كتاب Shaft Alignment Handbook - Third Edition
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 كتاب Shaft Alignment Handbook - Third Edition

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Shaft Alignment Handbook - Third Edition    الثلاثاء 18 يونيو 2013, 8:58 pm

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Shaft Alignment Handbook - Third Edition
L. L. Faulkner
Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute and Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio


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Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction to Shaft Alignment 1
1.1 Benefits of Good Machinery Alignment . 1
1.2 Consequences of Defective Alignment 1
1.2.1 What Happens to Rotating Machinery When It Is Misaligned
a Little Bit, or Moderately, or Even Severely? . 3
1.3 Four Basic Ingredients Necessary to Insure Alignment Success 5
1.4 Eight Basic Steps to Align Machinery . 15
1.5 How Qualified Are You to Detect and Correct Machinery Misalignment? 19
1.6 Why Should People Be Tested on Their Alignment Skills? 19
1.7 Experience Evaluation for Machinery Alignment . 23
1.8 Who Needs to Be Trained and Qualified in Shaft Alignment? . 23
1.9 Assessing a Person’s Knowledge and Experience Level in Shaft Alignment 25
1.10 Alignment Qualification or Certification Testing . 26
1.11 Periodic Alignment Checks . 31
1.12 Alignment Record Keeping . 33
References 33
Chapter 2
Detecting Misalignment on Rotating Machinery . 35
2.1 The Four Maintenance Philosophies . 35
2.1.1 Breakdown or Run-to-Failure Maintenance . 35
2.1.2 Preventive or Time-Based Maintenance 36
2.1.3 Predictive or Condition-Based Maintenance . 36
2.1.4 Proactive or Prevention Maintenance 37
2.1.5 Industrial Maintenance Philosophy Survey Results 37
2.2 Types of Forces That Occur on Rotating Machinery . 37
2.2.1 How Mass, Stiffness, and Damping Affect the Vibration Response
of Machinery 39
2.2.2 How Vibration Is Measured . 40
2.2.3 Time and Frequency Domain Vibration Information 44
2.2.4 Using Vibration Analysis to Detect Misalignment . 46
2.2.5 Relationship between Vibration Amplitude and Misalignment Severity . 48
2.2.6 Vibration Results from a Controlled Misalignment Test
on a Training Demonstrator . 49
2.2.7 Vibration Results from a Controlled Misalignment Test on a Motor and
Pump 52
2.2.8 Before and after Vibration Results Found on a Misaligned
Motor and Pump . 63
2.2.9 Why Vibration Levels Often Decrease with Increasing Misalignment . 66
2.2.10 Known Vibration Spectral Signatures of Misaligned
Flexible Couplings 712.2.11 Vibration Characteristics of Misaligned Machinery Supported
in Sliding Type Bearings 71
2.2.12 Using Infrared Thermography to Detect Misalignment . 71
2.2.13 Power Loss due to Shaft Misalignment . 78
2.2.14 The Most Effective Way to Determine if Misalignment Exists 78
Bibliography . 86
Chapter 3
Foundations, Baseplates, Installation, and Piping Strain 89
3.1 Varying Composition of Earth’s Surface Layer . 90
3.2 How Do We Hold This Equipment in Place? . 90
3.2.1 Baseplates 92
3.2.1.1 Advantages . 92
3.2.1.2 Disadvantages . 94
3.2.2 Soleplates . 94
3.2.2.1 Advantages . 95
3.2.2.2 Disadvantages . 95
3.2.3 Frames 95
3.2.3.1 Advantages . 96
3.2.3.2 Disadvantages . 96
3.2.4 Monolithic Rigid Foundations . 97
3.2.4.1 Advantages . 98
3.2.4.2 Disadvantages . 98
3.2.4.3 Tips for Designing Good Foundations . 98
3.2.4.4 Tips on Installing Foundations and Rotating
Machinery 99
3.2.5 Baseplates Attached to Concrete Floors . 100
3.2.5.1 Advantages 101
3.2.5.2 Disadvantages 101
3.2.6 Anchor Bolts . 102
3.2.7 Inertia Blocks . 103
3.2.7.1 Advantages 103
3.2.7.2 Disadvantages 103
3.2.8 Cement, Concrete, and Grout Basics . 104
3.2.9 Reinforced Concrete 105
3.2.10 Grouting 105
3.2.10.1 Traditional Grouting Methods 105
3.2.10.2 Suggested Grouting Procedure 108
3.2.11 Pregrouted and Solid Metal Baseplates 109
3.2.12 Case History of Installing a Baseplate Using Epoxy-Based
Grout 111
3.3 Problems to Look for in Your Foundations and Baseplates . 129
3.3.1 Piping, Ductwork, and Conduit Strain 131
3.4 Checking for Excessive Static Piping Forces on
Rotating Equipment 134
3.5 Visual Inspection Checklist . 134
3.6 How Long Will Rotating Machinery Stayed Accurately Aligned? . 135
References . 136Chapter 4
Flexible and Rigid Couplings 137
4.1 Coupling and Shaft Misalignment Tolerances—What Is the Difference? 137
4.2 The Role of the Flexible Coupling 138
4.3 What to Consider When Specifying a Flexible Coupling . 138
4.4 Types of Flexible Couplings 139
4.4.1 Mechanically Flexible Coupling Designs 141
4.4.1.1 Chain Couplings 141
4.4.1.2 Gear Couplings . 141
4.4.1.3 Metal Ribbon Couplings 151
4.4.1.4 Universal Joint Couplings . 152
4.4.1.5 Flexible Link . 153
4.4.1.6 Leaf Spring 155
4.4.1.7 Pin Drive 156
4.4.1.8 Elastomeric Couplings 156
4.4.2 Metallic Membrane=Disk-Type Coupling Designs 159
4.4.2.1 Diaphragm Couplings 159
4.4.2.2 Flexible Disc Couplings . 161
4.5 Rigid Coupling Design 162
4.6 Flexible Coupling Lubrication . 162
4.7 Coupling Installation . 163
4.8 Coupling Hub Attachment Methods 164
4.9 Keys and Keyways . 165
4.9.1 Types of Keys . 166
4.9.2 Straight Bore—Sliding Clearance with Keyways 168
4.9.3 Straight Bore—Interference Fit with Keyways . 168
4.9.4 Splined Shaft with End Lock Nut or Locking Plate . 170
4.9.5 Tapered Bore—Interference Fit with Keyways . 170
4.9.6 Coupling Hub to Shaft Surface Contact 171
4.9.7 Keyless Taper Bores . 172
4.9.8 Proper Interference Fit for Hydraulically Installed Coupling Hubs 172
4.9.9 Installation of Keyless Coupling Hubs Using Hydraulic Expansion 173
Bibliography 175
Chapter 5
Preliminary Alignment Checks . 179
5.1 Foundation and Base Plate Checks . 179
5.2 Dial Indicator Basics 180
5.3 Damaged, Worn, or Improperly Installed Machinery Component Checks 180
5.4 Runout 194
5.5 Machine Housing to Base Plate Interface Problems . 202
5.6 Verifying That the Soft Foot Has Been Eliminated . 205
5.6.1 Multiple Bolt–Multiple Indicator Method (Preferred Method) . 205
5.6.2 Multiple Bolt–Single Indicator Method (Second Choice) 207
5.6.3 Shaft Movement Method (Third Choice) . 212
5.6.4 Single Bolt–Single Indicator Method (Last Choice) 212
5.7 Other Methods for Correcting Soft Foot Problems . 214Chapter 6
Shaft Alignment Measuring Tools 219
6.1 Dimensional Measurement 220
6.2 Classes of Dimensional Measurement Tools and Sensors 220
6.2.1 Standard Tape Measures, Rulers, and Straightedges . 221
6.2.2 Feeler and Taper Gauges . 221
6.2.3 Slide Caliper . 223
6.2.4 Micrometers . 223
6.2.5 Dial Indicators . 225
6.2.6 Optical Alignment Tooling 226
6.2.7 Optical Parallax 229
6.2.8 Proximity Probes . 232
6.2.9 Linear Variable Differential Transformers . 233
6.2.10 Optical Encoders . 235
6.2.11 Lasers and Detectors 235
6.2.12 Charge Couple Devices . 241
6.2.13 Interferometers . 243
6.3 Sweeping 908 Arcs Twice to Measure a Misalignment Condition 245
6.4 Why Measurements Are Taken at 908 Intervals . 249
6.5 Rotating Both Shafts to Override a Runout Condition 249
6.6 Tips for Getting Good Alignment Measurements 251
6.7 Engaged Couplings Will Produce Measurement Errors . 252
6.8 Rim Indicator Setup Variations . 253
6.9 Rim Readings Indicate Twice the Centerline Offset 253
6.10 Validity Rule . 253
6.11 Partial Arc Mathematics 255
6.11.1 Partial Arc Measurement Procedure . 260
6.11.2 Partial Arc Measurement Sample Problem 262
6.11.3 Pitfalls of Partial Arc Measurements . 266
6.12 Bracket or Bar Sag 267
6.13 Xmas Tree Brackets and Face Sag . 269
6.14 Zero Sag Brackets . 271
6.15 Dial Indicator Shaft Alignment System Manufacturers . 272
6.15.1 Accushim Systems 273
6.15.2 A-Line Systems . 274
6.15.3 Benchmark System 276
6.15.4 Murray & Garig System 276
6.15.5 Peterson Alignment Tools Co. Systems . 277
6.15.6 Turvac Inc. Systems . 279
6.15.7 Update International System . 282
6.16 Dial Indicator Manufacturers Hardware Specifications . 282
Bibliography 288
Chapter 7
Correcting Misalignment . 291
7.1 Installing Machinery for the First Time 291
7.2 Bolt-Bound Conditions 292
7.3 Last Resort Measures for Bolt-Bound Conditions 2947.4 Machinery Positioning Basics . 296
7.4.1 Axial Spacing . 296
7.4.2 Making Corrections in the Vertical Direction 298
7.4.3 Lateral Movement 301
7.4.4 Vertical Movement . 304
7.5 Types of Movement Tools 304
7.5.1 Pry and Crowbars and Wedges 305
7.5.2 Comealongs and Chain Falls 306
7.5.3 Hydraulic Jacks 306
7.5.4 Permanent Jackscrews . 307
7.5.5 Portable Jackscrews and Machinery Positioners 307
7.6 What to Do When Things Are Not Working 307
7.7 Misalignment Rantings 315
Bibliography 317
Chapter 8
Alignment Modeling Basics . 319
8.1 Graphing and Modeling Alignment Techniques 321
8.2 Basic Alignment Models . 321
8.3 Scaling the Drive System onto the Alignment Model 323
8.4 Cardinal Alignment Graphing and Modeling Rules . 325
8.4.1 Plot Measurements That Have Been Compensated for Bracket Sag 325
8.4.2 Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount 326
8.4.3 Plus Means ‘‘Low’’ and Minus Means ‘‘High’’ . 326
8.4.4 Zero the Indicator on the Side That Is Pointing toward the Top
of the Graph Paper . 327
8.4.5 Whatever Shaft the Dial Indicator Is Taking Readings on Is the Shaft
That You Want to Draw On the Graph Paper . 328
8.4.6 Determining Corrective Moves to Make on One Machine from
the Alignment Model 332
8.4.7 Overlay Line or Final Desired Alignment Line . 333
8.4.8 Superimpose Your Boundary Conditions, Movement Restrictions, and
Allowable Movement Envelope 334
8.4.8.1 Lateral Movement Restrictions . 335
8.4.8.2 Where Did the Stationary–Movable Alignment Concept Come
From? 337
8.4.8.3 Solving Piping Fit-Up Problems with the Overlay Line 338
Bibliography 339
Chapter 9
Defining Misalignment: Alignment and Coupling Tolerances . 341
9.1 What Exactly Is Shaft Alignment? 341
9.2 Does Level and Aligned Mean the Same Thing? . 341
9.3 Measuring Angles 342
9.4 Types of Misalignment 343
9.5 Definition of Shaft Misalignment 343
9.6 Checking the Misalignment Tolerance . 347
9.7 Shaft versus Coupling Alignment 348
9.8 How Straight Are Rotating Machinery Shafts? 349Chapter 10
Reverse Indicator Method 353
10.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Reverse Indicator Method 353
10.2 Modeling Reverse Indicator Method Using the ‘‘Point-to-Point’’ Technique 355
10.3 Rim Readings Are Always Twice the Offset Amount . 358
10.4 Modeling the Reverse Indicator Method Using the Line-to-Point
Technique . 362
Bibliography 366
Chapter 11
Face and Rim Methods 369
11.1 Mathematical Relationship in Machinery Alignment . 369
11.2 Sixteen-Point Method 370
11.3 Twenty-Point Method 371
11.4 Problems with Taking Face Readings 374
11.4.1 Preset the Axial Position 376
11.4.2 Compensate for Axial Movement with Stationary Indicators . 376
11.4.3 Compensate for Axial Movement with Rotating Indicators 376
11.5 Modeling the Face and Rim Method . 376
11.6 Artificial Face Surface 385
References . 388
Chapter 12
Double Radial Method . 389
12.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Double Radial Method 391
12.2 Modeling the Double Radial Method 393
Chapter 13
Shaft to Coupling Spool Method . 397
13.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method 397
13.2 Modeling the Shaft to Coupling Spool Method . 398
Chapter 14
Face–Face Method . 405
14.1 Basic Mathematical Equations for the Face–Face Method . 405
14.2 Modeling the Face–Face Method . 405
Chapter 15
Electronic and Electro-Optical Shaft Alignment Systems 411
15.1 Optical Encoder System 411
15.2 Laser–Detector Systems . 412
15.2.1 Suggestions for Successful Use of Your Laser Alignment System 414
15.2.2 Damalini Systems . 416
15.2.3 Emerson Process Management System . 418
15.2.4 Fixturlaser Systems 418
15.2.5 Hamar Systems . 420
15.2.6 Pru¨ftechnik Systems . 421
15.2.7 SPM Instrument Inc. System . 424
15.2.8 Vibralign System 42515.3 Laser System Manufacturers Hardware Specifications 426
15.4 Laser System Manufacturers Software Specifications . 444
References . 469
Chapter 16
Measuring and Compensating for Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement . 471
16.1 What Type of Machinery Is Likely to Change Equipment’s Position When
Running? . 471
16.2 What Causes Machinery Movement to Occur? . 472
16.3 Conducting the Off-Line to Running Machinery Movement Survey . 473
16.4 Taking ‘‘Hot’’ Alignment Measurements Immediately after Shutdown . 473
16.5 Four General Categories of OL2R Measurements 474
16.5.1 Movement of the Centerline of the Machine Cases with Respect
to Its Baseplate or Frame 476
16.5.2 Movement of the Centerline of the Machine Cases with Respect
to Some Remote Reference or Observation Point 476
16.5.3 Movement of One Machine Case with Respect to Another Machine
Case 476
16.5.4 Movement of One Shaft with Respect to Another Shaft 477
16.6 Calculating Machine Case Thermal Expansion Using the Strain Equation 477
16.6.1 Using Infrared Thermographic Equipment to Observe Thermal Profiles
of Rotating Equipment 479
16.7 Inside Micrometer–Tooling Ball–Angle
Measurement Devices . 481
16.8 Vertical, Lateral, and Axial OL2R Movement . 489
16.9 Proximity Probes with Water-Cooled Stands 497
16.10 Optical Alignment Equipment . 499
16.11 Optical Parallax 502
16.12 Using Optical Tooling for Measuring Machinery Movement 507
16.13 Establishing Reference Planes . 510
16.14 Alignment Bars with Proximity Probes . 515
16.15 Applying Laser–Detector Systems for OL2R Measurements . 522
16.16 Ball–Rod–Tubing Connector System 531
16.17 Vernier–Strobe System . 535
16.18 Instrumented Coupling Systems 538
16.18.1 Aligning Rotating Machinery to Compensate for OL2R
Machinery Movement 539
16.18.2 Determining the Desired Off-Line Shaft Positions When
Using the Machine Case to Baseplate or Machine Case
to Remote Reference Point Methods . 540
16.18.3 Determining the Desired Off-Line Shaft Positions When Using
the Machine Case to Machine Case Methods . 542
16.18.4 How to Determine the ‘‘Shoot for’’ Off-Line Dial Indicator
Readings (Also Known as ‘‘Target Values’’) 542
16.18.4.1 Reverse Indicator Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings 543
16.18.4.2 Face–Rim Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings 548
16.18.4.3 Double Radial Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings 54816.18.4.4 Shaft to Coupling Spool Shoot for Dial
Indicator Readings 548
16.18.4.5 Face–Face Shoot for Dial Indicator Readings . 548
16.19 Aligning Shafts for Running Conditions (Also Known as Running Alignment
or ‘‘Hot Operating Alignment’’) 548
Bibliography 560
Chapter 17
Aligning Multiple-Element Drive Systems . 563
17.1 Multiple-Element Drive Train Alignment Laws . 564
17.2 Multiple-Element Drive Train: Graphing
and Modeling Techniques . 566
17.3 Multiple-Element Drive Train Modeling—One Set
of Shafts at a Time 567
17.4 Multiple-Element Drive System Graphing—Modeling
All the Shafts at One Time 568
17.5 Mixing Different Alignment Measurement Methods . 577
17.6 Modeling Right-Angle Drive Systems 578
17.7 Final Comments on Aligning Multiple-Element
Drive Trains . 588
References . 590
Chapter 18
Aligning V-Belt Drives . 591
18.1 Belt Drive Systems—Advantages and Disadvantages 591
18.2 V-Belt Standards Information . 591
18.3 Sheave Information . 593
18.4 V-Belt Recommendations and Rules of Thumb 593
18.5 Sheave and Belt Wear . 594
18.6 Adjusting Belt Tension 595
18.7 Preliminary Alignment Checks for V-Belts
and Sheaves . 597
18.8 Types of Sheave Misalignment Conditions 599
18.9 Using a Straightedge to Measure Misalignment 600
18.10 Measuring the Misalignment at the Sheaves . 604
18.11 V-Belt Machine Measurements 604
18.12 Modeling V-Belt Alignment Problems . 605
18.13 V-Belt Alignment Modeling Sample Problem 606
18.14 Laser Alignment Systems for V-Belts and Sheaves 613
Bibliography 618
Chapter 19
Bore Alignment 619
19.1 Aligning a Rotating Shaft with a Stationary Hollow Cylinder 619
19.2 Aligning Two Hollow Cylinders 622
19.3 Basic Measurement Principles and Nomenclature 626
19.4 Cylinder Alignment Procedure 627
19.5 Bucking in Process 631
19.6 Correcting the Misalignment . 635
19.7 Laser Bore Alignment Systems . 635Chapter 20
Parallel Alignment 639
20.1 Rough Alignment of Parallel Rolls 639
20.2 Using Optical Alignment Equipment for Roll Parallelism 641
20.3 Aligning the Rolls in the Vertical (Up=Down) Direction 641
20.4 Aligning the Rolls in the Lateral (Side to Side) Direction 642
20.5 Using Laser–Detector Systems to Measure Parallelism 651
20.6 Using Roll, Pitch, and Yaw Positions of Rolls
to Measure Parallelism . 651
20.7 Aligning Rolls and Their Drives—Sample Problem 653
Chapter 21
Alignment Considerations for Specific Types of Machinery 667
21.1 Drivers . 668
21.1.1 Electric Motors . 668
21.1.1.1 Additional Information on Electric Motors 670
21.1.2 Steam Turbines . 670
21.1.2.1 Additional Information on Steam Turbines 671
21.1.3 Gas Turbines 672
21.1.3.1 Additional Information on Gas Turbines . 673
21.1.4 Internal Combustion Engines 673
21.1.4.1 Additional Information on Internal Combustion Engines . 674
21.1.5 Horizontally Mounted Centrifugal Pumps . 674
21.1.5.1 Additional Information on Horizontally Mounted
Centrifugal Pumps 677
21.1.6 Vertically Mounted Centrifugal Pumps . 678
21.1.6.1 Additional Information on Vertically Mounted
Centrifugal Pumps 691
21.1.7 Blowers and Fans . 692
21.1.7.1 Additional Information on Horizontally Mounted Blowers
and Fans . 697
21.1.8 Compressors . 698
21.1.8.1 Additional Information on Compressors 701
21.1.9 Horizontally Mounted Electric Generators 702
21.1.9.1 Additional Information on Electric Generators . 705
21.1.10 Vertically Mounted Electric Generators 707
21.1.11 Speed Changing Devices—Gearboxes and Fluid Drives . 719
21.1.11.1 Additional Information on Gearboxes and Fluid Drives . 720
21.1.12 Cooling Tower Fan Drives 722
21.1.13 Aligning Ship Rudders . 724
Bibliography 734
Chapter 22
The History of Machinery Alignment 735
Bibliography 751
Appendices . 753
Appendix A Machinery Data Card 753
Appendix B Sample Preliminary Alignment Record Sheet . 755Appendix C Sample Installation and Shaft Alignment 757
Appendix D Torque Values (SAE Grade 2 Bolts) . 759
Appendix E Torque Values (SAE Grade 5 Bolts) . 761
Appendix F Torque Values (SAE Grade 8 Bolts) . 763
Appendix G Shaft Alignment and Related U.S. Patents 765
Appendix H Shaft Alignment Training Questionnaire 769
Appendix I Shaft Alignment Services Questionnaire 775
Appendix J Alignment Internet Web Sites 781
Appendix K Single Plane Balancing . 783
Index . 7911 Introduction to Shaft Al


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