كتاب Principles of Welding
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 كتاب Principles of Welding

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Principles of Welding    كتاب Principles of Welding  Emptyالأربعاء 19 يونيو 2013, 5:08 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Principles of Welding
Processes, Physics, Chemistry, and Metallurgy
Robert W. Messler, Jr.
Materials Science and Engineering Department
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, Ny

كتاب Principles of Welding  P_o_w_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface Xix
I The process and processes of welding
1 Introduction to the Process of Welding
1.1 What Is Welding? / 3
1.2 The Evolution of Welding as a Process / 6
1.3 The Nature of an Ideal Weld: Achieving Continuity / 7
1.4 Impediments to Making Ideal Welds in the Real World / 10
1.5 What It Takes to Make a Real Weld / 12
1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Welding / 14
1.7 Summary / 15
References and Suggested Reading / 15
2 CLASSIFYING WELDING PROCESSES
Why Classify Processes? / 17
Mechanisms for Obtaining Material Continuity / 18
The Roles of Temperature and Pressure / 21
Alternative Bases for Classification / 23
2.4.1 Fusion Versus Nonfusion / 23
2.4.2 Pressure Versus Nonpressure / 25
2.4.3 Energy Source for Welding / 25
CONTENTS
2.4.4 Interface Relationships and Classification by Energy
Transfer Processes / 27
2.4.5 Other Bases for Classification and Subclassification / 28
2.5 Allied Processes / 35
2.6 The AWS Classification Scheme / 37
2.7 Summary / 39
References and Suggested Reading / 39
3 FUSIONWELDING PROCESSES 40
3.1 General Description of Fusion Welding Processes / 40
3.2 Chemical Fusion Welding Processes / 41
3.2.1 Oxyfuel Gas Welding / 41
3.2.2 Aluminothermic Welding / 46
3.3 Electric Arc Welding Processes / 49
3.3.1 Nonconsumable Electrode Arc Welding Processes / 50
3.3.1.1 Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding / 51
3.3.1.2 Plasma Arc Welding / 55
3.3.1.3 Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding 1'57
3.3.2 Consumable Electrode Arc Welding Processes / 60
3.3.2.1 Gas-Metal Arc Welding / 60
3.3.2.2 Shielded-Metal Arc Welding / 64
3.3.2.3 Flux-Cored Arc Welding / 66
3.3.2.4 Submerged Arc Welding / 68
3.3.2.5 Electrogas Welding / 69
3.3.2.6 Electroslag Welding / 70
3.4 Resistance Welding Processes / 71
3.4.1 Resistance Spot, Resistance Seam, and Projection
Welding / 71
3.4.2 Flash, Upset, and Percussion Welding / 74
3.5 High-Intensity Radiant Energy or High-Density Beam
Welding Processes / 77
3.5.1 High-Energy-Density (Laser and Electron) Beam
Welding Processes / 80
3.5.2 Focused IR and Imaged Arc Welding / 86
3.5.3 Microwave Welding / 88
References and Suggested Reading / 93
3.6 Summary / 92
CONTENTS Vii
4 NONFUSION WELDING PROCESSES 94
4.1 General Description of Nonfusion Welding Processes / 94
4.2 Pressure (Nonfusion) Welding Processes / 97
4.2.1 Cold Welding Processes / 98
4.2.2 Hot Pressure Welding / 99
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2 Forge Welding / 101
Pressure Gas Welding / 100
4.2.3 Roll Welding / 102
4.2.4 Explosion Welding / 103
4.3 Friction Welding Processes / 105
4.3.1 Radial and Orbital Welding / 107
4.3.2 Direct-Drive Versus Inertia-Drive (Friction)
Welding / 107
4.3.3 Angular and Linear Reciprocating (Friction)
Welding / 108
4.3.4 Ultrasonic (Friction) Welding / 109
4.3.5 Friction Stir Welding / 112
4.3.6 Friction Surfacing / 113
4.4 Diffusion Joining Processes / 113
4.4.1 Diffusion Welding / 114
4.4.1.1 Conventional Diffusion Welding / 118
4.4.1.2 Deformation Diffusion Welding / 118
4.4.1.3 Resistance Diffusion Welding / 118
4.4.1.4 Continuous Seam Diffusion Welding / 118
4.4.2 Diffusion Brazing / 119
4.4.3 Combined Forming and Diffusion Welding / 119
4.5 Solid-state Deposition Welding Processes / 120
4.6 Inspection and Repair of Nonfusion Welds / 120
4.7 Summary / 123
References and Suggested Reading / 123
IJ THE PHYSICSOF WELDING
5 ENERGY FOR WELDING
5.1 Introduction to the Physics of Welding / 127
5.2 Sources of Energy for Welding / 127
viii CONTENTS
Source Energy, Transferred Power, Energy Density,
and Energy Distribution / 128
5.3.1 Energy Available at a Source (Energy Level
or Capacity / 128
5.3.2 Transferred Power / 130
5.3.3 Source Intensity or Energy Density / 130
5.3.4 Energy Distribution / 131
Energy Input to a Weld / 132
Causes of Loss During Energy Transfer From Source
to Work / 134
Transfer Efficiency of Processes / 134
Effects of Deposited Energy: Good and Bad / 138
5.7.1 Desirable Melting, Fluxing, or Softening / 139
5.7.2 Adverse Effects of Heat in and Around the Weld / 141
Effects of Energy Density and Distribution / 142
Summary / 144
References and Suggested Reading / 146
6 THE FLOW OF HEAT IN WELDS 147
General Description of the Flow of Heat in Welds / 147
Weld Joint Configurations / 148
6.2.1 Types of Weld Joints / 148
6.2.2 General Weld Design Guidelines / 152
6.2.3 Size of a Weld and Amount of Welding / 154
The Welding Thermal Cycle / 154
The Generalized Equation of Heat Flow / 158
Analysis of Heat Flow During Welding / 161
6.5.1 Rosenthal's Simplified Approach / 162
6.5.2 Modifications to Rosenthal's Solutions / 165
6.5.3 Dimensionless Weld Depth Versus Dimensionless
Operating Parameter / 167
Effect of Welding Parameters on Heat Distribution / 168
Prediction of Weld Zones and Weld Cooling Rates / 172
6.7.1 Zones in Fusion-Welded Materials / 172
6.7.2 Simplified Equations for Approximating Welding
Conditions / 173
6.7.2.1 Peak Temperatures / 174
6.7.2.2 Width of the Heat-Affected Zone / 174
6.7.2.3 Solidification Rate / 174
6.7.2.4 Cooling Rates / 175
CONTENTS IX
6.8 Weld Simulation and Simulators / 176
6.9 Summary / 178
References and Suggested Reading / 178
7 THERMALLY INDUCED DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL
STRESSES DURING WELDING 181
7.1 Origin of Thermal Stresses / 181
7.2 Distortion Versus Residual Stresses / 183
7.2.1 Causes of Residual Stresses in Weldments / 185
7.2.1.1 Residual Stresses From Mismatch / 186
7.2.1.2 Residual Stresses From Nonuniform,
Nonelastic Strains / 189
7.2.2 Causes of Distortion in Weldments / 190
7.3 Typical Residual Stresses in Weldments / 191
7.4 Effects of Distortion / 194
7.5 Effects of Residual Stresses / 196
7.6 Measurement of Residual Stresses in Weldments / 197
7.6.1 Stress-Relaxation Techniques / 199
7.6.1.1 A Sectioning Technique Using Electric-Resistance
Strain Gauges / 199
7.6.1.2 The Rosenthal-Norton Section Technique / 201
7.6.1.3 The Mathar-Soete Hole Drilling Technique / 202
7.6.1.4 The Gunnert Drilling Technique / 202
7.6.2 The X-ray Diffraction Technique / 204
7.7 Residual Stress Reduction and Distortion Control / 206
7.7.1 The Interplay Between Residual Stresses and
Distortion / 206
7.7.2 Prevention Versus Remediation / 206
7.7.3 Controlling or Removing Residual Stresses / 207
7.7.4 Controlling or Removing Distortion / 208
7.8 Numerical Methods for Estimating Residual Stresses / 210
7.9 Summary / 211
References and Suggested Reading / 214
8 THE PHYSICS OF WELDING ENERGY OR POWER
SOURCES
8.1 Electricity for Welding / 216
8.2 The Physics of an Electric Arc and Arc Welding / 223
8.2.1 The Physics of an Electric Arc / 223
216
X CONTENTS
8.2.1.1 The Welding Arc / 224
8.2.1.2 The Arc Plasma / 224
8.2.1.3 Arc Temperature / 224
8.2.1.4 Arc Radiation / 226
8.2.1.5 Arc Electrical Features / 226
8.2.1.6 Effect of Magnetic Fields on Arcs / 228
8.2.2 Volt-Ampere Characteristics for Welding / 231
8.2.2.1 Constant-Current Power Sources / 232
8.2.2.2 Constant-Voltage Power Sources / 232
8.2.2.3 Combined Characteristic Sources / 234
8.3 The Physics of a Plasma / 234
8.4 The Physics of Resistance (or Joule) Heating and
Resistance Welding / 237
8.4.1 Joule Heating / 237
8.4.2 The Resistance Welding Cycle / 239
8.4.3 Resistance Welding Power Supplies / 239
8.5 The Physics of Electron Beams / 243
8.5.1 Electron-Beam Generation / 245
8.5.2 Electron-Beam Control / 248
8.5.3 Role of Vacuum in EB Welding / 252
8.5.4 Electron-Beam-Material Interactions / 253
8.6 The Physics of Laser Beams / 256
8.6.1 Laser Light / 256
8.6.2 Laser Generation / 256
8.6.2.1 Nd:YAG Lasers / 258
8.6.2.2 CO, Lasers / 259
8.6.3 Laser-Beam Control / 259
8.6.4 Laser-Beam-Material Interactions / 260
8.6.5 Benefits of Laser-Beam and Electron-Beam Welding / 263
8.7 The Physics of a Combustion Flame / 265
8.7.1 Fuel Gas Combustion or Heat of Combustion / 265
8.7.2 Flame Temperature / 265
8.7.3 Flame Propagation Rate or Combustion Velocity / 266
8.7.4 Combustion Intensity / 266
8.8 The Physics of Converting Mechanical Work to Heat / 266
8.9 Summary / 268
References and Suggested Reading J 269
CONTENTS Xi
9 MOLTEN METAL TRANSFER IN CONSUMABLE
ELECTRODE ARC WELDING 270
Forces Contributing to Molten Metal Transfer in Welding / 270
9.1.1 Gas Pressure Generation at Flux-Coated or Flux-Cored
Electrode Tips / 271
9.1.2 Electrostatic Attraction / 272
9.1.3 Gravity / 272
9.1.4 Electromagnetic Pinch Effect / 272
9.1.5 Explosive Evaporation / 272
9.1.6 Electromagnetic Pressure / 273
9.1.7 Plasma Friction / 273
9.1.8 Surface Tension / 273
Free-Flight Transfer Modes / 274
9.2.1 Globular Transfer / 275
9.2.2 Spray Transfer / 276
Bridging of Short-circuiting Transfer Modes / 278
Pulsed-Arc or Pulsed-Current Transfer / 279
Slag-ProtectedTransfer / 280
Variations of Major Transfer Modes / 281
Effect of Welding Process Parameters and Shielding Gas
on Transfer Mode / 282
9.7.1 Effects on Transition Current / 282
9.7.2 ShieldingGas Effects / 285
9.7.3 Process Effects / 287
9.7.4 Operating Mode or Polarity Effects / 288
Summary / 289
References and Suggested Reading / 289
10 WELD POOL CONVECTION, OSCILLATION,
AND EVAPORATION
10.1 Origin of Convection / 291
10.1.1 Generalities on Convection in Weld Pools / 292
10.1.2 Buoyancy or Gravity Force / 294
10.1.3 Surface Gradient Force or Marangoni
Convection / 295
10.1.4 Electromotive Force or Lorentz Force / 296
10.1.5 Impinging or Friction Force / 297
10.1.6 Modeling Convection and Combined Force
Effects J 298
291
XI1 CONTENTS
10.2 Effects of Convection / 298
10.2.1 Effect of Convection on Penetration / 300
10.2.2 Effect of Convection on Macrosegregation / 301
10.2.3 Effect of Convection of Porosity / 304
10.3 Enhancing Convection / 305
10.4 Weld Pool Oscillation / 306
10.5 Weld Pool Evaporation and Its Effects / 307
10.6 Summary / 310
References and Suggested Reading / 310
111 THE CHEMISTRY OF WELDING
11 MOLTEN METAL AND WELD POOL REACTIONS
11.1 Gas-Metal Reactions / 316
11.1.1 Gas Dissolution and Solubility in Molten
Metal / 317
11.1.2 Solid Solution Hardening and Phase
Stabilization / 323
11.1.3 Porosity Formation / 326
11.1.4 Embrittlement Reactions / 327
11.1.5 Hydrogen Effects / 328
11.1.5.1 Hydrogen Embrittlement / 329
11.1.5.2 Hydrogen Porosity / 331
11.1.5.3 Hydrogen Cracking / 332
11.2 Molten Metal Shielding / 333
11.2.1 Shielding Gases / 333
11.2.2 Slags / 335
11.2.3 Vacuum / 335
11.2.4
11.3 Slag-Metal Reactions / 337
11.3.1 DeoxidizingDenitriding (or Killing) Versus
Protection / 337
11.3.2 Flux-Protected Welding Processes / 339
11.3.3 Shielding Capacities of Different Processes / 340
11.3.4 Slag Formation / 341
11.3.5 Slag-Metal Chemical Reactions / 342
11.3.6 Flux Types / 342
Self-Protection and Self-FluxingAction / 336
CONTENTS Xlll
Common Covered- and Cored-Electrode Flux
Systems / 344
11.3.7.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode
Coatings / 344
11.3.7.2 Flux-Cored Arc Weldipg Fluxes / 344
11.3.7.3 Submerged Arc Welding Fluxes / 344
Basicity Index / 344
Thermodynamic Model for Welding Slag- Metal
Reactions / 348
11.4 Summary / 354
References and Suggested Reading / 356
12 WELD CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITY
12.1 Weld (Pool) Dilution / 360
12.2 Microsegregation and Banding in the Weld Metal / 363
12.3 Unmixed and Partially Mixed Zones / 365
12.4 Impurities in the Weld Metal / 366
12.5 Macrosegregation in Dissimilar Welds / 368
12.6 Summary / 370
References and Suggested Reading / 370
IV THE METALLURGY OF WELDING
13 WELD FUSION ZONE SOLIDIFICATION
13.1 Equilibrium Versus Nonequilibrium / 378
13.2 Solidification of a Pure Crystalline Material / 381
13.2.1 Criteria for Equilibrium at T, and Constant
Pressure / 381
13.2.2 Pure Material Growth Modes / 382
13.2.3 Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous
Nucleation / 384
13.2.3.1 Homogeneous Nucleation / 384
13.2.3.2 Super- or Undercooling / 388
13.2.3.3 Effect of Radius of Curvature on
Supercooling / 388
13.2.3.4 Heterogeneous Nucleation / 389
13.2.4 Epitaxial and Competitive Growth / 392
13.2.5 Effect of Weld Pool Shape on Structure / 395
359
375XlV CONTENTS
13.2.6 Competing Rates of Melting and Solidification / 399
13.2.7 Effect of Nonequilibrium on Pure Material
Solidification / 402
13.3 Equilibrium Solidification of an Alloy / 402
13.3.1 Prerequisites for the Solidification of Alloys / 403
13.3.2 Equilibrium Solidification of a Hypothetical
Binary Alloy (Case 1) / 403
13.4 Nonequilibrium Solidification of Alloys / 406
13.4.1 Boundary Conditions for Solidification of Alloys / 406
13.4.2 Equilibrium Maintained Throughout the System at all
Times: Microscopic Equilibrium (Case 1) / 407
13.4.3 Complete Liquid Mixing/No Diffusion in the Solid
(Case 2) / 408
13.4.3.1 Expression for the Composition of Solid at
the Advancing Solid-Liquid Interface / 410
13.4.3.2 Calculation of the Average Composition of
the Solid for Case 2 / 411
13.4.4 No Liquid Mixing/No Diffusion in the Solid
(Case 3) / 413
13.4.4.1 Trace of Average Composition in the Solid
for Case 3 / 420
13.4.4.2 Expression for the Initial Transient in the
Composition of the Solid Formed / 420
13.4.4.3 Some Limitations of the Classic Models / 421
13.4.5 Other Effects of Rapid Solidification / 422
13.4.5.1 Nonequilibrium Solute Partitioning / 422
13.4.5.2 Nonequilibrium Phases / 422
13.5 Consequences of Nonequilibrium Solidification / 423
13.5.1 Interdendritic Microsegregation / 423
13.5.2 Solidus Suppression / 425
13.5.3 Substructure Formation / 426
13.5.3.1 Constitutional Supercooling / 426
13.5.3.2 Effect of Cooling Rate on Substructure / 430
13.5.3.3 Interface Stability / 432
13.5.3.4 Nucleation of New Grains Within the Fusion
Zone / 438
13.5.3.5 Controlling Substructure / 438
13.5.4 Centerline Segregation / 443
13.6 Fusion Zone Hot Cracking / 443
13.6.1 Mechanism of Hot Cracking / 444CONTENTS XV
13.6.2 Remediation of Hot Cracking / 447
13.6.2.1 Control of Weld Metal Composition / 447
13.6.2.2 Control of Solidification Structure / 448
13.6.2.3 Use of Favorable Welding Conditions / 448
13.7 Summary / 449
References and Suggested Reading / 450
14 EUTECTIC, PERITECTIC,AND POSTSOLIDIFICATION
FUSIONZONE TRANSFORMATIONS 454
14.1 Eutectic Reactions or Solidification of Two-Phase
Alloys / 455
14.1.1 Solidification at the Eutectic Composition / 455
14.1.2 Solidification of Two-Phase Alloys at Noneutectic
Compositions / 460
14.1.3 Morphology of Eutectic Phases / 462
Equilibrium Conditions (Case 1) / 463
14.2.1.1 Alloys Below the Solubility Limit of the
Solid Phase in the Peritectic / 463
14.2.1.2 Alloys Between the Solubility Limit and
the Peritectic Composition / 466
14.2.1.3 Alloys With the Peritectic Composition / 467
14.2.1.4 Alloys Beyond the Peritectic Composition,
but Within the L + S Range / 468
14.2.1.5 Alloys Past the L + S Range of a Peritectic
in the Liquid Field / 469
14.2.2.1 No Diffusion in the Solid/Complete Mixing
in the Liquid (Case 2) / 470
14.2.2.2 No Diffusion in the Solid/No Mixing,
Only Diffusion in the Liquid (Case 3) / 472
14.2 Peritectic Reactions / 462
14.2.1
14.2.2 Nonequilibrium Conditions / 469
14.3 Transformations in Ferrite + Austenite or Duplex Stainless
Steels / 472
14.4 Kinetics of Solid-state Phase Transformations:
Nonequilibrium Versus Equilibrium / 480
14.5 Austenite Decomposition Transformations / 489
14.5.1 Equilibrium Decomposition to Ferrite + Pearlite
(The Eutectiod Reaction) / 491XVi CONTENTS
14.5.2 Nonequilibrium Decomposition to Other Ferrite
Morphologies (Very Slow to Moderately Slow
Cooling Rates) / 493
(Faster Cooler Rates) / 494
(Very Fast Cooling Rates) / 495
14.5.3 Nonequilibrium Transformation to Bainite
14.5.4 Nonequilibrium Transformation to Martensite
14.6 Sigma and Chi Phase Formation / 498
14.7 Grain Boundary Migration / 499
14.8 Summary / 499
References and Suggested Reading / 499
15 THE PARTIALLY MELTEDZONE
Origin and Location of the Partially Melted Zone / 501
Constitutional Liquation / 505
Defects Arising in the PMZ / 508
15.3.1 Conventional Hot Cracking and Liquation Cracking
in the PMZ / 508
15.3.2 Loss of Ductility in the PMZ / 509
15.3.3 Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in the PMZ / 510
Remediation of Defects in the PMZ / 511
Summary / 512
References and Suggested Reading / 513
16 THE WELD HEAT-AFFECTEDZONE
16.1 Heat-Affected Zones in Welds / 514
16.2 The HAZ in Work-Hardened or Cold-Worked Metals
and Alloys / 515
16.2.1 The Physical Metallurgy of Cold
Work/Recovery/Recrystallization/GrainGrowth / 515
16.2.2 Cold Worked Metals and Alloys in Engineering / 520
16.2.3 Avoiding or Recovering Property Losses in
Work-Hardened Metals or Alloys / 523
16.2.4 Development of a Worked Zone in Pressure-Welded
Materials / 525
16.3 The HAZ in a Solid-Solution-Strengthened Metal or of an
Alloy / 526
16.3.1 The Physical Metallurgy of Solid-Solution
Strengthening or Alloying / 526
501
51416.3.2 Major Engineering Alloys Consisting of Single-Phase
Solid Solutions / 529
16.3.3 Maintaining Properties in Single-Phase
Solid-Solution-StrengthenedAlloys / 529
16.4 The HAZ in Precipitation-Hardened or Age-Hardenable
Alloys / 529
16.4.1 The Physical Metallurgy of Precipitation- or
Age-HardenableAlloys / 529
16.4.2 Important Precipitation-Hardenable Alloys in
Engineering / 536
16.4.3 Avoiding or Recovering Property Losses in
Age-Hardenable Alloys / 536
16.5 The HAZ in Transformation-Hardenable Alloys / 543
16.5.1 The Physical Metallurgy of Transformation-Hardenable
Alloys / 543
16.5.2 Some Important Engineering Alloys Exhibiting
Transformation Hardening / 545
16.5.3 Welding Behavior of Carbon and Alloy Steels / 545
16.5.3.1 Behavior of Carbon Steels / 545
16.5.3.2 Behavior of Alloy Steels / 547
16.6 The HAZ in Corrosion-Resistant Stainless Steels / 550
16.6.1 The Physical Metallurgy of Stainless Steels / 550
16.6.2 Major Stainless Steels Used in Engineering / 553
16.6.3 Sensitization of Austenitic Stainless Steels by
Welding / 553
16.6.4 Welding of Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steels / 561
16.7 The HAZ in Dispersion-Strengthenedor Reinforced Alloys / 564
16.8 HAZ Defects and Their Remediation / 566
16.8.1 Liquation Cracking / 567
16.8.2 Reheat or Strain-Age Cracking / 570
16.8.3 Quench Cracking and Hydrogen Cold Cracking / 571
16.8.4 Weld Decay, Knife-Line Attack, and Stress Corrosion
Cracking / 571
16.8.5 Lamellar Tearing / 573
References and Suggested Reading / 574
16.9 Summary / 574
17 WELDABILITY AND WELD TESTING
17.1 Weldability Testing / 578
17.2 Direct Weldability or Actual Welding Tests / 578
577XVili CONTENTS
17.2.1 Fusion and Partially Melted Zone Hot-Cracking
Tests / 580
Finger Test / 582
Houldcroft and Battelle Hot-Crack
Susceptibility Tests / 582
Lehigh Restraint Test / 583
Variable-Restraint (or Varestraint) Test / 583
Murex Hot-Cracking Test / 584
Root-Pass Crack Test / 584
Keyhole-Slotted-PlateTest / 585
Navy Circular-Fillet-Weldability(NCFW)
Test / 586
Circular-Groove Cracking and
Segmented-GrooveTests / 586
Circular-Patch Test / 588
Restrained-PatchTest / 588
SigmajigTest / 588
17.2.2 Heat-Affected Zone General Cold-Cracking
Weldability Tests / 589
17.2.3 Hydrogen Cracking Testing / 592
17.2.3.1 Implant Test / 595
17.2.3.2 RPI Augmented Strain Cracking Test / 596
17.2.3.3 Controlled-Thermal-Severity(CTS) Test / 596
17.2.3.4 Lehigh Slot Weldability Test / 598
17.2.3.5 Wedge Test / 598
17.2.3.6 Tekken Test / 598
17.2.3.7 Gapped-Bead-on-Plateor G-BOP Test / 598
17.2.4 Reheat or Strain-Age Cracking Test / 601
17.2.4.1 Compact Tension Test / 601
17.2.4.2 Vinckier Test / 601
17.2.4.3 Spiral Notch Test / 603
17.2.5 Lamellar Tearing Tests / 603
17.2.5.1 Lehigh Cantilever Lamellar Tearing Test / 603
17.2.5.2 Tensile Lamellar Tearing Test / 604
17.3 Indirect Weldability Tests or Tests of Simulated Welds / 606
17.4 Weld Pool Shape Tests / 606
17.5 Weld Testing / 607
17.5.1 Transverse- and Longitudinal-WeldTensile Tests / 608
17.5.2 All-Weld-Metal Tensile Tests / 609CONTENTS XlX
17.5.3 Bend Ductility Tests / 609
17.5.4 Impact Tests / 610
17.5.5 Other Mechanical Tests / 610
17.5.6 Corrosion Tests / 615
17.5.6.1 General Corrosion and Its Testing / 615
17.5.6.2 Crevice Corrosion and Its Testing / 617
17.5.6.3 Pitting Corrosion and Its Testing / 617
17.5.6.4 Intergranular Corrosion and Its Testing / 617
17.5.6.5 Stress Corrosion and Its Testing / 621
17.6 Summary / 621
References and Suggested Reading / 622
CLOSING THOUGHTS
APPENDICES
INDEX
INDEX
Acetylene feather, see Oxyfuel gas welding
Acicular bainite, see Bainite formation
Acicular ferrite, see Ferrite morphologies
Adaptive metallurgy, 6
Adhesive (or adhesive bonding), 4
Adjustment of oxyacetylene flames, see Oxyfuel
Adsorbed (layers of) gases (on surfaces), 21, 22
Age-hardened alloys, 529-536
aging sequence, 534-536
aging (temperature-time) cycles, 534-535
aging or aging (heat) treatment, 532
Al alloys, 534-536
Arrhenius relationship, 536
avoiding property losses (in the HAZ),
coherent precipitates, 532, 533
dissolution (in the HAZ), 537
Gunnier--Preston (GP) zones, 532
heat-treatable alloys, 535
incoherent precipitates, 533
loss of coherency, 532-533
mechanism of hardening or strengthening,
Ni-alloys, 537
nucleation and growth, 532-533
optimum aging, 534
overaging, 532-535
precipitation hardening heat treatment steps,
prerequisites for, 531
gas welding
536- 541
532-536
531-532
quenching or quenching treatment, 531
re-aging (to recover lost properties), 541
recovering property losses (in the HAZ), 536,
reversion (in the HAZ), 537
semicoherent precipitates, 532, 533
solution heat treatment (or solutionizing
supersaturated state (or supersaturated solid
temperature (of aging) effect, 534, 536
time (of aging) erect, 534, 536
Allied processes (to welding), 31, 35-37
heat (or thermal or flame) straightening or
surface heat treatment (or modification),
thermal cutting, 36
thermal spraying, 36
541-543
treatment) or solution anneal, 531
solution), 531
shaping, 36
36
Alloying, see Solid solution strengthening
Alloy solidification, see Solidification
Alloy steels, 543, 547-550
All-weld-metal tensile tests, see Weld testing
Alternating current (AC) arc welding, 52
Aluminothermic (or Thermit) welding, 32,
46-48
combustion synthesis, 48
exothermic brazing, 48
exothermic welding, 48
process arrangement, 48
reactions (for Fe and for Cu), 47
639640 INDEX
Aluminothermic (Continued)
self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
temperatures achieved, 47-48
(SHS),48
Aluminum alloys, 534-536. See also Agehardened alloys
Amount of welding, 154
Analysisof heat flow (during welding), 161-168
Annealing treatments
homogenizing anneal (or homogenizing heat
normalizing anneal (or normalizing heat
recrystallization annealing, 537
solution annealing (or solutionizing heat
stress-relief annealing, 537, 550
treatment), 537
treatment), 537
treatment), 537
Angular (reciprocating) friction welding, 108-
Anode fall space or drop zone, 226-227
Anode spot, 226-227
Arc blow, 68,228-229, 231
Arc (thermal) cutting, see Shielded-metal arc
welding Gas-tungsten arc welding
Arc, electric (for welding), see Electric arc
Arc gap, 227
Arc image welding, see Imaged arc welding
Arc (metal arc) spraying, see Thermal spraying
Arc oscillation, 438
Arc plasma, 224
Arc plasma force, see Metal transfer modes;
Arc pulsation (or arc current pulsation), 438
Arc radiation, 226-227
Arc stud welding, see Stud arc welding
Arc temperature, 224-225
Arc terminals, 226-227
Arc welding, 31, 35
Arc welding processes, see Electric arc welding
processes
Arrhenius relationship, 536
Asperities (on real surfaces), 11, 12, 25
Atomic hydrogen welding, 50
Austenite decomposition (or reversion), 488-
109, 110
Weld pool convection
498
bainite formation, 494-496. See also Bainite
formation
equilibrium decomposition (eutectoid
transformation), 491 -492
eutectoid composition, 491
eutectoid reaction, 491 -492
eutectoid temperature, 492
ferrite morphologies, 493-494
habit plane, 489
martensite formation, 488-489, 495
metastable phase formation, 488
nonequilibrium decomposition/
transformation, 493-496
pearlite formation, 491-492
proeutectoid cementite, 492
proeutectoid ferrite, 492
retained austenite, 496
tempered martensite, 489
tempering (or temper heat treatment), 489
untempered martensite, 489
Austenite stabilizers, 473, 550
Austenitic stainless steels, see CorrosionAutogenous welding, 30, 32
Automated welding, 14
Autotempering, 547
Avrami relationship, 484, 486
AWS classification of welding and allied
Axial spray transfer, see Metal transfer modes
resistant stainless steels; Stainless steels
processes, 37-38
Backfilled cracks, 444-446, 511
Bainite formation, 494-496
acicular (lower) bainite, 495,496
feathery (upper) bainite, 495, 496
Baking (to remove hydrogen), 570
Ballistic-impact test (US.Army Ordnance), see
Banding, 307.364-365,369
Basicity index (BI), see Slag-metal reactions
Battelle test, see Hot cracking tests
Beam welding processes, 80-87. See also Highelectron-beam welding (EBW), 77,8482. See
focused IR welding, 80
imaged arc (or arc image) welding, 80
laser-beam welding (LBW).77, 80, 82. See
microwave welding, 80
Weld testing
density beam welding processes
also Electron-beam welding
also Laser-beam welding
Bend ductility (or bend) tests, see Weld testing
Bevel joints, see Joint configurations
Binding energy (in atomic bonds), 11
Bithermal and trithermal test welds, 597
Bonding, see Chemical bond formation
Bonding force, 11
Bond formation, see Chemical bond formation
Brazing (or brazing processes), 20, 30
Braze welding, 20, 30, 31
Bridging transfer modes, see Metal transfer
Bridging-without-interruption, see Metal
modes
transfer modesINDEX 641
Buoyancy (or gravity) force (in convection), see
“Buttering” (or “buttering layers”), see Dilution
Butt joint or welds, see Joint configurations
Weld pool convection
Calorimetry, dry and wet (to measure energy
Capacitor-discharge welding, see Percussion
Capillarity (in solidification), 388
Carbon arc welding (CAW), 50
Carbon equivalence, 549
Carbon steels, 543,545-547
Case 1 solidification of alloy under equilibrium,
Case 2 nonequilibrium solidification of alloy,
transfer efficiency), 136- 138
welding
see Solidification
complete mixing in liquid, see
Solidification
Case 3 nonequilibrium solidification of alloy.
no mixing in liquid, see Solidification
Casting processes, see Foundry processes
Cast irons, 567
Cathode fall space or drop zone, 226, 227
Cathode spot, 226, 227
Cellular or cellular dendritic growth, see
Solidification
Centerline segregation in welds, 422, 443. See
also Solidification
Charpy impact test, see Weld testing
Chemical bond formation, 4, 9
covalent bonds, 4
dipole bonds (induced or permanent), 4,9, 10
extended covalent bonds, see metallic bonds
hydrogen bonds, 4
ionic bonds, 4
ionic-covalent bonds, see mixed bonds
metallic bonds, 4, 10
mixed bonds, 4
primary bonds, 4
secondary bonds, 4
van der Waals bonds, 4
Chemical fusion welding processes, 41-48
aluminothermic (thermit welding), 46-48
oxyfuel gas and oxyacetylene welding,
cutting, gouging, or piercing, 41-46. See
also Oxyfuel gas welding
Chemical heterogeneity (in welds), 359-370
banding, 364-365, 369
“buttering”, 362
centerline segregation (in welds), 369
“cushion coats” or “cushion layers”, 362
dilution (in welds), 360-363. See also
dissimilar metal welding, 360
Dilution
entrapped slag, 366, 368
feed-wire stubbing, 369
foreign-metal inclusions, 366, 368
heterogeneous welding, 360
homogeneous welding, 360
impurities (in weld metal), 366, 368
macrosegregation (in dissimilar welds),
matching of filler to base metal, 360
microsegregation, 363-364, 368
nonmetallic inclusions, 366, 368
overmatching (filler), 360-361
porosity, 366, 368, 369
tungsten (electrode) inclusions, 369
undermatching (filler), 361
unmixed zone, 365-367
sources for welding
368-370
Chemical sources for welding, see Energy
x phase formation, 498
Circular-groove cracking test, see Hot cracking
Circular-patch test, see Hot cracking tests
Classification schemes for welding, 17, 23, 27,
Classifying welding, see Classification schemes
Clausius-Clapeyron equation, 380
Cleanliness (in welding), 12-13, 22
Closed-joint method of pressure gas welding,
CO, (gas) laser, 85, 88
Coherent interfaces, 482
Cold cracking, see Hydrogen
Cold cracking tests, 589-605
tests
37-38
for welding
100
controlled-thermal-severity (CTS) test,
G-BOP (gapped bead-on-plate) test, 595,
hydrogen cracking susceptibility (testing for),
implant test, 595
Lehigh restraint test, 595
Lehigh slot weldability test, 595, 598
RPI augmented strain cracking test, 595,
Tekken test, 595, 598, 599
wedge test, 595, 598, 599
595-597
598-600
592-600
596
Cold (pressure) welding processes. 20, 26, 97,
98, 100
indentor configurations for, 100
joint configurations for, 97,98
Cold-worked metals and alloys, 20, 515-526
aging after cold work (combined eflect),
522-523, 534642 INDEX
Cold-worked metals and alloys (Continued)
allotropic transformations (effects 00, 519,
avoiding property losses due to welding,
cold work, 20, 515-518
engineering metals and alloys that are cold
worked, 520-522
grain growth (stage), 518-520
lower yield point, 516, 517
Liiders bands, 517
nucleation and growth, 517
peening, 524
planishing (or roll-planishing), 524
recovering properties after welding, 524-525
recovery (stage), 518
recrystallization (stage), 517-520
shot peening, 524
stored energy (of cold work), 517, 518
strain aging, 517
strain hardening, see work hardening
stretch leveling, 517
upper yield point, 516, 517
worked zone in pressure welded materials,
work hardening, 515-5 17
520
523-525
525-526
Columnar dendritic growth, see Solidification
Combined characteristic (CC/CV) power
Combined forming and diffusion welding, 119
Combustion flame, physics of, 265-266
Combustion (or oxygas) spraying, see Thermal
Combustion synthesis, see Aluminothermic
Compact tension test, see Reheat tests
Competitive growth, 21,29
Computer modeling of welding, 161-162, 167,
Conduction mode, see Melt-in mode
Constant current (CC) power supplies, 54,232,
Constant voltage (CV) power supplies, 54,
Constitutional liquation, see Partially-melted
Constitutional supercooling (theory of), 426-
Constricted arc (in plasma arc welding), 55
Consumable electrode arc welding (processes),
35, 60-71. See individual processes
electrogas welding (EGW), 60, 69-70
electroslag welding (ESW), 60,70-71
flux-cored arc welding (FCAW), 60,66-67
supplies, 54, 234, 235
spraying
welding
173,210-213,298
233
232-234
zone
430
gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), 60-64
shielded-metal arc welding (SMAW), 60,
submerged arc welding (SAW), 60,68-69
Contaminating (or contaminant) layers, 12,21,
Continuity, metal or material, 3,4, 18,20,21,27
Continuous cooling transformation (CCT)
Continuous consumable electrode arc welding
Continuous seam diffusion welding (CSDW),
Continuous welds or welding, 14, 152-153
Continuous wire welding, see Continuous
consumable electrode arc welding
Contour of welds, 63
Controlled-thermal-severity (CTS)test, see
Convection, see Weld pool convection
Conventional diffusion welding, I I8
Convergent flow, see Weld pool convection
Conversion of mechanical work to heat,
Cooling rate (around welds), 175-176
Corner joint or welds, see Joint configurations
Corrosion-resistant stainless steels, 550-564
64-66
22
curves and diagrams, 487
(processes), 35
118
Cold cracking tests
266-267
austenite stabilizers, 550
austenitic stainless steels, 550, 552, 554, 557,
denuded zone, 553,560
depleted zone, see denuded zone
duplex stainless steels, 550, 552, 554
ferrite stabilizers, 550
ferritic stainless steels, 550-551, 554, 556.
gamma loop, 551
intergranular corrosive attack, 561
low-carbon (L) grades, 561
martensite formation, 563
martensitic stainless steels, 550, 551, 554, 555,
nitrogen-strengthened (N) grades, 561
precipitation-hardening (PH)stainless steels,
pseudo-binary phase diagrams, 552,562, 563
semiaustenitic stainless steels, 553
sensitization (or weld decay), 553, 560-561
solutionizing, 561
stabilization, 561
stabilizing elements, 561
stress-corrosion cracking, 561
thermal (welding) cycles, 560
weld decay, see sensitization
558
561-563
563-564
544,552-553,559INDEX 843
Corrosion tests, 615-621
crevice corrosion, 61 7
forms of corrosion, 615
generalized corrosion, 615
Huey test, 617, 621
intergranular corrosion, 617
pitting corrosion, 617
Streicher test, 621
stress corrosion, 621
Warren test, 621
Covered arc processes, 280
Cranefield lamellar tearing test, see Lamellar
Crater (or pulsing arc crater), see Weld pool
Creep isostatic pressing (CRISP), 119
Crevice corrosion, 617
Critical cooling rate (for martensite formation),
Current (or operating) modes for electric arc
“Cushion coats” or “cushion layers”, see
Cutting, thermal, see Allied processes
tearing tests
convection
547
welding, 52-53
Dilution)
DC electrode negative (also DCSP), see Direct
DC electrode positive (also DCRP), see Direct
DC reverse polarity, see Direct current reverse
DC straight polarity, see Direct current straight
Decanting (of weld pools), 606
Defects in welds and welding
current straight polarity
current reverse polarity
polarity
polarity
cold cracking, see hydrogen cracking
delayed cracking, see hydrogen cracking
embrittled region, 562-563
grain coarsening (severe), 562
hydrogen (cold or delayed) cracking, 510-
intergranular corrosive attack, 561
knife-line attack, 567, 571-573
lamellar tearing or cracking, 567, 573-574
liquation cracking, 509. 566
loss of ductility (in PMZ), 509
low (HAZ) toughness, see grain growth
oxygen embrittlement of grain boundaries,
quench cracking, 570
reheat (or strain-age) cracking, 567,568-570,
root cracking, 593, 594
solidification (hot) cracking, 508-509
511,567, 570-571, 593
573
600
strain-age, see reheat cracking
stress-corrosion cracking, 561, 573
stress-rupture cracking, 600
toe cracking, 593.594
underbead cracking, 546, 549,563, 591
weld decay (in stainless steels), 553, 560-561,
567.571
Deformation diffusion welding, 118
Delayed cracking, see Hydrogen
DeLong diagram, 479
A ferrite, 473. See also Primary ferrite vs.
primary austenite solidification
Dendrite fragmentation, 438
Dendritic growth (mode), see Solidification
Denuded (or depleted) zones (in the HAZ), 553,
Deoxidizing/denitriding (or killing), 337-339
Design guidelines for welds, 152
Detonation spraying, see Thermal spraying
Die (forge) welding, 101
Diffusion (to obtain continuity in welding), 20,
Diffusional transformations, 544
Diffusion bonding, see Diffusion welding
Diffusion brazing (DFB), 32, 114, 119
Diffusionless transformations, 545
Diffusion joining processes, see Diffusion
brazing; Diffusion welding
Diffusion welding (DFW), 32, 114, 115
Diffusion welding (processes), 20, 32
560
22, 25, 28
combined forming and diffusion welding, 119
continuous seam diffusion welding, 118
conventional diffusion welding, 118
creep isostatic pressing (CRISP), 119
deformation diffusion welding, 118
process equipment, 117
process parameter effects, 116
resistance diffusion welding, 118
steps in the process, 115, 116
superplastic forming/diffusion bonding
(SPF/DB), 119, 121, 122
Dilution (in fusion welds), 360-363, 447
“buttering” or “buttering layers” to reduce,
“cushion coats” or “cushion layers” to
ebct of joint geometry or preparation, 361
effect of welding technique, 361-362, 363
formulas to calculate, 363, 364
Direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) arc
Direct current straight polarity (DCSP) arc
Direct-drive friction welding, 107
362,447, 574
reduce, 362
welding, 52
welding, 52644 INDEX
Direct weldability test, see Weldability tests
Discontinuous consumable electrode arc
Dispersion-strengthened metals and alloys,
high-temperature Al (HTA) alloys, 566
mechanically-alloyed metals and alloys,
metal-matrix composites (MMCs), 564-566
oxide-dispersion strengthened (OSD) metals
reinforced metals and alloys, 564-566
welding (processes), 35
564-566
564-566
and alloys, 564-566
Dissimilar metal welding, see Chemical
Dissolution (in the HAZ), see Age-hardened
Distortion, thermal (due to welding), 183-190,
Distribution coefficient,equilibrium, 404. See
also Solidification
Divorced eutectic, 462
Drag technique, see Metal transfer modes
Drooping power supply or drooper, see
Constant-current power supply
Drop-globular transfer, 64.See also Metal
transfer modes
Droplet transfer (during welding), see Metal
transfer modes
Dropweight impact test, see Weld testing
Dry boxes, see Shielding
Duplex stainless steels, see Corrosion-resistant
stainless steels; Stainless steels
Dynamic equilibrium (during alloy
solidification),see Solidification
Dynamic recrystallization (in welding), 20, 102,
117,526
heterogeneity
alloys
194-196
Edge joints or welds, see Joint configurations
Efficiency of joints, see Joint efficiency
Efficiency of melting (during fusion welding),
Electric arc (for welding), 26, 224
Electric arc welding processes, 49-71. See
139-140
individual processes
60-7 1. See individual processes
processes, 50-59. See individual processes
sources for welding
consumable electrode arc welding processes,
nonconsumable electrode arc welding
Electrical sources for welding, see Energy
Electricity (for welding), 216-223
capacitance, 226
current, 217
impedance, 226
inductance, 222
Ohm’s law, 218-219
power, 220
resistance, 217
root-mean-square (rms) current or voltage
(in AC), 222
voltage, 217
welding circuit, 219
Electrode negative (also DCSP), see Direct
Electrode positive (also DCRP), see Direct
Electrogas welding (EGW), 69-70
Electromagnetic force or emf, see Lorentz force
Electron-beam (thermal) cutting, see Allied
Electron-beam interactions (with materials),
Electron-beam welding (EBW), 31, 80-89,
current straight polarity
current reverse polarity
processes
253-256
243-256
accelerating voltage, 246
anodes for, 247-248
beam control, 248-252
beam deflection syslems, 251-252
beam generation, 81
cathodes for, 246
comparison to laser-beam welding (LEW),
cross-over (of beam), 248, 250
efficiencyof, 81
electron speed vs. accelerating voltage, 246
energy density range for, 80
filament (or cathode) current, 248
focal point (of beam), 251
focusing (lens), 251
gun or generator (EB gun), 246-248
hard-vacuum arrangement, 83
heating mechanism, 80
keyholing, 255-256
nonvacuum arrangement, 84
penetration vs. operating pressure, 254, 255
physics of electron beams and EB welding,
shielding in, 80
sliding-seal electron-beam (SSEB) welding,
thermionic emission, 247
vacuum (role 00,252-256
vacuum modes, 85-86
weld characteristics, 80
working chamber, 253
85,89
243-256
84-85
Electroslag welding (ESW).70-71
Elements, properties of, 635-637
Energy, 128INDEX 645
Energy capacity (of a welding source),
Energy density (for welding), 80, 130-131,
Energy density distribution (within a source),
Energy input, see Heat input
Energy level (or capacity), 128-130
Energy sources for welding, 26, 29, 127-130
128-130
142-144
131-133, 142-144, 146
chemical sources, 26
electrical sources, 26,
mechanical sources, 26, 128. See also
source intensity, see Energy density
thermal energy sources, 127-128. See also
Mechanical energy sources
Thermal energy sources
welding processes), 31 -33
chemical reaction (transfer), 32
diffusion (transfer), 32
electric arc transfer, 31
gas transfer, 31
passage of a current, 32
radiation transfer, 31
transfer by mechanical effect, 31
Energy transfer at the interface (of various
Energy transfer efficiency (during welding),
134- 138
measurement of, 136- 138
Energy transfer losses (during welding), 134,
Epitaxial growth (during welding) or epitaxy,
Equiaxed dendritic growth (mode), see
Equilibrium vs. nonequilibrium, 378-381
Equilibrium interatomic distance or spacing,
see Interatomic distance or spacing
Evaporation, see Weld pool evaporation
Evolution of welding, see Historical evolution
Eutectic reactions or transformations, 379,
I35
21,29
Solidification
of welding
454-462
cusp formation at growth front (tendency
divorced eutectic, 462
equilibrium solidification, 460
eutectic composition, 455
eutectic temperature, 455
morphology of eutectic phases, 462
noneutectic or off-eutecticcompositions
(solidification at), 460-462
nonequilibrium solidification, 461 -462
solidification sequence, 455-459
for), 458-459
Eutectoid reaction, 379, 491-492
proeutectoid cementite, 492
proeutectoid ferrite, 492
Explosion-bulge impact test (US. Navy), see
Explosion welding (EXW), 32, 103-104
Weld testing
applicability to various metals and alloys,
process arrangement, 104
process operation/mechanism, 103
105
Expulsion or “spitting” (in resistance spot
Exothermic brazing, see Aluminothermic
Exothermic (chemical) reactions (for welding),
Exothermic welding see Aluminothermic
Extinguishing oxyfuel gas torches, see Oxyfuel
welding), 73, 241, 242
welding
26
welding
gas welding
Fe-Fe,C peritectic, 464, 465
Feathery bainite, see Bainite formation
Ferrite morphologies, 478, 493-494
Ferrite number (FN), 477, 480
Ferrite stabilizers, 473, 550
Ferritic stainless steels, see Corrosion-resistant
Filler, categories of, 30
stainless steels; Stainless steels
heterogeneous (or unmatched) filler, 30,
homogeneous (or matched) filler, 30, 360
matched (or homogeneous) filler, 30, 360
overmatched (heterogenous) filler, 30, 360
unmatched (or heterogeneous) filler, 30
undermatched (heterogeneous) filler, 30, 360
Filler material (or filler metal, or filler), 5, 13
Fillet welds and welding, see Joint
configurations
Fit-up (of a joint), 149
Finger test, see Hot cracking tests
Flame (thermal) cutting, see Allied processes
Flame shaping (or straightening), see Allied
processes
Flame straightening (or shaping), see Allied
processes
Flame temperatures (in oxyfuel gas torches),
see Oxyfuel gas welding
Flash welding (FW), 32, 75, 77, 78
Fleming’s left-hand rule, 229, 231
Flow of heat (during welding), see Heat flow
Flute instability (in molten metal transfer), 281,
Flux-assisted gas-tungsten arc welding
360
283
(GTAW), 55646 lNDEX
Flux-cored arc (or open arc) welding (FCAW),
66-67
advantages over SMAW, 66, 67
gas-shielded mode, 67
operation of, 67
self-shielded mode, 66
Fluxing (in fusion welding), 23
Flux protected (welding) processes, 339
FN (ferrite number), 477, 480
Focused infrared (IR)welding (or solar
welding), 31, 86, 87
through-transmission IR welding, 87
die welding, 101
hammer welding, 101
joint designs for, 102
Forge welding (FOW), 99, 101-102
Foundry (or founding) processes, 6
Fracture toughness testing, 612, 614-615
Free-bend test, see Weld testing
Free-flight transfer modes, see Metal transfer
Friction (as a source of heat for welding), 26
Friction (or impinging) force, see Weld pool
Friction stir welding, 112- 114
Friction surfacing, 114
Friction welding (FRW) processes, 105-1 14
angular (reciprocating) friction welding,
applicable metals and alloys, 11I
basic steps in, 105-106
direct-drive friction welding, 107
friction stir welding, 112- 114
friction surfacing, 114
inertia-drive or (inertia) friction welding,
linear (reciprocating) friction (or vibration)
microminiature thermosonic welding, 111-
microminiature welding, 111-112
orbital (friction) welding, 107
process variations, 105-106
radial and orbital (friction) welding, 107
reciprocating friction welding, 108- 112
rotational friction welding, 107-108
thermosonic welding, 111-112
typical direct-drive characteristics, 106
ultrasonic (friction) welding, 109- 113
vibration welding, 109-1 12
Full-penetration welds or welding, 152-153
Fusing (of glass), 5
Fusion, 13, 23
Fusion bonding (of glass), 5
modes
convection
108- 110
107
welding, 109, 110
112
Fusion boundary or fusion line, see
Fusion welding processes, 23.29, 30, 32,40-41.
Microstructural zones
See specific types
welding processes, 41
radiant energy processes
aluminothermic (exothermic) or thermit
beam welding processes, see high-intensity
chemical fusion welding processes, 40,
consumable electrode arc welding processes,
electric arc welding processes, 41. 50-71
exothermic welding processes, see
aluminothermic welding processes
gas (or oxyfuel gas) welding processes, 40,
high-intensity radiant energy (or beam)
nonconsumable electrode arc welding
resistance welding processes, 41, 71-77
thermit welding, see aluminothermic welding
Fusion zone (FZ). 23,24,147,172,173,375. See
41-48
41,60-71
41-46
processes, 41,77-92
processes, 41, 50-59
processes
also Chapter 13
G/Rerects during solidification, see
G x R erects during solidification, see
Gamma loop (in Fe-Cr/Ni pseudo-binary
Gap, weld (or opening), 150- 151
Gas cutting, see Oxyfuel gas welding
Gas lasers, 85, 88
Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), 61-64
Solidification
Solidification
phase diagrams), 551
advantages of, 61-62
globular transfer mode, 62
molten metal transfer modes in, 62-64
operating (current) mode, 61
pull-type (or pull-gun) wire feeders, 61
pulsed-arc or pulsed-current mode, 62
push-type wire feeders, 61
role of shielding gas, 61
short-circuiting mode, 62
spatter of molten filler, 62, 63
spray transfer mode, 62
types of power supply, 61
Gas-metal reactions, see Molten metal
Gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 50-55
AC operation, 52
current (or operating) modes, 52-53
reactionsINDEX 647
DCRP (or DCEP or DC +) operation, 52
DCSP (or DCEN or DC-) operation, 52
flux-assisted (or fluxed) GTAW, 55
“hot wire” GTAW, 55
inert shielding gases for, 54-55
operating modes, 52-53. See also current
square-wave AC, 53
tungsten electrodes for, 54
wave balancing in AC, 53
weld and welding characteristics for various
operating modes, 52-53
G-BOP (gapped bead-on-plate) test, see Cold
cracking tests
General corrosion, 617
Generalized equation of heat flow, see Heat flow
Ghost boundaries, 499, 508, 509
Gibbs’ phase rule, 379-380
Gibbs-Thompson equation, 389
Gleeble thermal simulator, see Thermal
Globular mode, see Metal transfer modes
Glove boxes, see Shielding
G P zones, see Age-hardened alloys
Grain boundary migration, 499
Grain-coarsened region, see Heat-affected zone
Grain-coarsening (loss of toughness from), see
Grain detachment, 438
Grain growth, 518-520, 567
Grain-refined region, see Heat-affected zone
Gravitational transfer mode, see Metal transfer
Gravity (or buoyancy) force, see Weld pool
Growth modes (during solidification), see
Guided-bend tests, see Weld testing
Gunnert technique, see Residual stresses,
Gunnier-Preston (GP) zones, see Agemodes
simulators
Defects
modes
convection
Solidification
measurement
hardened alloys
Hall- Petch relationship, 438, 526
Hammer (forge) welding, 101
Hardenability (of steels), 547, 549
Hardenable alloys, see Transformationhardened alloys
Hardening by cold work or strain, see Work
hardening
Hazard HAZ, 481
Heat (to aid welding) or heating, 13, 22
Heat-affected zone (HAZ), 24, 141, 147-148,
170, 173, 377, 514--576
age-hardenable alloys, see Age-hardened
avoiding property losses due to welding,
cold-cracking, see Defects
cold-worked metals or alloys, 515-526. See
also Work-hardened metals and alloys
defects, see Defects. See also specific types
delayed cracking, see Defects
denuded (or depleted) zones (in stainless
steels), 553, 560
dispersion-strengthened metals and alloys,
see Dispersion-strengthened metals and
grain-coarsened region (lossof toughness in),
545. See also Defects
grain refined metals or alloys, 515, 526
grain-refined region, 545
hardenability (of steels), 547, 549
high-temperature heat-abcted zone, 24
hydrogen cracking, see Defects
intergranular corrosive attack, see Defects
knife-line attack, see Defects
lamellar tearing or cracking, see Defects
liquation cracking, see Defects
location of, 514
loss of ductility, see Defects
low-temperature heat-affected zone, 24
low toughness, see Defects
martensite formation, 563
metal-matrix composites, 565-566
oxygen embrittlement, see Defects
partially-refined region, 545
precipitation-hardenable alloys, see Agepreheating effect, see Preheat or preheating
recovering properties in, 524, 525, 536,
reheat cracking, see Defects
retention time effects, 514, 523
sensitization, see Corrosion-resistant
size and shape, 168, 170, 174
solidification cracking, see Defects; Hot
solid solution strengthened (or alloyed)
steels, see Transformation-hardened alloys
strain-age cracking, see Defects
stress-corrosion cracking, see Defects
tempering, 563
transformation-hardenable alloys, see
Transformation-hardened alloys
weld decay, see Defects
alloys
523-525, 536-541, 561
alloys
hardened alloys
541-543, 561
stainless steels
cracking
metals, 526-529648 INDEX
Heat distribution (around a weld), 147
Heat flow (during welding), 147-148, 154-172
analysis of, 161-168
Christiansen’s analysis, 167-168
computerized modeling of, 161-162,167, 173
cooling rates (following welding), 159, 175
1-dimensional heat flow, 160-161
2-dimensional heat flow, 160-161
3-dimensional heat flow, 160-161
dimensionless weld depth vs. dimensionless
operating parameters, 167-168
effectof base metal thermal conditions,
effect of welding parameters, 168-172
effectof weldment thickness, 170-172
generalized equation of heat flow, 158-160
HAZ shape, 168,170
HAZ size, 168, 170
“heat solid” (visualization of temperature
intelligent automation of welding, 162
internal heat generation (role 09, 160
isotherms (in and around welds), 159, 166
modifications to Rosenthal’s solutions, 165-
multipass welds or welding, 160, 175
peak (or maximum) temperature (during
quasi-steady-state condition, 156, 158, 162-
Rosenthal’s solutions (of generalized heat
steady-state condition, see quasi-steady-state
weld (pool) shape, 168, 170
weld (pool) size, 168-170
170- 172
distribution), 157-158
167
welding), 156-157, 159, 174
165
flow equation), 162-165
condition
Heat forming, see Allied processes, heat
Heat input (or net heat input), 132, 133
Heat of combustion (in a flame), 265
Heat shaping or straightening, see Allied
“Heat solid” (visualization of temperature
Heat straightening or shaping, see Allied
Heat transfer efficiency, see Transfer efficiency
Heat-treatable alloys, see Age-hardened alloys;
Transformation-hardened alloys
Heli-arc welding, see Gas-tungsten arc welding
Heterogeneity, see Chemical heterogeneity
Heterogeneous (or unmatched) filler, see Filler
Heterogeneous nucleation, 389-392
Heterogeneous welds or welding, 4, 32, 34, 360
shaping
processes
distribution), 157- 158
processes
High-carbon steels, 546-547
High-density beam welding processes, 80-87.
See also Beam welding processes
High-energy beam (as a source for welding), 26
High-frequency dielectric (or microwave)
High-frequency resistance seam welding
High-intensity radiant energy welding
welding, 88, 91-92
(RSEW-HF), see Resistance seam welding
processes, 77-92
arc image welding, 80, 86, 87
electron-beam welding (EBW), 77,80, 82-89
focused IR welding, 80, 86
imaged arc (or arc image) welding, 80, 86,87
laser-beam welding (LBW), 77, 80, 82
microwave welding, 80, 88, 91-92
solar welding, 80, 86
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels, see
Transformation-hardened alloys
High-temperature A1 alloys (HTAs), 566
Historical evolution of welding, 6-8
History of welding, 6-8
Homogeneous (or matched) filler, see Filler
Homogeneous nucleation, 384-389
Homogeneous welds or welding, 4, 32, 34, 360
Hot cracking (or solidification cracking),
443-444, 508-509
contraction stress effect, 444-447
factors involved in, 444-447
freezing range effect, 444-445
liquation cracking, 509
low-melting constituents (effect 00,
mechanism of, 444
remediation of, 447-449
restraint effect, 444-447
surface tension (of liquid) efiect, 444-447
structure or substructure effect, 444-447
Hot cracking (weldability) tests, 580-589
Battelle test, 580, 581, 582-583
circular-groove cracking test, 580, 581,
circular-patch test, 580, 581, 588, 591
finger test, 580, 581,582
Houldcroft test, 580-583
keyhole-slotted-plate restraint test, 580, 581,
Lehigh restraint test, 580, 581, 583, 584
modified circular restraint cracking test, see
Murex hot-cracking test, 580, 581, 584, 586
Navy circular-fillet-weldability(NCFW)test,
restrained-patch test, 580, 581, 588, 592
444-447
586-587, 590
585-586, 588
segmented-groove cracking test
580,581,586,589root-pass test, 580, 581, 584-585, 587
segmented-groove cracking test, 580, 581,
sigmajig test, 580, 581, 588-589, 593
spot varestraint (or TIG-A-MA-JIG) test,
submerged arc weld cracking test, 585
TIG-A-MA-JIG test, see spot varestraint test
US. Navy circular patch test, see circular
variable restraint (or varestraint) test, 580,
586-587, 590
583-584
patch test
581, 583-585
Hot deformation welding processes, 20
Hot press bonding, see Diffusion welding
Hot pressure welding, 97, 100-101
closed-joint method of pressure gas welding,
joint designs for, 101
open-joint method of pressure gas welding,
pressure gas welding ( P O ,99, 100
100
100
Hot wire gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 55
Houldcroft test, see Hot cracking tests
Huey test, 573,617,621
Hydrogen (in welds), 328-333
baking (to remove), 570
cold cracking, see hydrogen cracking
delayed cracking, see hydrogen cracking
“fish-eyes”, 332
hydrogen cracking, 332-333, 510-511, 567,
hydrogen embrittlement, 329-331
hydrogen porosity, 331-332
sources of, 331
theories of hydrogen-induced embrittlement/
vacuum degassing (to remove). 571
570-571, 593
crackin& 332-333
Hypereutectoid steels, 545, 546
Hypoeutectoid steels, 545, 546
Ideal weld, 7, 10, 12
Imaged arc (or arc image) welding, 31, 86, 87
Impact tests, see Weld testing
Impediment(s) (to making ideal welds), 10
Impinging (or friction) force, see Weld pool
Implant test, see Cold cracking tests
Impulse decanting, 606
Incoherent interfaces, 482
Incompatibility (during welding), 190
Indirect weldability tests, see Weldability tests
Induction (as a source of heat for welding), 26
Induction seam welding (RSEW-I), see
convection
Resistance seam welding
Inert gas chambers, see Shielding
Inertia-drive (friction) welding, 107
Inertia (friction) welding, 107
Inner cone (in an oxyfuel gas flame), see
Oxyfuel gas welding
Inoculation of welds, 439
In-position welding, 63
Intelligent automation of welding, 162
Interatomic distance or spacing (at
Interface relationships (and classification) for
equilibrium), 10
welding, 27-30, 33
liquid/solid, 29-30, 33
solid/solid, 29-30, 33
solid/vapor, 30, 33
Interface stability theory, 432-438
Intergranular corrosion, 617, 621
Intermediate material (or intermediary), 5
Intermittent (or skip) welds or welding, 152-
Internal stresses, see Residual stresses
lnterpass temperature, 548
Ionization potential (or work function), 224,285
Isostatic bonding, see Diffusion welding
153
J-groove welds, see Joint configurations
Joint configurations (or geometry or
bevels (single- and double-), 152
butt (or straight butt or square butt) joints,
continuous welds, 152-153
corner joints, 149-150
edge joints, 149-150
fillets (single- and double-), 152
fillet welds, 148
full-penetration (welds), 152- 153
groove welds, 148
intermittent (or skip) welds, 152-153
J-grooves (single- and double-), 152
lap (or overlap) joints, 149-150, 152
partial-penetration (welds), 152-153
plug welds, 148-149
skip welds, 152-153
square butt joints, 149-150
square edge, 152
straight butt joints, 149- 150
surfacing welds, 148-149
tee (or T)joints or welds, 149-150, 152
U-grooves (single- and double-). 152
V-grooves (single- and double-), 152
preparations), 148- 152
149-151
Joint efficiency, 11, 14
Joint fit-up, 149
Joint geometry, see Joint configurations650 INDEX
Joint preparations, see Joint configurations
Joule heating, 71, 237-239
Keyhole mode, 56, 58, 142-145,235-237,255,
256,261-264
EB welding (keyholing mode), 255, 256
forces involved in formation, 143-144
interruption of, 143, 145
LB welding (keyholing mode), 261-264
movement of, 145
steps in the formation of, 143-144
Keyhole-slotted-plate restraint test, see Hot
Killing (for deoxidizinddenitriding using slag
Kinetics of solid-state phase transformations,
Kink instability (in molten metal transfer), 281,
Knife-line attack, 567, 571-573
Kurdjamov-Sachs orientation, 495
cracking tests
systems or fluxes), 337-339
481-489
283
Lamellar tearing or cracking, 153,567,573-574
Lamellar tearing tests, 603-606
Cranefield lamellar tearing test, 604,605
Lehigh cantilever lamellar tearing test, 603,
tensile lamellar tearing test, 604,605
Lap (or overlap) joints or welds, see Joint
Laser, see Laser beam welding
Laser beam interactions (with materials),
Laser-beam welding, 31,80, 82-89, 256-264
605
configurations
260-263
axial flow lasers, 261
beam control, 260
CO, (gas) laser, 85, 88, 259, 261
comparison to electron-beam welding
continuous laser, see CO, laser
cross-flow (or transverse flow) lasers, 262
efficiency of, 81
energy density range for, 80
excimer laser, 85
excitation (or pumping) source (for lasing),
fast-axial flow (gas laser), 85. 88
gas lasers, 85, 88,259, 261
heating mechanism, 80
keyholing during LBW, 261-264
laser beam generation, 85, 256-259
lasing (or laser light), 256, 257
lasing media, 258
NdYAG laser, 80, 258-259, 260
(EBW), 85,89
257
physics of laser beams, 256-264
pulsed lasers, see Nd:YAG laser
shielding for, 80
slow-axial flow (gas laser), 85, 88
solid-state (NdYAG) laser, 85, 87, 258-260
spontaneous emission, 258
stimulated emission, 258
transverse flow (gas laser), 85,88,262
weld characteristics, 80
Laser (thermal) cutting, see Allied processes
Leading (torch) shields, see Shielding
Lehigh cantilever lamellar tearing test, see
Lehigh restraint test, see Cold cracking tests;
Lehigh slot weldability test, see Cold cracking
Lever rule or lever law, 404,405
Lighting (and extinguishing) oxyfuel gas
torches, see Oxyfuel gas welding
Linear (reciprocating) friction welding,
109,110
Liquation cracking, 509,566
Liquid/solid interfaces (for welding), see
Liquid-to-solid volume change (for elements),
Liquidus temperature or line, 404,405. See also
Locked-in stresses, see Residual stresses
Longitudinal-weld face- or root-bend test, see
Weld testing
Longitudinal-weld tensile test, see Weld
testing
Lorentz (or electromotive or electromagnetic)
force, 229. See also Weld pool convection
Low-carbon (L) grades of stainless steels, 561
Lower bainite, see Bainite formation
Lower yield point, 516, 517
Low (HAZ) toughness, see Defects
Luder's bands, 517
Lamellar tearing tests
Hot cracking tests
tests
Interface relationships
635-637
Solidification
Macrosegregation (in dissimilar welds), see
Magnetically-impelled arc butt (MIAB)
Magnetic fields (effects on welding arcs), 228,
Magnetic stirring, 438
Manual welding, 14
Marangoni (or surface tension gradient) force,
Martensite formation, 494-496, 543-544, 547.
Chemical heterogeneity
welding, 31, 50,57-59
229,231
see Weld pool convection
See also Austenite decompositionINDEX 851
Martensitic stainless steels, see Corrosionresistant stainless steels; Stainless steels
Mash welding, see Resistance seam welding
Massive shear transformations, 543- 544
Mass transport, 21
Matched filler, see Filler
Mather-Soerte technique, see Residual stresses,
Maximum crack length (MCL), 583
Mechanical energy sources for welding, 128.
See also Energy sources for welding
Mechanically-alloys (MA) metals, 564-566
Mechanical relief of residual stresses, 207-208
Mechanical vibration (effects on solidification),
Mechanical work (conversion to heat), see
Melt-in (or conduction) mode, 56, 58, 142
Melting (to form a weld), 12, 22
Melting efficiency (during welding), 139- 140
Melting vs. solidification, rates of, 399-402
Meridional (or poloidal) flow,see Weld pool
Metal arc spraying (or metallizing), see
Metal inert gas (MIG) welding, see Gas-metal
Metallizing, see Thermal spraying
Metal-matrix composites (MMCs), 565-566
Metal (molten) transfer modes, 62-64,270-289
axial spray (or streaming) transfer mode, 276,
bridging transfer modes, 274, 278-279, 280
bridging-without-interruption, see bridging
transfer modes
buried-arc transfer technique, see bridging
transfer modes
covered arc processes, 280
drag technique, 278
drop formation and detachment sequence,
drop transfer mode, see globular transfer
effect of operating mode or polarity, 288
effect of process, 287-288
effect of shielding gas, 285-286, 288
effect of welding parameters, 282-283,
electromagnetic pinch (or Lorentz) force,
electromagnetic pressure force, 273
electrostatic attraction force, 272
explosive evaporation force, 272
flute instability, 281, 283
measurement
438-439
Conversion of mechanical work to heat
convection
Thermal spraying
arc welding
277
276-277
mode
285-287
272,273
flux-walled guided transfer, 281
forces contributing to, 270-274, 284
free-flight transfer modes, 274-277
generated gas pressure force, 271
globular (or drop) transfer mode, 275, 277
GMAW modes, 62-64
gravitational transfer mode, see globular
transfer mode
gravity force, 272
kink instability, 281, 283
pinching force, see electromagnetic pinch
plasma friction force, 273
repelled transfer mode, 277, 278
rotating transfer, 281, 283
short-arc technique or transfer mode, see
bridging transfer modes
short-circuiting (or short-circuit) transfer
mode, see bridging transfer modes
slag-protected transfer mode, 274, 280-282
spatter (or spatter loss) with, 270. 275, 276,
spray transfer mode, see axial spray transfer
steps in short-circuiting transfer, 279
streaming transfer mode, see axial spray
surface tension force, 273-274
transition current (for globular to spray
mode), 276-277,279.282-283.285-287
variations in major transfer modes, 281, 283
M, temperature, 547
Microminiature (ultrasonic) welding, 111-112
Microminiature thermosonic (ultrasonic)
Microsegregation, 363-364, 368,423-425
Microscopic equilibrium, 407
Microstructural zones (in and around welds),
force
279,287, 288, 306-307
mode
transfer mode
welding, 111-112
375-376. See also indioidual zones
fusion boundary or fusion line, 377
fusion zone (FZ), 375
heat-affected zone (HAZ), 377
partially-melted zone (PMZ), 377
unaffected base metal (UBM), 377
unmixed zone (UMZ), 375
weld metal (WM), see fusion zone
weld zone (WZ), 377
Microwave (high-frequency dielectric) welding,
Mild steels, see Carbon steels
Modified circular restraint cracking test, see
Molten metal reactions, 315-356
88, 91-92
Hot cracking tests
basicity index, see Slag-metal reactions652 INDEX
Molten metal reactions (Continued)
deoxidizingldenitriding (or killing), 337-339
dry (or glove) boxes, 334
embrittlement reactions, 327-329
"fish-eyes", 332
flux-protected (welding) processes, 339
flux types, see Slag-metal reactions
gas dissolution and solubility (in molten
metals), 317-323, 326
gas-metal reactions, 316-336
glove boxes, see dry boxes
hydrogen cracking, 332-333
hydrogen effects, 328-333
hydrogen embrittlement, 329-331


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