the gas as compressed and
delivered, referred to the conditions of temperature and
pressure at the inlet. For air this is referred to as Free8 THE PNEUMATICHANDBOOK
Condensate
Displacement
Efficiency, adiabatic
Efficiency, isothermal
Efficiency, volumetric
Filter
Free air
Free Air Delivered
Ideal compression
lntercooling
Isentropic process
Isothermal process
Packaged compressor
Polytropic process
Pressure ratio
Pressure regulator
Air Delivered (FAD). When referred to standard
conditions, 1.013 bar and 15°C, this is known as
standard capacity. BS 5791 suggests that this
expression should be replaced by "volume rate of
flow".
Liquid formed by condensation of water vapour.
Actual volume swept by the first (or only) stage of a
displacement compressor.
Ratio of the adiabatic power consumption to the shaft
input power.
Ratio of the isothermal power to the shaft input power.
The ratio of the compressor capacity to its
displacement.
A device for removing contaminants from a fluid.
Atmospheric condition at the inlet point of a
compressor.
See above under Compressor capacity.
Conditions appertaining to the isentropic compression
of an ideal gas.
The cooling of compressed air (or gas) between
compression stages.
A thermodynamic process which takes place at
constant entropy. (AQ/T - constant.) A reversible
adiabatic process is also isentropic, so the two terms
are often used interchangeably in compressor
technology. Isentropic is the preferred usage when
describing a compression cycle.
A thermodynamic process which takes place at
constant temperature. Isothermal compression is not
realisable in practice, since it would have to take place
very slowly. However it is theoretically the most
efficient and is therefore used as the basis of
comparison.
A complete powered compressor unit ready to operate.
Compression or expansion of a gas where the
relationship PV" = constant applies.
Ratio between absolute discharge pressure and
absolute inlet pressure.
A valve or similar device for reducing line pressure to
a lower (constant) pressure.TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 9
Pulsation damper
Relative clearance volume
Relative humidity
Separator
Specific capacity
Specific energy
Stage pressure ratio
Surge limit
Temperature, absolute
Temperature, ambient
Temperature, inlet
Temperature, discharge
Temperature, total
Vacuum
Vacuum pump
A chamber designed to eliminate pulsations present in
air flow.
Ratio of clearance volume to volume swept by a
compressing element.
Ratio of water vapour actually present in air to the
saturated water vapour content, at a given temperature
and pressure.
A device for removing liquids (eg water and oil) from
compressed air.
Compressor capacity per unit of input power.
Input power per unit of compressor capacity.
Compression ratio for any particular stage in a
multistage compressor.
The flow limit below which operation of a dynamic
compressor becomes unstable.
Temperature above absolute zero in Kelvin.
Temperature of the environment.
Total temperature at the standard inlet point of the
compressor.
Total temperature at the standard discharge point of
the compressor.
Temperature at the stagnation point of an airstream.
Difference between atmospheric and a lower system
pressure.
A machine for generating a pressure below atmospheric.
EDITORIAL INDEX
absolute temperature, definition 9
acceptance tests 81---4
activated carbon filters 177, 189
actuators 475--88
adiabatic compression, definition 7
adiabatic efficiency, definition 8
aerating 413
aftercoolers 102, 121--2
aftercooling, definition 7
air
atmospheric 13
breathable 399
breathing filtration 183--92
composition 11
compressed 15, 134, 165,396--7, 399~
403
distribution 217--28, 279
compression 23--5
consumption
cylinders 533
motors 352
paint sprayers 371,374
tools 299, 304--5, 325
contaminants 166, 168---70, 186--9, 193
demand 227
dry 201--3
flushing 323, 334, 338---9,403
heating 216
isentropic exponent 22
leakage 65
mass flow 453
moisture content 12, 13, 171, 201,
212--15,277
properties 11~19
quality 166, 167
sound in 18, 19
springs 488
standards table 167
sterile 193--200
air bellows 488
air blast coolers 128
air blowers 44, 47, 59---60, 388, 581---93
air bubble techniques 413m14
air chucks 485--7
air cylinders 289--90
air driven ejectors 573---4, 576---80
air dryers 201--16
air films 405--12
air filters 165, 170---1, 193--200
air flow
adiabatic 437
damping 437,439, 448
laminar 456
measurement 437--54
meters 446---54
pulsations 444, 450
smoothing 437, 439
straightener 452
sub-critical 437
swirl 440
air gauging
air supply 417
control 420
control orifice 417
digital display 420
electronic 420
examples 417-- 19
with flow indicators 419
mechanical contact 419
multiple jet 418
with pressure gauge 419
principles 415--17
signal conditioning 418
single jet 418646 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
temperature effects 417
air lift pumps 394----6
air line filters 177--9
air motor hoists 353---4
air motors
applications 353--8
brake 350---1
characteristics 341,344, 351
control 350
diaphragm 347
gear boxes 350---1
gear type 349--50
governor 343
impulse turbine 349
manufacture 345
performance 341-----4
piston 346--9
power 342, 343,352
Roots 349
speed 342, 346, 348
torque 343,348, 349
turbine 349
vane 344---6, 357
air receivers
corrosion 112
design 108, 111D 12
ends 109D11
flat 112
hemispherical 112
inspection 111
intermediate system 107
legislation 106--8
major system 107
materials 108
minor system 107
openings 111
safety 279
standards 108
storage capacity 104--6
wall thickness 109
air skates 408~10
air springs
damping 385
forces 379
formulae 378
hydro pneumatic 379
installation 384--5
rolling diaphragms 385
stiffness 385
air tools 287--98
air velocities, fans 584
airplugs 418
airscrews, fan blowers 583
altitude
compressor performance 62
motor performance 63
Amagat's law 22
ambient temperature, definition 9
Amonton's law 21
amplifiers
pneumatic 459
turbulence 547
angle of repose 391
apertures, conductance 565
atmosphere
properties 18
standard 261
Avogadro's law 21--2
axial flow fans 589
noise 587m8
back-streaming, diffusion pumps 571
backing pumps 566
backward-curved blades 590---1
band cylinders 479m80
bearings
air films 405---7, 410
cooling 411
cylinders 494
flat air 407
journal 410
liquid hydrodynamic 410
precision surfaces 406
thrust 405, 410
bellows 380-----4,488
Bendix drive 356~7
bifurcated co-axial fan 589
biodegradable lubricants 230
blades, fans 583, 587--8,589, 590---2
blank-off pressure, vacuum pumps 569
blenders 396---7
blowers
low pressure 44
positive-displacement 583
regenerative 592--3
Roots 44, 47, 388, 581--3
performance 59--60
turbo 388
booster compressor, definition 7
borosilicate filters 194
Bourdon, Eugene 262
Bourdon tube pressure gauge 262~3,442,
443
Boyle's law 21
breakers 319--22, 324
legislation 361~2EDITORIAL INDEX 647
noise 360
breathing air filtration
apparatus 190---1
contaminants 185----6
hopcalites 187--8
legislation 183
low pressure 184
packaged systems 189
standards 184, 190---1
cable cylinders 479
CAGI-Pneurop Code 363
carbon dioxide filtration 188
carbon monoxide filtration 186---7
catalysis 187
centrifugal fans
noise 587--8
regenerative blowers 592--3
Charles's law 21
chillers 208
chipping hammers 315--17, 368
vibration 368
circuit analysis
Boolean algebra 547
Cascade techniques 547
complex circuits 546--7
cylinder control 544, 546
cylinder cycling 541--2
cylinder reciprocation 542--3
cylinder return 540---1
cylinder speed 539---40
cylinders
double-acting 538--9
single-acting 537~8
Grafcet functions 547
Karnaugh-Veitch maps 547
logic circuits 546---50
basic 547--50
moving part 547
logic functions 547--8
logic symbols 548
remote control 539
safety 544---6
speed control 543---4
clearance volume, reciprocating compressors
56
clearance volume, definition 7
closed loop system 149--54
closed-circuit cooling 99~100
coarse vacuum, applications 576---80
coating (industrial), vacuums 576
commissioning 279~86
hydraulic test 279
pressure testing 279
safety 280
compressed air
advantages 134
applications 165
blending 396m7
distribution
branch 221--2
dead end 217
design 218--21
freezing 223
geometry 221
installation 222
layout 221
leakage 222, 223--7
mains 217
mains fall 22 lm3
maximum flow 219--20, 225,226
moisture 221
outdoor 223
pipeline 217--18
power loss 224
ring 217
safety 279
sizing 218--21
filtration 165--82
marine applications 399---403
mixing 396--7
transmission 134
uses 134
water condensation 15
compressibility
effects 15--19
factor 15--16
definition 7
compression
adiabatic, definition 7
curve 32
cycle 54
ideal, definition 8
isentropic 24
isothermal 23--4, 32
multi-stage 53
polytropic 23, 24m5, 53
ratio
definition 7
ejectors 573
vacuum pumps 563
compressors
acceptance tests
corrected capacity 83
corrected power 83
preliminary 81648 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
preparations 81
report 81~2
standards table 83
axial flow 32, 51
booster, definition 7
capacity, definition 7--8
centrifugal 51
cooling 122~3
classification 29m51
control 91--102
crank arrangements, table 69
definition 7
delivery pipe 67~8
tuned 70
diaphragm
performance 41m2
properties 41--2
types of 40---1
discharge pipe 71, 72
displacement, definition 7
dynamic 47--50
dynamic, definition 7
efficiency table 54
energy recovery 68, 69
fires 119
flow rate 445
forces 70
foundations 68m73
flexible mountings 70
heat recovery 68, 69
installation
centralised 65
configuration 71
decentralised 65
intake 65, 66---7
location 66
numbers of 65
rotary 72~3
two-stage 72
intake 66---7
liquid ring 44--5
lubrication 113m20
maintenance 292--5
mobile 75--80
multistage, definition 7
noise reduction 66, 75, 79, 85--90, 360,
445
packaged 71--3
definition 8
performance 31, 53---63
pipes, resonance 87
positive displacement 57--62
protection 99~102
reciprocating 32m5, 56--7, 68--70, 113--
17, 122----3,293-----4
rotary 33---40, 57---9, 72~3, 94---7, 118--
19, 152, 179, 294---5
rotary tooth 45---7
selection 29--51
ambient conditions 31
cooling 31
costs 32
demand 29
maintenance.31
noise 31
vibration 31
silencers 86---7
absorptive 87
interstage 89
venturi 87
sliding vane 33, 42--5, 57~8, 59, 117m
18, 346
specific speed 61
surge 51
turbocompressors 47--50, 60---2, 119
water-cooled 68
concrete breakers s e e breakers
condensate
definition 8
emulsion 237
separators 236
treatment 229--37
filtration 236
oil/water separators 233--7
settling 235
condensate treatment 229--38
condensation rate 15
condensers 570
conductance, vacuum pumps 564---5, 566
contaminants
air 166, 168--70, 186---9, 193
bacteria 193
carbon dioxide 188
carbon monoxide 186---7
inducted 168--70
nitrogen oxide 189
nitrous oxide 189
odours 189
oil 186
disposal 229
continuous flow pumps 565
contractors tools 319--30
control
auto-idling 97
compressors 9 1 ~ 102
continuous 91EDITORIAL INDEX 649
cylinder speed 539---40
cylinders 500, 544, 546
discontinuous 91
humidity 172
intake throttling 94
motors 95--9
multi-compressor 97m8
multi-pressure 95
on-off cycling 92
operating speed 543-----4
pressure regulator 92
pulse-width modulation 97
reciprocating cylinder 541
remote 539
reverse flow 93----4
robotics 557
rotary compressors 94
slide valve 94--5
speed 432--5
stop-start 105---6
suction valve unloading 93
temperature 100
three step unloading 93
time delay 543---4
valves 423m36
conveying factor 393
conveying tools 387--98
coolers 102, 121--8, 206, 208
cooling 121--8, 155----62,575
cooling towers 100, 159---60
copper pipes 240---1
corrosion, cylinders 491
cups, suction 576--80
cushioning 505--9
cylinder hoists 353
cylinders
air consumption 533
air pressure 533
automatic cycling 541--2
automatic return 540---1
band 479
bearings 494
buckling 504
cable 479
characteristics 532
clamps 502
compact 498--9
composite 499m500
construction 489m502
control 500
corrosion 491
cushioning 505--9
hydraulic 507~9
damping 506
diameter 503
diaphragm 477--8
double-acting 424, 481,486, 490, 491,497,
538--9
dual control 544
ends 492m3
fittings 495
flow analysis 529--35
friction 503
guide rods 497
heavy duty 490
installation 509--10
light duty 490
long-stroke 478
magnetic 479
materials
ends 492--3
mounts 492
pistons 492, 493----4
tube 491
mounting 489, 495--6
multi-position 499--500
non-lubricated 494---5
non-rotating rod 496---8
performance 503wl 0, 532
pistons 34, 492--4, 497, 525,532---4
position sensors 500---2
pressure limitations 535
reciprocation 542--3
rings 494
rodless 478--81,509, 554
rods 496, 504---5
seals 506, 513
selection 503--10
short-stroke477--8, 486, 498--9
single-acting 490, 537--8
special 499--500
speed control 539---40
speeds 507
standards 489
strength 503-----4
tandem 509
testing 509--10
three-position 499--500
thrust 532
tie rod 493
tube material 491--2
washers 505--6
wear 491
Dalton's law 21
Darcy formula 136, 140650 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
Darcy friction factor 136
determination 138---40
pipes 142
Darcy-Weisbach formula 136
depression, vacuum pumps 563
design
fans 584---7, 589
vacuum pumps 563,566--7
dewpoint 13, 166, 207, 213
diaphragm cooling 122--3
diaphragm cylinders 477--8
diaphragm pressure gauge 265--6, 442
diatomic gases, work of depression 564
diffusion pumps 570---1
discharge
legislation 229
oil/water separators 233--7
regulation 229
standards 230
user responsibilities 230--1
discharge temperature, definition 9
displacement, definition 8
double acting cylinders 424, 481,486, 490,
491,497, 538--9
down-the-hole hammer 336---7
drains
automatic 233
ball float trap 232
condensate 231,234
filters 232
freezing 233
timers 233----4
dredging 394
drills
air-leg 331--2
control 312
dust 339
features 322---4
hand held 331
hydraulic 333
lead 327
operation 327
performance 328--30
precision 312
pusher leg 331--2
rig mounted 333--5
stoper 332--3
stress waves 329--30
underground 334m5
underwater 401
dryers 20 l m 16
absorption 215-- 16
adsorption 208--9
deliquescent 215
efficiency 212
filters 204
heat regenerated 211
heatless 209--12
membrane 216
non-deliquescent 216
rotary 214
salt 215
sorption system 208
types 202
drying 203-----4,205,575
ducted fans 588
dust collectors 339
dynamic compressor, definition 7
efficiency
adiabatic 8, 25
fans 584, 588
filters 167--8, 174, 177
isentropic 25, 54
isothermal 8, 25
losses 54
reciprocating compressors 56---7
volumetric 8, 55, 56----7, 93
effluent s e e discharge
ejectors 572---4
electric motors 341
electronic pressure gauges 264---5
energy
balance 131--2
compressed air as 133-----4
dispersal 131--4
generation 131----4
kinetic 132
output 132--3
savings 159
Energy Saver Pack 159
entropy 23
equipment
air supply 222
hydraulic 134
percussive 153
pneumatic 132, 134
pressure requirements 218
safety 134
exhaust hoses 402
exhausters, air blowers 581
fail-safe coolers 127--8
fans
axial flow 587--9
bifurcated co-axial 589EDITORIAL INDEX 651
concepts and definitions 583-----4
design 584--7, 589
ducted 588
hub ratios 589
legislation 585,587, 588
noise 587--8, 590---2
performance characteristics 584---7
power 584, 585
pressure 584
pressure coefficients 585
propeller type 588---9
radial flow 590--2
straight-radial blades 590---2
two-staging 589
filters
activated carbon 177, 189
air 165, 170---1
air line 177~9
borosilicate 194
check list 179--80
coalescing 173----4, 176
conveying 392
definition 8
drains 232
drying 203----4
efficiency 194
filter regulator 259
gas 193~200
grades 175
hollow fibre 195
housings 195
legislation 180--- 1
life 179
lubricator 259
maintenance 290
membrane cartridge 194
microfibres 194
oil 174---6
pre-filters 172~3, 195
selection 179, 195
steam 197m8
sterilization 193~200
testing 179
two stage 174
filtration 165~81
activated carbon 177
carbon dioxide 188
carbon monoxide 186---7
catalysis 187
compressed air 165--82
efficiency 167~8, 174, 177
hydrocarbons 177
legislation 180----1
nitrogen oxide 189
nitrous oxide 189
odours 189
oil 174---6, 177, 186
packaged systems 189
solids 177
systems 178
validation 198m200
flow
adiabatic 135
compressible, formula 136m7
discharge coefficient 145
isentropic 135
isothermal 135
formula 136
losses 148
nozzles 144---8
orifice 144---8
subcritical 145~6
ventilation 156---7
flow analysis 529~35
circuit analysis 529
cylinder performance 532
piston velocity 532----4
pressure limitations 535
speed control 534---5
valves
data 529~32
flow curves 531
flow control 432
fluid jet pumps 571~3
Fluid Power Centre (FPC) 149m50
forced draft cooling 122~3
forward-curved blades, fans 590---1
free air, definition 8
freezing 100
friction factor s e e Darcy friction factor
Fuller-Kinyon pump 389
gas
constant 12, 13, 17
laws 21--5
gas ballast 569~70
gas filters 193~200
gas springs 378
gases
compressible flow 135~6
flow 135---48
physical data 17
properties llm19
table 17
gauges
air 415m20652 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
pressure 165, 176, 261~8,442---6
strain 299
grease 117
grinders 307---9
legislation 364
vibrations 368
grippers 485m7
guide vanes, fans 588,589
Hagen-Poiseuille's law 138
Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome 363
health and safety, legislation 106, 285
heat
see also energy
balance 157
recovery 155---61
release 156
waste 133
heat exchangers 121~8,208
helical screw blower 583
hoists 353---4
hollow fibre filters 195
hopcalites, CO removal 187~8
hub ratio, fans 589
hydraulic motors 341
hydrocarbons, filtration 177
ice formation 172
ideal compression, definition 8
impact wrenches 312
impellers see fans
impregnation, vacuum 576
impulse tools 313~14
inclined plane actuators 484
industrial tools 307~17
injection cooling 123
inlet temperature, definition 9
installation
air springs 384---5
compressed air distributors 222
compressors 65---74
cylinders 509~10
fans 588
O-ring seals 521
relief valves 257m9
intercooling 8, 123
interstage cooling 121
ion plating 576
isentropic compression 24
isentropic exponent 22
isentropic index 55
isentropic process, definition 8
isothermal compression 23---4
isothermal efficiency, definition 8
isothermal process, definition 8
leakage
Roots blower 582
vacuum pumps 563,566
legislation
breakers 361--2
breathing air 183
discharge 229
fans 585, 587, 588
filtration 180---1
grinders 364
lubrication 229
noise 77m8, 85, 359, 36 lm2
safety 106, 285
liquid column pressure gauges 261~2
logarithmic mean temperature difference
(LMTD) 124
logic circuits 546--50
long pipes, conductance 564
long-stroke cylinders 478
low vacuum, applications 576--80
lubricants
bio-degradable 230
safety 120
synthetic 119~20
lubrication
bearing slides 510
compressors 113~20
cylinders 494--5
detergent 229
draining 229
drip oilers 115~16
filter regulator and lubricator 259
flood 115
force feed 115, 118
grease 117
guide table 116
legislation 229
maintenance 287, 292
mist 513, 515
oil cooler 119
oil separator 119
reciprocating compressors 113, 114---17
regulation 229
rotary compressors 118ml 9
seals 513m15, 523
siphon wick oilers 117
splash 114---15
synthetic lubricants 119~20
systems 114
tools 269~78, 345, 348, 349EDITORIAL INDEX 653
trunnions 510
turbocompressors 119
vane compressors 117ml 8
Mach number 144
magnetic cylinders 479
maintenance 287--95
accessories 290--2
air cylinders 289--90
air tools 287m98
appliances 289
compressors 292~5
filters 290
lubrication 287, 292
pipes 291
records 288
responsibility 288
safety 28 l, 283--4
seals 290
system 287--96
manometers 267, 442, 445,446
marine applications
corrosion 400
drill string compensator 400---1
exhaust hose 402
general use 399---.-400
prospecting 400
regulation 399
tools 401~3
mass spectrometers 267
McLeod pressure gauge 267
measurement
air flow
alternatives 445--6
calculation 442--3,445
delivery side 439---40
electronic pickup 450
equipment 442
high pressure nozzles 444---5
instruments 442
intake 440
magnetic pickup 450
mass flow 453
methods 437
nozzles 437--9, 444
orifice 437, 444
perforated plate 439--40
pipelines 440
pitot tube 446
pressure effects 453
receiver 439, 441
standards 441~2
temperature effects 453
tests 443
venturi tube and nozzle 444
mercury-diffusion pumps 571
meters
air flow
combination 449
cone 447
coriolis effect 446, 452m3
float 447
hot wire anemometer 446
multi-blade 449m51
pelton wheel 450--1
spring-loaded 448
turbine 446, 449
variable area 446, 447--9
vortex shedding 446, 45 lm2
mining equipment 33 lm9
mobile compressors
canopy 76
capacity 77
chassis 76
cooling 76, 128
features 76
intake 76
pressure 77
safety 282--3
van mounted 80
moisture
load control 213
measurement 212--15
relative humidity 9
separators 161
Mono pump 389
motors
see also air motors
electric 341 .
hydraulic 341
variable speed 98~9
mufflers 319
multi-action actuators 556
multistage compressor, definition 7
multistage cooling 121
nitrogen oxide filtration 189
nitrous oxide filtration 189
noise
breakers 360
casings 88---9
compressor 360
delivery passages 89
fans 587--8,590--2
gear box 90
general 90654 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
inlet ducts 87--8
intake 86---7
legislation 77--8, 85, 359, 36 lm2
levels 359
measurement 363
mobile 77, 79--80
motors 89--90
mountings 89
mufflers 361,402
packaged units 90
pneumatic equipment 359m70
radial flow fans 590--2
reduction 85--90, 360---1
sources 86, 361
standards 86, 362
tests 361--2
tools 359--70
valves 88, 89
nozzles
equations 144--8
high pressure 444---5
selection 440---1
sizing 438, 445
Nusselt number 126---7
nutrunners 310
O-rings
combinations 523
dynamic conditions 520
groove sizes 519
installation 521
non-circular 522
non-toroidal 522---3
oil, filtration 174---6, 177, 186
oil cooler 119
oil separator 119
oil-diffusion pumps 571
orifices 144---8
packaged compressors, definition 8, 71~3
packaging, vacuum 576
paint sprayers
air consumption 37 l, 374
characteristics 372
cold 375
electrostatic spraying 374
high pressure 374, 375
hot 375
low pressure 371,375
paint feed 376
safety 374
Panhandle formula 138
paving breakers 319--22, 324, 360, 361--2
perforated plate 439---40
pipes
ABS copolymer 239---40
aluminium tube 242--3, 251
bleeding 249
bundy tube 242
conductance 564
copper 240---1
fittings 239m51
ABS copolymer 241
American style 245
brass 247
compression 245--8
equivalent lengths table 141--2
nylon 244
polymide 247
pressure drop 140---3
push-in 247--8
Q Type 245
quick-release couplings 248--50
self-sealing 249--50
Universal 245
flexible hoses 143---4
flow calculations 135---48
friction losses 142, 143---4
hose couplings 245
hose whip 249, 251
long 564
maintenance 291
materials 239--51
nylon spring coils 244
nylon tubes 243---4
PVC hoses 245
roughness table 140
rubber hoses 245
screw fittings 143
standards 239
steel 239
terylene braided PVC hoses 245
thin-walled steel 241B2
Pirani pressure gauge 267
pistons
labyrinth seal 34
materials 492
rods 34, 493---4
seals 525
skirt 34
velocity 532---4
pneumatic conveying tools
air-activated 391
blow-tank 390
combination vacuum/pressure systems 390
cyclone 392EDITORIAL INDEX 655
feed pump 389
high pressure systems 390
hopper 388
low pressure systems 388--9
medium pressure systems 389
pipelines 387
power 392---4
pulse phase systems 390, 391
rotary feeder 388
separation 391--2
types 387
vacuum systems 387~8
venturi pick-up 388
pneumatic elevator 388
pneumatic equipment, noise 359~70
pneumatic springs 377--85
Pneurop tests 78, 84, 309, 367
Poiseuille's law 138
Poisson's law 22
pollution 229--38
see also noise
polytropic compression 23, 24---5
polytropic index 55
polytropic process, definition 8
positive-displacement blowers 583
power
fans 584
hydraulic 132
isentropic 151
output 132--3
pneumatic 132
Roots blower 582--3
power coefficient, fans 585
Prandtl number 126~7
pressure
amplifier 550
atmospheric 441
critical 16, 17
drop, bends and fittings 140--3
fans 584
gauge pressure 267
inlet 56
partial 13, 21
pseudo-critical 16
ratio, definition 8
reduced 16
regulating valves 253~60
saturation 13, 14
sensors 99
testing 279
pressure coefficients, fans 585
pressure gauges
Bourdon 262B3, 442, 443
calibration 443
construction 262---4
diaphragm 265---6, 442
electronic 264---5
isolator valves 266
liquid columns 261--2
manometers 267,442, 445,446
mass spectrometer 267
McLoed 267
Pirani 267
surge protection 263
thermionic 267
vacuum 266---7
pressure ratio, definition 8
pressure regulator, definition 8
PROFIBUS 557
propeller type fans 588--9
proximity sensors 455--62
pulsation damper, definition 9
pumps
air blowers 581--93
air driven ejectors 573---4, 576---80
backing 566
condensation 570
conveying 389
diffusion 570--1
fluid jet 571B2
mono 389
oil-diffusion 571
reciprocating 565----6
rotary plunger vacuum 566
rotary vane vacuum 566
steam jet 572~3
vacuum 563~74
vapour booster 57 lm2
water 394---6
quarrying equipment 331~9
rack and pinion actuators 483--4
radial flow fans 590m2
radiators 155~9
ratio, stage pressure 56
Raynaud's Disease of Occupational Origin
363
reciprocating compressors 35, 122~3
clearance volume 56B7
configuration of 32
cooling 122--3
disadvantages 33
foundations for 68--70
industrial service 33
lubrication 113, 114--- 17656 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
maintenance 293
multi-stage 32
oil-free 34
performance 55--7
trouble-shooting 294
volumetric efficiency 56
reciprocating pumps 565---6
refrigerated condensers 570
regenerative blowers 592--3
regenerative coolers 208
regulating valves 253~9
regulations s e e legislation
relative clearance volume, definition 9
relative humidity, definition 9
resistance coefficient 142
Reynolds number 126---7, 136, 444
determination 137~8
road breakers 319~22, 324, 360, 36 lm2
robotics
assembly 554
available modules 551~2
base rotate units 551,553
control systems 557
fieldbus systems 557--8
gantry units 554---5
grippers 552---3
linear units 551,553
multi-motion actuators 556
Pneubus 557
positioning unit 554
PROFIBUS 557
safety 559
semi-robotic devices 558---9
two-wire cable 557~8
wrist rotate units 552--3
rodless cylinders 478~81
Roots blowers 44, 47, 59---60, 388, 58 lm3
rotary actuators 481---4
rotary compressors
compression cycle 36
control 94, 95--7
filtration 179
gearing 39
helical screw 35~7
industrial service 36
installation 72~3
lubrication 118ml 9
maintenance 295
manufacture 37
multi-pressure 95
oil system 40
oil-flooded 37---40
oil-free 37--40
performance 57---9
power 37, 59
principles of 37
rotor design 39---40
trouble-shooting 294
unloading 95---7
rotary plunger vacuum pumps 566
rotary tooth compressors 45--7
rotary vane vacuum pumps 566
safety
checks 289
circuit design 544---6
commissioning 280
general guidelines 279m80
inspections 282
interlock 546
legislation 106, 285
maintenance 281,283--4, 289
mobile compressors 282--3
operation 281
paint sprayers 374
pressure limitations 535
publications 285--6
regulations 285
robotics 559
running 281
tools 284---5
valves 253---4
sanders 307--9
scalers 316, 317
screwdrivers 310---11
seals 513~25
classification 514
design principles 517
friction 378
housing 524---5
lubrication 513~15, 523
maintenance 290
materials 513, 515--16
O-rings 513, 517m23
permeability 515
pistons 525
square 523
standards 513, 518
U-rings 523----4
wiper 513, 524
sensors
back pressure 456---7
ball roller 457~8
bleed 457--9
capacitive 460
cat's whisker 458EDITORIAL INDEX 657
conical jet 457
cylinder position 5 0 ( 0 2
fibre-optic 461
fluidic 459
inductive 460
magnetic 500
photoelectric 460---1
pneumatic amplifier 459
proximity
fluidic 459
non-pneumatic 460---1
nozzles 456
principles 455
three jet types 456
universal 461
separator, definition 9
shell-and-tube coolers 123m5
shock absorbers 507---9
single-stage coolers 206
sliding compressor vane
efficiency 59
lubrication 117--18
oil-flooded 43
oil-free 43
performance 57~8, 59
principles of 42~3
rings 43--4
rotational frequency 43
types 43
sliding doors 503
sound
attenuation 18, 19
power 362
velocity 19, 144
water vapour 19
specific capacity, definition 9
specific energy, definition 9
specific speed, fan performance 586--7
speed control 432~5
stage pressure ratio, definition 9
standard atmosphere, properties 18
standards
compressors 83
cylinders 489
discharge 230
noise 86, 362
pipes 239
tools 364
valves 463
vibration 364
steam ejector pumps 572~3
sterilization filters 193m200
Stoper drills 332---3
straight-radial blades, fans 590---2
stress waves 328u30
submergence 395----6
suction cups 576---80
surge, tank 435
surge limit, definition 9
symbols 467, 527
system maintenance 287---96
tachometer 442
temperature
absolute, definition 9
ambient, definition 9
critical 16, 17
discharge, definition 9
inlet 56
definition 9
pseudo-critical 16
reduced 16
sensors 99
total, definition 9
thermionic pressure gauge 267
thermodynamics 2 l m5
laws 22---3
tools
air consumption 299, 304---5, 325
air lift pumps 394----6
air motor hoists 353---4
air springs 377m85
Bendix drive 356~7
blenders 396--7
breakers 319~22, 324, 360, 361~2
chipping hammers 315~17, 368
classification 299u306
table 300---3
contractors 319~30
control 335,354, 381
conveying 387~98
cylinder hoists 353
down-the-hole 336~7
drills 312, 322---4, 327~30, 331--9, 401,
535
dust collectors 339
efficiency 306
energy output 299
exhaust hose 402
flexible bellows 380----4
grinders 307~9, 364, 368
grinding theory 309
health 363
hoists 353--4
impact wrenches 312
impulse tools 313~14658 THE PNEUMATIC HANDBOOK
industrial 307ml 7
lubrication 269--78, 345, 348, 349
mining 331~9
mixers 396---7
motors 341~58
mufflers 319
noise 359~70
nutrunners 310
paint sprayers 371~6
percussive 299, 315
air consumption 325
performance 324--6
performance 299~306
quarry 33 lm9
reamers 312
rifle bar 327m8
rotary 299, 307
rotation systems 326--7
safety 307
sanders 307~9
scalers 316, 317
screwdrivers 310--11
standards 364
starters 355~8
electric 357, 358
stoper drills 332~3
tappers 312
testing 361~2, 366, 4"48
torque 299, 327~8
underwater 401~3
vibration 363m9
winches 353, 354--5
wrenches 3 1 2 ~ 13, 314
ton" (unit) 563, 575
total temperature, definition 9
transducer
air/electronic 420
displacement-pressure 416
Turbo blowers 388
turbocompressors
control 61
efficiency curves 50
lubrication 119
performance 60~2
principles of 47
shaft speeds 50
types 47
working range 50
turoidal seals s e e O-rings
twin rotor vacuum pumps 566
two level system
characteristics 150
efficiency 149, 151
experiments 152m3
principles of 149
theory 150---2
two-stage coolers 206
two-stage filters 174
two-staging fans 589
U-rings 253--4
underwater tools 40 lm3
vacuum
augmenters 572m3
coating 576
definition 9
pressure 563
pumps
capacity 565m7
definition 9
design and selection 564---70
types and characteristics 568
units 563
techniques 575~80
vacuum packaging 576
vacuum pressure gauge 266---7
valves
air-actuated 469~70
automation 430
back pressure regulator 253
ball 428,429~30
characteristics 529~32
check 91, 431~2
Coanda effect 547
compressors, reciprocating 34---5
configurations 463----6
construction 463m73
control 423~36, 468,470, 500
diaphragm relief 254---5
directional control 423~5
disc 428
discharge 117
drain 229~37
elastomer bonded spools 426
excess flow 250
exhaust 432
flow control 432
flow curves 531
flow data 529~32
four-way 538
gauge isolator 266
glandless 471
hot gas by-pass 207
impulse solenoid 472~3
inflation 381EDITORIAL INDEX 659
interlock 427
isolating 71,222
manifold mountings 466
material 425
miniature 466
mounting 431
moving part logic 547
multi-bank 426
needle 100, 436, 506
noise 88, 89
non-return 431--2
O-rings 426, 429
operation 467--73
pedal 467
pilot 255,543
pneumatic 423
poppet 254---5,259,428
port tappings 463
position 542--3
pressure 91, 96, 253, 254---9, 448,535
quick exhaust 432
quick release 540
reed 501--2
regulating 253--9
relief 257--9
rotary 426---7
safety 71, 91,253---4, 259
safety lock-up 254
seals 425---6, 513
seated 423,428--9
semi-rotary 427
sequence 254
shut-off 429
shuttle 431
sizes 463
sliding spool 423,425--6
solenoid 470----3
pilot 471--2
poppet 470
speed control 432---3
spool 350
standard symbols 430---1,467
standards 463
suction 94
three-position 469
three-way 537, 539
time delay 436
unloader 97
variable orifice 423
vane actuators 481--2
vane compressors 117--18
vapour booster pumps 571--2
vapour pressure 12
variable speed motors 98---9
venturi ejector 580
venturi tube 444
vibration
grinders 368
isolation 378,383,384---5
reduction 377
Vibration Syndrome 363
Vibration White Fingers 363
volume coefficients, fans 584
volumetric efficiency 8,582
water
condensation 229
consumption 101
cooling 122--3, 411
flushing 323, 334, 338--9, 403
heating 158
jet pumps 572m3
losses 160
oil/water separators 233--7
pumping 394---6
sources 155
vapour 14, 171--2
water cooling, condensers 570
water pressure, saturation 14
water-cooled compressors 68
Weymouth formula 138
winches 353,354---5
work of depression, vacuum pumps 564
wrenches 312-- 13, 314


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