كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 43
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3    كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3  Emptyالأحد 14 أبريل 2013, 7:39 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3
Air-Conditioning, Heat Pumps, and Distribution Systems
All New 4th Edition
James E. Brumbaugh  

كتاب Audel - HVAC Fundamentals Volume 3  H_v_a_15
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Introduction xvii
About the Author xix
Chapter 1 Radiant Heating 1
Types of Radiant Panel Heating Systems 2
Floor Panel Systems 2
Ceiling Panel Systems 2
Wall Panel Systems 5
Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating 6
System Components 6
Designing a Hydronic Radiant Floor
Heating System 28
Coils and Coil Patterns 41
Installing a Hydronic Radiant Floor
Heating System
(PEX Tubing) 44
Servicing and Maintaining Hydronic
Radiant Floor Heating Systems 49
Troubleshooting Hydronic Floor Radiant
Heating Systems 49
Hydronic Radiant Heating Snow- and
Ice-Melting Systems 51
Electric Radiant Floor Heating 52
Installing Electric Heating Mats or Rolls 58
Installing Electric Cable 65
Servicing and Maintaining an Electric
Radiant Floor Heating System 67
Troubleshooting Electric Radiant Floor
Heating Systems 67
Cooling for Hydronic Radiant Floor
Systems 68vi Contents
Chapter 2 Radiators, Convectors,
and Unit Heaters 71
Radiators 72
Radiator Efficiency 74
Radiator Heat Output 77
Sizing Radiators 78
Installing Radiators 79
Radiator Valves 86
Radiator Piping Connections 92
Vents and Venting 93
Steam Traps 99
Troubleshooting Radiators 99
Convectors 100
Convector Piping Connections 101
Hydronic Fan Convectors 106
Troubleshooting Hydronic Fan
Convectors 106
Steam and Hot-Water Baseboard
Heaters 107
Construction Details 108
Integral Fin-and-Tube Baseboard Heaters 112
Installing Baseboard Units 113
Baseboard Heater Maintenance 119
Electric Baseboard Heaters 119
Installing Electric Baseboard Heaters 124
Kickspace Heaters 127
Floor and Window Recessed Heaters 129
Unit Heaters 130
Unit Heater Piping Connections 135
Unit Heater Controls 138
Gas-Fired Unit Heaters 140
Oil-Fired Unit Heaters 141
Chapter 3 Fireplaces, Stoves, and Chimneys 145
Fireplaces 145
Fireplace Location 145
Fireplace Dimensions 146Contents vii
Fireplace Construction Details 149
Firebox, Lintel, and Mantel 150
Fireplace Hearth 151
Ash Dump, Ashpit, and
Cleanout Door 152
Smoke Chamber 152
Fireplace Dampers 153
Modified Fireplaces 156
Freestanding Fireplaces 157
Rumford Fireplace 158
Chimney Draft 162
Chimney Construction Details 164
Chimney Flues and Chimney Liners 165
Smoke Pipe 167
Cleanout Trap 168
Chimney Downdraft 168
Prefabricated Metal Chimneys 169
Troubleshooting Fireplaces and
Chimneys 169
Stoves, Ranges, and Heaters 169
Installation Instructions 177
Operating Instructions 178
Chapter 4 Water Heaters 179
Types of Water Heaters 179
Direct-Fired Water Heaters 180
Automatic Storage Water Heaters 180
Multicoil Water Heaters 182
Multiflue Water Heaters 183
Instantaneous Water Heaters 184
Indirect Water Heaters 185
Quick-Recovery Heaters 189
Slow-Recovery Heaters 189
Heat Pump Water Heaters 190
Combination Water Heaters 191
Water Heater Construction Details 192
Water Storage Tanks 193viii Contents
Tank Fittings 194
Dip Tubes 194
Anodes 197
Valves 197
Safety Relief Valves 197
Vacuum Relief Valve 206
Gas-Fired Water Heaters 209
Storage Capacity 209
Gas Burners 210
Automatic Controls on Gas-Fired
Water Heaters 210
Combination Gas Valve 221
Installation and Operation of
Gas-Fired Water Heaters 225
Hot-Water Circulating Methods 230
Building and Safety Code
Requirements 230
Lighting and Operating Instructions 231
Installation and Maintenance
Checklist 232
Troubleshooting Gas-Fired Water
Heaters 233
Oil-Fired Water Heaters 238
Electric Water Heaters 240
Troubleshooting Electric Water Heaters 242
Manual Water Heaters 245
Assembly and Installation of Manual
Water Heaters 246
Solar Water Heaters 246
Chapter 5 Heating Swimming Pools 249
Classifying Pool Heaters 251
Gas-Fired Pool Heaters 255
Oil-Fired Pool Heaters 259
Electric Pool Heaters 260
Heat-Exchanger Pool Heaters 263
Solar Pool Heaters 264Heat Pump Pool Heaters 267
Sizing Pool Heaters 267
The Surface-Area Method 270
The Time-Rise Method 271
Sizing Indoor Pool Heaters 271
Installing Pool Heaters 271
Pool Heater Repair and Maintenance 273
Troubleshooting Pool Heaters and
Equipment 274
Chapter 6 Ventilation Principles 281
The Motive Force 282
Inductive Action of the Wind 282
Induced Draft 285
Combined Force of Wind Effect
and Thermal Effect 285
Mechanical Ventilation 287
Air Ventilation Requirements 287
Roof Ventilators 289
Types of Roof Ventilators 289
Stationary-Head Ventilators 290
Revolving Ventilators 290
Turbine Ventilators 291
Ridge Ventilators 293
Siphonage Ventilators 294
Fan Ventilators 294
Components of a Roof Ventilator 295
Motive Force to Cause Air Circulation 296
Capacity of Ventilators 296
Design and Placement of Inlet Air
Openings 298
Fresh Air Requirements 299
Ventilator Bases 299
Angle Rings 302
Stiffener Angles 303
Prefabricated Roof Curbs 303
Ventilator Dampers 304
Contents ixx Contents
Louver Dampers 305
Sliding Sleeve Dampers 306
Sliding Cone Dampers 306
Butterfly Dampers 306
Method of Calculating Number and
Size of Ventilators Required 307
Ventilator Calculation Examples 308
Air Leakage 309
Garage Ventilation 310
Ventilation of Kitchens 311
General Ventilation Rules 312
Chapter 7 Ventilation and Exhaust Fans 315
Codes and Standards 315
Definitions 315
Types of Fans 317
Furnace Blowers 319
Basic Fan Laws 319
Series and Parallel Fan Operation 321
Fan Performance Curves 322
General Ventilation 322
Determining CFM by the Air-Change
Method 323
Determining CFM by the Heat Removal
Method 325
Determining Air Intake 326
Screen Efficiency 326
Static Pressure 327
Local Ventilation 328
Exhaust-Hood Design
Recommendations 332
Fan Motors 333
Troubleshooting Fans 337
Fan Selection 341
Fan Installation 344
Fan Installation Checklist 344
Air Volume Control 347Noise Control 347
Fan Applications 347
Attic Ventilating Fans 348
Exhaust Fans 355
Kitchen Exhaust Fans 355
Bathroom Exhaust Fans 356
Whole-House Ventilation 356
Chapter 8 Air-Conditioning 361
Properties of Air 362
Humidity 362
Temperature 365
Pressure 368
Compression and Cooling 370
Measuring the Physical Properties
of Air 372
Cleaning and Filtering the Air 374
Standards of Comfort 376
The Comfort Chart 377
Cooling Load Estimate Form 379
Indoor-Outdoor Design Conditions 383
Ventilation Requirements 384
Cooling a Structure 386
External Sources of Heat 386
Internal Sources of Heat 392
Calculating Infiltration and Ventilation
Heat Gain 394
Rule-of-Thumb Methods for Sizing
Air Conditioners 394
HVAC Contractor’s Cooling Load
Estimate 395
Using the ACCA Design Manuals
for Sizing Air-Conditioning Systems 396
Central Air-Conditioning 397
Cooling Methods 397
Central Air-Conditioning Applications 410
Room Air Conditioners 421
Contents xixii Contents
Chapter 9 Air-Conditioning Equipment 423
Mechanical Refrigeration Equipment 423
Compressors 424
Troubleshooting Compressors 430
Compressor Replacement 435
Electric Motors 435
Troubleshooting Electrical Motors 436
Gas Engines 437
Electrical Components 437
Troubleshooting Electrical Components 438
Condenser 439
Condenser Service and Maintenance 442
Troubleshooting Condensers 443
Receiver 443
Evaporator 447
Evaporator Service and Maintenance 447
Troubleshooting Evaporators 447
Refrigerants 448
Liquid Refrigerant Control Devices 449
Automatic Expansion Valves 449
Thermostatic Expansion Valves 450
Float Valves 453
Capillary Tubes 454
Refrigerant Piping 454
Refrigerant Piping Service and
Maintenance 455
Troubleshooting Refrigerant Piping 456
Filters and Dryers 457
Pressure-Limiting Controls 457
Water-Regulating Valves 458
Automatic Controls 459
System Troubleshooting 459
General Servicing and Maintenance 460
Regular Maintenance 463
Pumping Down 464
Purging 464
Evacuating the System 464Contents xiii
Charging 465
Silver-Brazing Repairs 467
Chapter 10 Heat Pumps 471
Heat Pump Operating Principles 471
Heating Cycle 471
Cooling Cycle 473
Defrost Cycle 473
Types of Heat Pumps 476
Air-Source Heat Pumps 476
Ground-Source Heat Pumps 481
Water-Source Heat Pumps 483
Other Types of Heat Pumps 485
Gas-Fired Heat Pumps 485
Dual-Fuel Heat Pump System 486
Dual-Source Heat Pumps 486
Ductless Heat Pumps 487
Heat Pump Performance and Efficiency
Ratings 487
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) 488
Heating Season Performance Factor
(HSPF) 488
Coefficiency of Performance (COP) 488
Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) 488
Energy Star Rating 488
Heat Pump System Components 488
Compressor 490
Indoor Coil and Blower 491
Outdoor Coil and Fan 491
Refrigerant Lines 491
Reversing Valve and Solenoid 491
Thermostatic Expansion Valve 493
Desuperheater 494
Control Box 494
Fan/Blower Motors 499
Heat Pump Defrost System 499
High-Pressure Switch 500
Low-Pressure Switch 501xiv Contents
Other Electric/Electronic Heat Pump
Controls and Connections 501
Accumulator 501
Room Thermostat 501
Service Valves and Gauge Ports 502
Gauge Manifold 503
Filter Dryer 503
Crankcase Heater 503
Muffler 505
Sizing Heat Pumps 505
Heat Pump Installation
Recommendations 507
Heat Pump Operating Instructions 510
Heating 510
Cooling 511
Heat Pump Service and Maintenance 511
Service and Maintenance Checklist 512
Adjusting Heat Pump Refrigerant Charge 513
Troubleshooting Heat Pumps 514
Troubleshooting Heat Pump
Compressors 517
Chapter 11 Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers 519
Humidifiers 521
Spray Humidifiers 522
Pan Humidifiers 523
Stationary-Pad Humidifiers 524
Steam Humidifiers 524
Bypass Humidifiers 525
Power Humidifiers 526
Automatic Controls 526
Installation Instructions 529
Service and Maintenance Suggestions 534
Troubleshooting Humidifiers 535
Dehumidifiers 537
Absorption Dehumidifiers 538
Spray Dehumidifiers 541Contents xv
Refrigeration Dehumidifiers 541
Automatic Controls 542
Installation Suggestions 542
Operating and Maintenance Suggestions 542
Troubleshooting Dehumidifiers 543
Chapter 12 Air Cleaners and Filters 547
Electronic Air Cleaners 547
Charged-Media Air Cleaners 549
Two-Stage Air Cleaners 553
Automatic Controls 554
Clogged-Filter Indicator 556
Performance Lights 557
Sail Switch 559
In-Place Water-Wash Controls 561
Cabinet-Model Control Panels 563
Installation Instructions 564
Electrical Wiring 564
Maintenance Instructions 565
Replacing Tungsten Ionizing Wires 568
Troubleshooting Electronic Air Cleaners 569
Air Washers 571
Air Filters 572
Dry Air Filters 574
Viscous Air Filters 574
Filter Installation and Maintenance 575
Appendix A Professional and Trade Associations 577
Appendix B Manufacturers 589
Appendix C HVAC/R Education, Training,
Certification, and Licensing 601
Appendix D Data Tables 605
Appendix E Psychrometric Charts 643
Index 64
647
A
absolute humidity, 363
absolute pressure, 370
absorption dehumidifiers, 538–540
absorption refrigeration, 398
adiabatic compression, 372
adjustable air valves, 98
after filter, 567
air
atmospheric pressure of, 368–370
calculating rate of change in, 386
cleaning and filtering, 374–376
components of, 362
compression of, 370–372
dehumidification of, 365
(see also dehumidifiers)
dew point of, 364
drying effect of, 363–364
humidification of, 364 (see also
humidifiers)
humidity of, 362–365
latent heat in, 368
measuring physical properties of,
372–374
properties of, 362–370
relative humidity of, 519–520
saturation of, 362, 363
sensible heat in, 368
temperature of, 365–368
water vapor in, 362
air change method, 323–325
air circulation. See circulation
air cleaners. See electronic air
cleaners
air compressor, 46
air conditioners. See airconditioning equipment;
air-conditioning systems
Air-Conditioning Contractors of
America (ACCA), 396–397
air-conditioning equipment
adding refrigerant to, 465–467
choosing correct size of,
394–395
cleaning and filtering aspects of,
374–376
compression in, 370–372
compressors (see compressors)
condensers, 439–446
cooling load estimate form for,
379–383
defined, 361
dryers for, 457, 458
electrical components in,
438–439
estimating required British
thermal units (Btus) for, 395
evaporative coolers, 398–400
evaporators for, 446–448
filters for, 457, 458
float valves, 452–454
maintenance of, 460, 463–470
mechanical refrigeration (see
mechanical refrigeration
equipment)
motors and engines for,
435–437
pressure-limiting controls in,
457–458
processes of, 361
rate of air change for, 386
receivers for, 443, 447
refrigerants for, 448–449
(see also refrigerants)
repairing, 467–470
room units, 421, 424
silver-brazing repairs for,
467–470
water-regulating valves in,
458–459
Index648 Index
air-conditioning systems
ACCA design manuals for sizing,
396–397
atmospheric air in, 368
automatic controls for, 459
capillary tubes in, 454
central (see central airconditioning systems)
and the comfort chart,
377–379
cooling methods for (see cooling
methods)
for cooling structures, 386–393
dampers for, 531–532
efficiency ratings of, 423–424
estimating heat gain for,
379–383
and indoor-outdoor design
conditions, 383
recommended relative humidity
for, 378
refrigerant piping in, 454–457
and standards of comfort,
376–377
troubleshooting problems in,
459, 462–463
and ventilation requirements,
384–386
year-round, 412, 413
air-cooled condensers, 414,
415–416, 439, 443
air filters
box-type, 575
common placement of,
572–573
dry, 574
functions of, 572–573
inspection of, 573–574
installation of, 575
maintenance of, 575
mat-type, 575
symptoms of problems with, 433
viscous, 574–575
air horsepower (AHP), 315
air intake, 326–327
air leakage, 309–310
Airmaster fans, 336–337
air-restricting device, 407
air scoop, 19
air separator, 26–27
air-source heat pumps, 476–480,
486
air stratification, preventing, 139
air valves
adjustable, 98
automatic, 87–92, 100
identifying clogs in, 100
manual, 86–87
nonadjustable, 98
for radiators, 86–92
air velocity, 317
air ventilation. See ventilation
air venting, 18, 32, 33, 96
air volume control, 347
air washers, 376, 522–523, 541,
571–572, 573
ambient temperature, 77
American Society of Heating and
Ventilating Engineers,
312–313
American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration, and AirConditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE), 376
research of solar radiation, 388
ventilation standards of,
384–385
anodes, 197, 232, 244
anti-restart timer, 501
antisiphon hole, 195–196
aquastats
for circulating pumps, 230
for gas-fired pool heater, 258
in hydronic heating system, 19,
21
symptoms of problem in, 106
temperature-control, 263,
265
ash dump, 152
ashpit, 152
Atlantic box stove, 174
atmospheric air, 368–370
atmospheric pressure, 368–370
atomizing humidifiers, 522–523Index 649
attic fans, 348
boxed-in, 349, 350
centrifugal, 349–350, 351
cleaning, 354
control of, 349
exhaust outlets for, 353, 354
fly screening for, 352, 354
importance of, 348
location of, 354
louvers for, 352
lubrication of, 354
outlet area for, 350
attics, fresh air requirements for,
288, 384
auditoriums, fresh air
requirements for, 384
automatic air valves, 87–92
automatic air vent valve, 18
automatic cooling control circuits,
459, 460, 461
automatic expansion valves,
449–450
automatic float vent valve, 19
automatic gas shutoff device, 216,
220
automatic gas valves, 257
automatic pilot valve, 212–217
automatic spark ignition systems,
256
automatic storage water heaters,
180–182, 183, 204, 206
available line voltage, 342
axial-flow fans, 318
B
backdraft diverter, 229
backdrafts
causes of, 356
in chimneys, 168–169
preventing, 358
remedy for, 170
backflow preventer, 19, 21
baffles, 129, 133, 237
balancing valves, 25
ball valves, 19, 21
barometers, 369
baseboard heaters
around corners, 114, 115
electric (see electric baseboard
heaters)
fin-and-tube, 108, 110–113
hydronic, 109–110, 119
installing, 113–119
location of, 107
maintenance of, 119
operating efficiency of,
115–116
and plaster walls, 116
rating output of, 108
types of, 108
basic fan laws, 319–321
bathroom exhaust fans, 356
belt-driven fans, 341, 343, 358
bleeders, 515, 516
blower coils, 447
blowers, 491, 499
boiler drain valve, 19, 21
boiler energy saver, 19
boiler fill valve, 19
boiler rooms, fresh air
requirements for, 288, 384
boilers
coal-fired, 6
drain valve for, 19, 21
electric, 7
gas-fired, 6
for heating pools, 250–251
in hydronic heating systems,
6–7
minimum temperature of, 107
oil-fired, 6
in piping diagram, 20–21
symptoms of problems with, 50
booster heaters, 183–184
boxed-in fans, 349, 350
box-type filters, 575
Boyle’s law, 370–372
brake horsepower (BHP), 316,
338–339
brass adapter, 9
brass coupling, 9
British thermal units (Btu)
given off by cast-iron radiators,
105650 Index
for heat-exchanger pool heaters,
264
for measuring heat gain, 368
for measuring output of heatemitting units, 71
needed for air-conditioning
equipment, 395
bucket traps, 138
building codes, for water heaters,
230–231
built-in electronic air cleaners, 564
burners. See gas burners
butterfly dampers, 306–307
bypass humidifiers, 525–526, 527
common location for, 529
installation of, 532–534
bypass piping, 261
bypass valves, 257, 276
C
cabinet-model electronic air
cleaners, 563–564
capacitor motor, 333
capacitors, 431, 432, 498, 518
capillary tubes, 454
capture velocities, 329
carbon monoxide, 310–311
cast-iron radiators. See radiators
ceiling panel heating systems, 2–5
central air-conditioning systems
applications of, 410–421
cooling methods of, 397–410
energy efficiency of, 424
internal workings of, 423
central cooling packages, 414–417
centrifugal compressors, 429–430
centrifugal fans, 318, 349–350,
351, 407
cfm. See cubic feet per minute
(cfm)
charged-media electronic air
cleaners, 549–550
charging, 465–467
Charles’s law, 370–372
check valves, 19–23, 230
chimney effect, 284–285,
309–310
chimneys
cap for, 164
cleanout traps in, 168
connecting water heater flues to,
239
construction details for,
164–165
downdraft in, 168–169
and fireplaces, 145
flues in, 165–167
foundation for, 164
for gas-fired water heaters, 227
induced draft in, 285, 286
liners in, 165–167
metal, 169, 171, 173
providing good draft in, 162,
164
smoke pipe in, 167–168
troubleshooting problems in,
170
circuit breakers, symptoms of
tripped, 106, 242, 278, 340,
514, 517
circuits
defined, 7
signs of defect in, 277
circulating fans, 348
circulating pumps, 230
control of water flow by, 31
for heat-exchanger pool heaters,
264
for hydronic radiant heating
system, 26
in piping diagram, 21
symptoms of problems with,
50–51
circulating tank, 245
circulation, 281, 296, 315
cleanout door, 152
cleanout traps, 168
clogged-filter indicators, 556–557,
558
closed-loop ground coupling
system, 482–483
coal-fired boilers, 6
Coefficiency of Performance
(COP), 267, 488Index 651
coils
condenser, 403
dehumidifying, 541
evaporator, 402, 404
for heat pumps, 491
for manual water heaters, 245
patterns of, 41–43
symptoms of problems with,
514, 515
testing of, 46–48
used in hydronic radiant floor
heating systems, 41–43
water-cooled, 401
cold-water coil cooling, 401, 420
cold-water supply lines, 194–195,
246
collector plates, 553–554
combination gas valves, 221–225,
257
combination water heaters,
191–192
comfort chart, 377–379
comfort cooling, 325
comfort levels, 520
commercial water heaters, 179
compound gauge, 373–374, 376
compressed-air test, 46
compression, 370–372
compression fittings, 13
compression tanks, 20–21,
26, 27
compressors
centrifugal, 429–430
contactor for, 498
control box on, 495–497
defined, 424
disconnecting, 435
dual, 486
and evacuated refrigerant, 465
function of, 424
for heat pumps, 490
hermetic, 429–430, 490
internal devices for, 434–435
knocking in, 465
open-type, 429
protection from short-cycling,
500
and pumping down refrigerant,
464
reciprocating, 424–425,
495–496
for refrigeration dehumidifiers,
542
replacement of, 435
rotary, 427–428
scroll, 426, 497
semihermetic, 430
symptoms of freezing in, 431
symptoms of improper wiring of,
431, 432
symptoms of overheating in, 432
symptoms of problems with
valves in, 462
symptoms of tightness in, 432,
433
troubleshooting problems with,
430–434, 517–518, 544
types of, 424–430
concrete work, 34–35, 36
condensation
and heat sink, 473
latent heat of, 362, 363
in roof ventilators, 299–300
condensation drain line, 509
condensation gutters, 299–300
condenser coils, 403
condensers
air-cooled, 439, 443
in central cooling package, 414,
417
common operating problems in,
445
defined, 439
evaporative, 441–442, 445
maintenance of, 442–443
shell-and-coil construction for,
441, 444
in steam cooling systems,
409–410
symptoms of problems with,
433, 445, 462, 517
types of, 439, 440, 441, 442,
443
water-cooled, 441, 444652 Index
contactor, 498
control box
capacitors in, 498
compressor contactor for, 498
defrost control board in,
499–500
for heat pumps, 494–499
on reciprocating compressor,
495–496
relays in, 499
on scroll compressor, 497
three-phase unit, 498
control circuit, 257, 529
convection, 71
convection loss, 1
convector capacities, 104–105
convector coils, 412
convectors
access door for, 101, 102
basic description of, 100
checking wiring in, 107
cleaning heating element of, 101,
102
determining capacities of,
104–105
heating element in, 101, 102
hydronic fan, 106–107
picture of, 101
piping connections for, 101,
103–105
rating of, 101
types of, 100
converter-type heater applications,
207
cooling coils, 447
in central cooling packages, 414
in gas absorption refrigeration
cooling, 404–405
for refrigeration dehumidifiers,
541, 542
symptoms of problems with, 462
in warm-air heating systems,
417–418, 419
cooling control circuits, 459, 460,
461
cooling cycle, in heat pumps, 473,
474, 491–493, 494, 511
cooling loads, 379–383, 395–397
cooling methods
absorption refrigeration, 398
cold-water coil, 401
evaporative, 398–400
gas absorption refrigeration,
403–408
gas compression refrigeration,
401
list of, 397
mechanical refrigeration cycle,
401–403
with steam, 398, 408–410
thermoelectric refrigeration,
397–398, 408
cooling systems
for hydronic radiant floor
heating systems, 68–69
working with heating system,
418–419
cooling tower fans, 348
cooling with steam, 398,
408–410
copper heating elements, 111–112,
114
copper tubing
bending, 9
cause of leaks in, 9
coil lengths of, 9–10
determining proper size of, 9
fittings for, 10–11
for indirect water heaters,
185–188
inside diameters (ID) of, 8, 9
in radiant floor heating systems,
8–10
spacing between, 10
straightening, 9
Type L, 8–9
corrosion, in water heater storage
tanks, 193
counterflow spiral tube coil
pattern, 41, 42
coupling systems, 482–484
crack method, 392
crankcase heaters, 503, 505
crimping fittings, 13Index 653
cross-linked polyethylene (PEX)
tubing, 11–14, 44–48
cubic feet per minute (cfm), 320,
322, 323–326
D
dampers, 153–155
in air-conditioning systems,
531–532
butterfly, 306–307
controlling, 304
in dehumidifier, 540
for fans, 333
in gas absorption refrigeration
units, 407–408
louver, 305
in modified fireplace, 156
in roof ventilators, 296
sliding cone, 306
sliding sleeve, 306
and stiffener angles, 303
symptoms of problems with,
170
types of, 305
for ventilators, 304–307
decoiler bending device, 9
defrost cycle
for dehumidifiers, 543
in heat pumps, 473, 475–476
defrost systems, 499–500
defrost thermostat, 499
defrost timer, 511
dehumidification, 365, 537
dehumidifiers
absorption, 538–540
air washers as, 571–572,
573
defined, 521
defrost cycle for, 542–543
and ice formation, 542–543
liquid-absorbent, 540
locating, 542
maintenance of, 542–543
refrigeration, 541–543
rotating-bed, 538, 539
spray, 541
stationary-bed, 538–540
troubleshooting problems in,
543–545
types of, 537–538
dehydrators, 457, 458
demand-frost controls, 499
depressurization, 281
desuperheat, 486
desuperheaters, 494
dew point, 364
dew-point thermostats, 541
dimmer switches, 57
dining rooms, fresh air
requirements for, 288, 384
dip tubes, 194–196, 230–231,
234, 243
direct-connected fans, 333
direct-driven fans, 344, 358
direct-expansion coils, 447
direct-fired water heaters, 180
direct-type pool heaters, 251,
255
discharge valves, 433, 436
disconnect switch, 23, 501
distribution manifold, 17
domestic water heaters, 179
double delta burner, 211
double-pipe condensers, 441, 444
double serpentine coil pattern, 41,
42
double-venting, 98
downdrafts, 168–169, 170,
237–238
downward ventilation, 311
draft hoods, 228–229, 272
dry air filters, 574
dry-bulb temperature, 365–367,
373, 398, 400
dryers, 457, 458, 503
dry installations, 6, 34, 39–40
dual capacitor, 498
dual compressors, 486
dual-fuel heat pumps, 486
dual-source heat pumps, 486
ductless heat pumps, 487
ductless split system, 420
ducts, figuring proper length for,
327–328654 Index
E
effective temperature, 377
ejectors, 409–410
electrical shock
from electric baseboard heaters,
124
and electric cable installations,
65
from heat pumps, 512, 517
from pool heaters, 273, 278
risk during electrical
installations, 58
electric baseboard heaters,
119–120
continuity of grounding in,
126–127
heating element in, 120–121
installing, 124–127, 128, 129,
130
preventing electrical shock from,
124
supply voltage of, 124, 125
temperature-limit switch in, 121,
124
thermostats for, 121, 123
time-delay relay in, 121
electric boilers, 7
electric cable, 65, 68
electric furnace cabinet, 67
electric motors, for mechanical
refrigeration equipment,
435–437
electric pool heaters, 260–263
electric radiant floor heating
systems
automatic controls of, 54–57
eliminating potential health risks
from, 52
floor sensors for, 56
ground fault circuit interrupter
for, 57
installation of electric cable for,
65
installation of heating mats for,
58–65
servicing and maintaining, 67
system components of, 52–57
troubleshooting problems in,
67–68
electric water heaters, 227,
240–244
electromagnetic fields, eliminating
potential health risks from,
52
electronic air cleaners
airflow through, 564
air volume adjustment for, 564
automatic controls for, 554–555
cabinet-model, 563–564
charged-media, 549–550
checking performance of, 563
clogged-filter indicator for,
556–557, 558
control panels for, 563–564
filters for, 565, 567
function of, 547
independent cabinet units, 549,
555–556
in-place water-wash controls for,
561–563
installation of, 564
locations of, 547–548
maintenance of, 565, 567
multiposition, 549, 550, 551
on-off control of, 559–561
operating, 563–564
performance lights for, 557–559,
560, 569–570
replacing ionizing wires in,
568–569, 570
return grille, 548–549, 552–553,
554, 565, 566, 569, 570
sail switch for, 559–561
system/blower controls for, 563
troubleshooting problems in,
569–571
two-stage, 553–554, 556
wiring of, 564–565
electronic cells, 567, 568–569,
571
Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER),
424, 488
energy recovery ventilators
(ERVs), 358Index 655
Energy Star Rating, 488
engine rooms, fresh air
requirements for, 288
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 483
equivalent square feet of direction
radiation (EDR), 104
evacuating the system, 464–465
evaporation, latent heat of, 363
evaporation loss, 1
evaporative condensers, 441–442,
445
evaporative cooling, 398–400, 419
evaporator coils, 402, 404, 446
controlling flow of refrigerant to,
450–452
in warm-air heating systems,
417–418, 419
evaporator pads, 525
evaporators, 446–448, 452, 455,
456
exhaust fans, 344, 345, 348,
355–356
exhaust hoods, 332, 355
expansion devices, 449–454
expansion joints, 114, 115
expansion tank, 19, 26, 27
expansion valves
automatic, 449–450
and evaporators, 452
symptoms of problems with,
433, 434, 456
thermostatic (TXV), 450–453,
493–494
exposed radiators, 72
F
factory buildings, fresh air
requirements for, 288, 384
fan coils, 420–421
fans
air intakes for, 344, 346
ampere ratings for, 334–337
applications of, 347–348
for attic ventilation, 348–354
available line voltage of, 342
axial-flow, 318
basic laws of, 319–321
belt-drive arrangement in, 333
belt-driven, 341, 343
centrifugal, 318
circulating, 348
codes and standards for, 315
controlling air volume of, 347
covering air intake of, 326–327
decreasing noise of, 347
determining air intake of, 326
determining cubic feet per
minute (cfm) of, 320,
323–326
direct-connected, 333
direct-driven, 344
and duct systems, 344
exhaust, 348, 355–356
friction losses in, 327
furnace blowers, 319
general ventilation from, 322
for heat pumps, 499
horsepower input of, 316
inlet area of, 316
inspection of, 346–347
installation of, 344–347
kitchen, 348
for local ventilation systems,
328–331
maximum tolerable noise level
of, 342
mechanical efficiency (ME) of,
319
minimum fan capacity (cfm) of,
343
motors for, 333–341
mounting arrangement of, 342
outlet area of, 316
overload relay heaters for, 337
parallel operation of, 321
performance curves for, 322
propeller, 318, 341
quantifying qualities of, 316–317
screen efficiency of, 326–327
selection of, 333, 341–344
series operation of, 321
static pressure of, 327–328,
341–342656 Index
fans (continued)
symptoms of problems with,
514, 545
temperature of ambient air in, 342
terms and definitions dealing
with, 315–317
troubleshooting problems with,
337–341
tubeaxial, 318
types of, 317–318
unitary system, 348
in unit heaters, 139–140
vaneaxial, 318
for ventilating kitchens, 355
for ventilation systems, 287
for water heater venting systems,
227–228
for whole-house ventilation,
356–359
fan ventilators, 294–295
Federal Clean Air Act, 513
feed water pressure regulator, 22, 23
felt sleeves, 114, 115, 116
fill valves, 20–21
filter dryers, 503
filters
in air-conditioning equipment,
375–376
air washers as, 571–572, 573
for electronic air cleaners, 565,
567
See also air filters
fin-and-tube baseboard heaters, 101
design features of, 108, 110
expansion of heating elements in,
113–114
heating element in, 108, 111
integral, 112–113
keeping enclosure surface
temperature down in, 119
metals used for, 111–112
separate, 108, 110–112
fireboxes, 150–151, 156, 160, 162
fireman switch, 257
fireplaces
ash dump in, 152
ashpit in, 152
chimneys for (see chimneys)
cleanout door in, 152
components of, 146, 149–150
construction details of, 149–150
dampers for, 153–155
dimensions of, 146–149
elevation of, 146
firebox in, 150–151
freestanding, 157–158, 160, 161
hearth of, 148, 149, 151
importance of well-designed
chimney to, 162
lintel in, 151
location of, 145
mantel in, 151
modified, 156–157, 158
Rumford, 158, 160, 162, 163
smoke chamber of, 150, 152
troubleshooting problems in,
170
fittings
for copper tubing, 10
for cross-linked polyethylene
(PEX) tubing, 13
used in hydronic radiant heating
systems, 9
for water storage tanks, 194,
195
flexible ducts, 420–421
float valves, 453–454, 525
float vent, 19
floor covering materials, 40–41
floor panel heating systems, 2, 3.
See also hydronic radiant
floor heating systems
floor sensors, 56–57
flow check valves, 19
flow-control valves, 19, 20–21, 22
flow rate, 9
flow switch, 257
flue effect, 284–285
flue gases, 227, 229
flue liner, 165, 166
flues
backdraft diverter in, 229
connecting to chimney, 239
construction of, 167Index 657
function of, 165
for gas-fired water heaters,
228–229
induced draft in, 285, 286
placement in automatic storage
heaters, 181, 182, 183
for pool heater ventilation, 272
serving two fireplaces, 166, 167
and smoke pipes, 178
symptoms of clogging in, 170,
233, 234, 235, 236
in water heaters, 183–184
fluid dynamics, 319–321
fly screening, 352, 354
forced-air cooling, 68–69
forced-air unit heaters, 135
formulas
for air change rate, 386
for air supplied per minute, 385
for calculating heat gain, 394
for calculating heat leakage, 387
for change in watt output, 125
for compression of air, 371–372
for determining air intake, 326
for determining cubic feet per
minute (cfm) of fans, 320,
323, 325
for determining heat gain from
solar radiation, 387, 388,
389–391
for determining rate of flow, 285
for equivalent square feet of
direct radiation (EDR), 104
for fan air velocity, 317
for fan tip speed, 317
for fan velocity pressure (VP), 317
for measuring fan power,
320–321
for mechanical efficiency (ME),
316
for relative humidity, 363
for relative radiating surface, 77
rpm ratio, 320
for static pressure, 330–331
for theoretical draft of chimneys,
164
for total heating load, 26
Franklin stoves, 175, 176, 177
freestanding fireplaces, 157–158,
160, 161
Freon. See refrigerants
fresh air, requirements for,
287–289, 384–385
friction loss, 9
fuel pumps, 277
furnace plenums, 530, 531
furnaces
air filters in, 572, 573, 574, 575
capture velocities for, 329
humidistat in, 526–527, 528
steam humidifiers in, 525
used for heat pump, 486
fuses, blown, 242, 278, 340, 514,
517
G
galvanizing plants, fresh air
requirements for, 288, 384
garages
fresh air requirements for, 288,
384
placement of ventilators for,
308–309
ventilation of, 310–311
gas absorption refrigeration,
403–408
gas burners
automatic pilot valves on, 212,
213–214, 215, 216, 217
gas cocks for, 214, 217
for gas-fired pool heater, 258
in gas-fired water heaters, 210,
211
lighting pilot of, 223, 224–225
shutoff device for, 216, 220
symptoms of problems with,
233, 234, 235, 274, 276
types of, 211
gas cocks, 214, 217
for lighting pilot, 223, 224–225
symptoms of problems with,
235, 274
gas compression refrigeration,
401658 Index
gas engines, 437
gases, compression of, 370–371
gas-fired boilers, 6
gas-fired heat pumps, 485–486
gas-fired pool heaters, 255–259,
272, 274–276
gas-fired unit heaters, 140–141,
142–143
gas-fired water heaters
automatic controls on, 210–220
automatic gas shutoff device for,
216, 220
automatic pilot valve on, 212,
213–214, 215, 216, 217
burners for, 210, 211
combination gas valves for,
221–225, 226
draft hoods for, 228–229
gas cocks for, 214
gas supply line to, 229
general description of, 209
installation and operation of,
225–229
location of, 226
placement of flues in, 181, 182,
183
pressure regulators for, 214–215,
217–219
pressure relief valve for, 220
safety controls for, 215–220
slow-recovery, 189
storage capacity of, 209
temperature relief valve for, 216,
219
thermostatic valves for, 212, 213
troubleshooting problems in,
233–237
venting regulations for, 226–227
venting systems for, 227–229
gaskets, 80–84, 229
gas meters, 229
gas-pressure regulators, 257
gas ranges, 172
gas shutoff valves, 258
gas supply lines, 229, 232, 236,
275
gas valve regulators, 276
gate valves, 19, 21
gauge manifold, 503, 506
gauge pressure, 370
general ventilation, 322
geothermal heat pump, 7,
481–483
globe valves, 19, 21
gravity air convectors, 101, 103,
104–105
gravity ventilators, 306, 307
ground fault circuit interrupter
(GFCI), 56, 57
ground-source coupling system,
482–483
ground-source heat pumps, 477,
481–483, 486
H
headers, 258
hearths, 148, 149, 151
heat
external sources of, 386–392
internal sources of, 392–393
heat-emitting units
convectors, 100–107
list of, 71
output of, 71
radiators (see radiators)
selection of, 71
heat-exchanger pool heaters,
263–264, 265
heat exchangers
air-to-air, 356, 358
in central cooling package, 414
in gas absorption refrigeration
units, 405
for gas-fired pool heater, 258
for ground-source coupling
systems, 482
liquid-to-air, 418
maintaining constant flow of
water through, 257
piping connections for, 207
in pool heaters, 255
in radiant heating systems, 27
temperature-control aquastats
for, 263, 265Index 659
heat gain
estimating, 379–383
from infiltration and ventilation,
388, 392, 394
from occupants of conditioned
spaces, 393
from solar radiation, 387–388,
389–391
total instantaneous, 388
heating coils
for manual water heaters, 245
patterns of, 41–43
testing of, 46–48
used in hydronic radiant floor
heating systems, 41–43
in wall panel, 5
heating cycle, in heat pumps,
471–473, 510–511
heating elements
aluminum, 111–112
copper, 111–112
in electric baseboard heaters,
120–121
in electric water heaters, 240,
242
expansion of, 113–114
in fin-and-tube baseboard
heaters, 108, 111
for indirect water heaters,
185–188
for unit heaters, 130–131
in steam humidifier, 525
steel, 111–112
symptoms of problems with,
243
heating loads
calculating, 26
sizing, 396–397
heating mats
checking ohm resistance of, 58
detecting break in cable in, 67
for electric radiation floor
heating systems, 53–54
installing in joist cavities under
subfloors, 61–65
installing over subfloors, 58–61
insulation of, 65, 66
insulation test for, 58
manufacturers of, 53–54
ordering, 53
repair kits for, 67
wiring of, 62
Heating Season Performance
Factor (HSPF), 488
heating systems
in ceiling panels, 2–5
electric radiant floor (see electric
radiant floor heating
systems)
in floor panels (see floor panel
heating systems; hydronic
radiant floor heating
systems)
heat-emitting units used in (see
heat-emitting units)
hydronic (see hydronic radiant
heating systems)
most popular installation
method for, 2
radiator efficiency of, 74, 76–77
steam (see steam heating
systems)
supplementary radiant, 476–477
for swimming pools (see pool
heaters)
temperature drop in, 44–45
values of materials that insulate,
41
wall panel, 5
warm-air, 417–418, 419
heat leakage, 386–387
heat loss, 1
heat output, 77–78
heat pump pool heaters, 267
heat pumps
accumulators for, 501
adjusting refrigerant charge in,
513
air handler in, 517
air-handler section of, 490, 491
air-source, 476–480
anti-restart timer for, 501
capacitors for, 498
checking operation of, 509–510660 Index
heat pumps (continued)
coding cycle of, 511
compressor contactor for, 498
compressor section of, 490
compressors in, 430
control box on, 495
controls for, 490
cooling cycle in, 473, 474
crankcase heater for, 503, 505
defrost cycle in, 473, 475–476
defrost system for, 499–500
desuperheaters for, 494
disconnect switch for, 501
dual-fuel, 486
dual-source, 486
ductless, 487
efficiency ratings for, 487–488
fan motors for, 499
filter dryer for, 503
function of, 471
gas-fired, 485–486
gauge manifold for, 503, 506
ground-source, 481–483
heat exchanger for, 482
heating cycle of, 471–473,
510–511
and heat sink, 473
and heat transfer, 473
high-pressure switches for,
500–501
for hydronic radiant floor
heating systems, 7
identifying problems with
compressors in, 517–518
indoor coil and blower for, 491
installation of, 507, 509–510
lockout relay for, 501
low-pressure switches for, 501
muffler for, 505
operating instructions for,
510–511
operating principles of, 471–476
outdoor, 489
packaged, 478, 480
performance ratings for,
487–488
refrigerant lines of, 490, 491
relays for, 499
for residential heating and cooling
systems, 477–478, 479
reverse-cycle conditioning, 471
reversing valve and solenoid in,
491–493, 494
room thermostats for, 501–502
service valves for, 502–503,
504–505
sizing, 505, 507
split-system, 477–478, 479, 513
for supplementary heat, 502
supplementary radiant heating
systems for, 476–477
system components of, 488–490
troubleshooting problems in,
514–517
types of, 476
water-source, 483–485
heat pump water heaters, 190–191
heat recovery ventilators (HRVs),
356, 358
heat removal method, 325–326
heat sink, 473, 483
heat transfer, 1
from heat pumps, 473
of heat pump water heaters,
190–191
heat transfer coils, 185
heat transference, 481
heat-transfer plates, 38, 40
heat transfer surface, 183–184
heat transmission, coefficient of,
387
hermetic compressors, 429–430,
435, 490
troubleshooting problems with,
517–518
high-limit switches, 257, 277
high-pressure gauge, 373, 376
high-pressure switches, for heat
pumps, 500–501
horizontal draft hood, 228
horizontal slot port cast burner,
211
hospitals, fresh air requirements
for, 288, 385Index 661
hot-water baseboard heaters
figures of, 109–110
temperature types of, 119
hot-water heating systems. See
hydronic radiant heating
systems
hot-water radiators, 73
locating vents for, 96
water temperature in, 77
hot water safety relief valve, 19
hot-water space-heating boilers,
186
hot-water supply lines
circulation in, 230
for manual water heaters, 246
vacuum relief valve for, 206, 208
for water heaters, 196
humidification, 364
humidifiers, 364
air washers as, 571–572, 573
atomizing, 522–523
automatic controls for, 526–529
automatic flush system for,
534–535
best location for, 531, 532,
533
bypass, 525–526
defined, 521
draining reservoir of, 534
in gas absorption refrigeration
units, 407
guiding airflow to, 529, 530
humidistats for, 526–529
installation of, 529–534
maintenance of, 534–535
pan, 523–524
placing base of, 533
power, 526
spray, 522–523
stationary-pad, 524
steam, 524–525
troubleshooting problems with,
535–537
types of, 522
ultrasonic, 523
and wet-bulb depression, 367
humidistats, 349
combined with thermostat,
554–555, 557
control circuits for, 529, 530
defined, 521
for electronic air cleaners,
554–555, 557
figure of, 528
furnace-mounted, 526–527, 528
in pan humidifiers, 524
programmable, 529
for refrigeration dehumidifiers,
542
settings on, 542
symptoms of problems with,
536, 537, 544
wall-mounted, 528
humidity
absolute, 363
controlling, 364–365
defined, 521
description of, 362
dew point, 364
and drying effect of air, 363–364
measuring, 373
problems of excessive levels of,
520
relative, 363, 519–520
specific, 363
and wet-bulb readings, 366
hybrid heating and cooling
systems, 418–421
hydraulic knock, 434
hydraulic pressure test, 46
hydronic fan convectors, 106–107
hydronic forced-air systems, 418
hydronic radiant floor heating
systems
air venting requirements for, 32,
33
basic description of, 6
boilers used in, 6–7
coils and coil patterns for, 41–43
components of, 6
constant water circulation in,
30–32
construction details for, 33–40
control system for, 25662 Index
hydronic radiant floor heating
systems (continued)
cooling for, 68–69
designing, 28–41
design procedures for, 32–33
floor coverings for, 40–41
heat pumps used in, 7
installing, 44–48
manifolds for, 14–17
for melting ice and snow, 51–52
servicing and maintaining, 49
sizing calculations for, 32–33
testing of heating panels in, 46–48
troubleshooting problems in,
49–52
tubing used in, 7–14
typical size of tubing in, 45
valves in, 17–25
water heaters used in, 7
hydronic radiant heating systems
air separator for, 26–27
applying central air-conditioning
to, 411–412, 413
automatic controls for, 27–28
baseboard heaters, 109–110, 119
circulator pump for, 26
convector piping connections in,
103
and ductless split systems, 420
and evaporative coolers, 419
expansion tank for, 26, 27
with fan coil and flexible ducts,
420–421
fittings used in, 10–11
heat exchanger for, 27
kickspace heaters, 127–129, 131
for melting ice and snow, 51–52
piping diagram of, 20–21
recessed radiation in, 129,
132–133
and residential chillers with
ceiling-mounted panels, 421
thermostat for, 27–28, 29, 30
in unit heaters, 137, 138
water chiller for, 410–411, 412
working with cooling systems,
418–419
I
ice-melting systems, 51–52
ignition systems, for pool heaters,
256
impellers
function of, 317–318
symptoms of problems with, 278
indirect-type pool heaters, 251,
255
electric-fired, 261, 262–263
gas-fired, 255–256
oil-fired, 259–260, 261
indirect water heaters
advantages of, 188–189
with built-in coils, 188
heat source for, 185–186
versus hot-water space-heating
boilers, 186
piping connections for, 207
storage capacity of, 188
water circulation in, 188
indoor design conditions, 383
induced draft, 285, 286
induction
caused by wind, 297
defined, 282
in revolving ventilators, 290–291
in siphonage ventilators, 294
from wind, 282–285
induction motors, 435–436
industrial buildings, ventilation
for, 313
infiltration, 309–310
calculating heat gain from, 394
defined, 392
inlet air openings
for attic fans, 350
in gas absorption refrigeration
units, 406–407
general rules for, 312
for ventilators, 298–299
inline thermometers, 23
inspections
of air filters, 573–574
of cross-linked polyethylene
(PEX) tubing, 44
of fans, 346–347Index 663
installations
of air filters, 575
of baseboard heaters, 113–119
of bypass humidifiers, 532–534
dry, 6, 34, 39–40
of electric baseboard heaters,
124–127, 128, 129, 130
of electric cable, 65
of electronic air cleaners, 564
of fans, 344–347
of gas-fired water heaters,
225–229
of heating mats, 58–65
of heat pumps, 507, 509–510
of humidifiers, 529–534
of hydronic radiant floor heating
systems, 44–48
of pool heaters, 271–273
of pressure relief valves,
201–202
of radiators, 79–86
of relief valves, 201–202
of stoves, 177–178
of temperature relief valves,
201–202, 203–204
of wall panel heating systems, 5
of water heaters, 232–233
wet, 6, 33–35, 36
instantaneous water heaters,
184–185
insulating values, for materials
covering radiant heating
systems, 41
insulation, of heating mats, 58,
65, 66
intermittent ignition systems, 256
ionizing wires, 568–569
isolation valve, 22–23
J
jig, 9
joining key, 82, 83, 84
joist cavities
codes regulating notching of, 62
installing electric heating mats
in, 61–65
sealing ends of, 65
K
kickspace heaters, 127–129, 131
kitchen fans, 348, 355–356
kitchens
capture velocities for ranges in,
329
fresh air requirements for, 288,
385
ventilation of, 311–312
L
large-volume water heaters,
182–183
latent heat, 368
gain of, 379
removal of, 541
leaks
air, 309–310
in copper tubing, 9
locating source of, 46
testing for in heating coils, 46
lintels, 151
liquid-absorbent dehumidifiers,
540
liquid heat exchanger, 405
liquid line, 455
local ventilation, 322, 328–331
exhaust hoods for, 332
lockout relay, 501
loop continuity, 45
loops, 7
loose fill insulation, 40
louver dampers, 305
louvers
for attic fans, 352–353
on evaporative coolers, 398
low-pressure switches, 501
M
magnet valves, symptoms of
problems in, 236
main gas–pressure regulator,
214–215, 217–219
maintenance
of air-conditioning equipment,
460, 463–470664 Index
maintenance (continued)
of air filters, 575
of baseboard heaters, 119
of condensers, 442–443
of dehumidifiers, 542–543
of electronic air cleaners, 565, 567
of humidifiers, 534–535
of hydronic radiant floor heating
systems, 49
of mechanical refrigeration
equipment, 460, 463–470
of pool heaters, 273–274
of thermostats, 511–513
of water heaters, 232–233
manifold balancing valves, 17
manifolds
combinations of, 15
diagrams of, 14–15
function of, 14
for gas-fired pool heater, 258
gauge, 503, 506
in hydronic radiant floor heating
system installations, 47–48
measuring temperature of water
in, 17
preassembled, 16
return,
supply, 16–17
types of, 14
valves for, 16–17
manifold station, 16
mantels, 151
manual gas valves, 214, 217, 223,
224–225
manual water heaters, 245–246
masonry filler, 40
masonry fireplaces, 149–150
mat-type filters, 575
mean temperature difference, 296
mechanical efficiency (ME), 316,
319
mechanical refrigeration cycle,
401–403
mechanical refrigeration
equipment
adding refrigerant to, 465–467
automatic controls for, 459
capillary tubes in, 454
components of, 423
compressors in (see compressors)
condensers for, 439–446
electric motors for, 435–437
evacuating, 464–465
evaporators for, 446–448
float valves, 452–454
gas engines for, 437
maintenance of, 460, 463–470
operating pressure in, 449
pressure-limiting controls in,
457–458
pumping down, 464
purging of, 464
receivers for, 443, 447
refrigerant for, 448–449
refrigerant piping in, 454–457
water-regulating valves in,
458–459
mechanical ventilation, 282, 287
media pads, 549–550
metal chimneys, 169, 171, 173
metal tubing, bending, 9
milled slot port cast burner, 211
millivolt ignition systems, 256,
257
mills, fresh air requirements for,
385
mixing valves
automatic, 24
locations of, 19, 20–21
manual, 24
in piping diagram, 20–21
in radiant heating systems, 23–24
symptoms of problems with, 50
thermostatic, 23
modified fireplaces, 156–157,
158
motorized zone valve, 24–25
motor overload protector,
symptoms of problems with,
518
motors, for fans, 333–341
motor shafts, symptoms of
problems with, 278
mufflers, 505
multicoil water heaters, 182–183
multiflue water heaters, 183–184Index 665
multimeters, testing heating mats
with, 58
multiple stamped ribbon ports, 211
multiple-story buildings, use of
ceiling panel heating system
in, 3–4
N
National Electrical Manufacturer’s
Association (NEMA), 333
natural ventilation, 282, 289
nipples
for radiator sections, 80–84
smooth beveled, 85–86
nonadjustable air valves, 98
nonbarrier tubing, 11
nonprogrammable thermostats, 56
O
office buildings
ceiling panel heating system in, 5
fresh air requirements for, 288,
385
ohm resistance, checking, 58
oil burners, symptoms of problems
with, 277–278
oil-fired boilers
hydronic, 186, 187
use of, 6
oil-fired pool heaters, 259–260,
261, 277
oil-fired unit heaters, 141, 144
oil-fired water heaters, 182, 183,
238–240, 241
open-type compressors, 429
outdoor design conditions, 383
outlet velocity (OV), 316
overflow prevention control,
symptoms of problems with,
544
overload relay heaters, 337
oxygen barrier tubing (BPEX), 11
oxygen-induced damage, 191–192
P
packaged heat pumps, 478, 480
packed-type radiator valve, 86, 87
packless radiator valve, 86, 88
pan humidifiers, 523–524
passive ventilation, 282
performance curves, 322
PEX tubing, 11–14, 44–48
pilot gas–pressure regulator,
214–215, 217–219
pilot generators, for gas-fired pool
heater, 257
pilot lights
in millivolt ignition systems,
256
symptoms of problems with,
233, 234, 235, 236, 274,
275
pilot valves, symptoms of
problems with, 236, 515, 516
pipe bend support, 47
pipes
for air-conditioning refrigerant,
454–457
wrapping with felt sleeve, 114,
115, 116
See also tubing
piping connections
for convectors, 101, 103–105
for heat exchangers, 207
for indirect water heaters, 207
in mechanical refrigeration
equipment, 454–457
for radiators, 92–93, 95–97
for refrigerants, 454–457
for unit heaters, 135–138, 139,
140, 141
piston compressor, 424–425
plastic pipe. See cross-linked
polyethylene (PEX) tubing
plenum adapter kit, 531
point-of-use water heaters,
184–185
pool filters, 278
pool heaters
aquastat in, 258
basic systems of, 249–251
classifying, 251, 255
diagrams of system of, 252–254
direct-type, 251, 255
electric, 260–263666 Index
pool heaters (continued)
and electrical shock, 278–279
finding required energy rating
for, 270–271
gas burner assembly in, 258
gas-fired, 255–259, 274–276
header for, 258
heat-exchanger, 263–264, 265
heat exchanger for, 258
heat pump, 267
ignition systems for, 256
indirect-type, 251, 255
installing, 271–273
manifold for, 258
oil-fired, 259–260, 261
operating principles of, 251
repair and maintenance of,
273–274
sizing, 267–271
solar, 264, 266–267
standard set of clearances for,
272
troubleshooting problems in,
274–279
wiring diagram for, 259
pool pumps, 278
port cast burners, 211
power humidifiers, 526
power venting, 227–228
prefabricated roof curbs, 303–304
prefilter, 567
pressure gauges, 373–374, 376,
377
for heating coils, 46
location in hydronic heating
system, 19
pressure-limiting controls,
457–458
pressure-reducing valves, 25
pressure regulators
for gas-fired water heaters,
214–215, 217–219
symptoms of problems with, 234
pressure relief valves
components of, 199–200, 203,
204
figures of, 200, 201
functions of, 25, 198–199
for gas-fired water heaters, 220
importance of, 198
installation of, 201–202
location in hydronic heating
system, 19
for manual water heater, 245
rated capacity of, 204, 205
safety requirements for, 199
symptom of problems with, 244
temperature-sensing element in,
199–200, 201–202
pressure switches, 257
symptoms of problems with,
274, 275, 276
programmable thermostat, 55–56
propeller fans, 318, 341, 342
psychrometers, 373
pumping down, 464
pump rooms, 288, 385
pumps
air-source heat, 476–480, 486
aquastats for, 230
circulating (see circulating
pumps)
dual-fuel, 486
ductless, 487
fuel, 277
gas-fired, 485–486
heat (see heat pumps)
heat transfer from, 473
for pools, 278
recirculating, 541
for spray dehumidifiers, 541
water, 190
purge valves, 19, 25
purging, 464
push nipples, 85–86
Q
quick-recovery heaters, 189
quick vents, 98
R
radiant heat, from fireplaces, 158
radiant panel heating systemsIndex 667
ceiling panel systems, 2–5
electric floor systems (see electric
radiant floor heating
systems)
floor panel systems (see floor
panel heating systems)
heat transfer in, 1
hydronic floor heating (see
hydronic radiant floor
heating systems)
principles of, 1–2
typical control system for, 25
wall panel systems, 5
radiation
defined, 71
from fireplaces, 158
recessed, 129, 132–133
radiation heat loss, 1
radiators
automatic air valves in, 100
cast-iron, 72
column-type, 72, 74
effect of paint on efficiency of,
100
exposed, 72
finding square-foot equivalent
direct radiation (EDR) of,
79
heat output from, 77–78
hot-water, 73
installing, 79–86
joining sections of, 79–86
leveling, 76
location of air vents for, 96
manual air valves in, 100
operating efficiency of, 74,
76–77
piping connections for, 92–93,
95–97
ratings for, 74–76
relative radiating surface of, 77
removing air from, 86–92
sizing, 78–79
steam, 72–73
steam traps in, 99
supply and return connections
for, 95
surface area of, 77
test pressure of, 84
troubleshooting problems with,
99–100
tubular, 73, 75–76
two-pipe connections to, 97
types of, 72, 73–74
valves for, 86–92
venting in, 76–77, 93–94, 96,
98–99
venting trapped air in, 98–99
waterways in, 72
radiator sections
checking alignment of, 83, 85
joining, 79
joining of threaded, 80–85
joining with smooth beveled
nipples, 85–86
radiator valves
air valves, 86–92
functions of, 86
packed-type, 86, 87
packless, 86, 88
thermostatic expulsion, 89–90,
92
ranges
capture velocities for, 329
categories of, 171–172
defined, 171
figures of, 176, 178
solid fuels used in, 172
wood-burning, 176
rate of flow, 285
receivers, 443, 447
recessed heaters, 129, 132–134
reciprocating compressors,
424–425
recirculating pumps, 541
recycling heating, 250–251
refrigerant cylinder, 465–467
refrigerants
adding to air-conditioning
equipment, 465–467
adjusting charge in heat pumps,
513
and air-conditioning efficiency,
449668 Index
refrigerants (continued)
automatic expansion valves for,
449–450
charging, 465–467
control devices for, 449
in cooling cycle of heat pumps,
473, 474
in crankcase heater, 503, 505
defined, 448
evaporation of, 447
in evaporative condensers, 442
and float valves, 453–454
Freon, 448
in gas absorption refrigeration
cooling, 403–404, 405–406
and heat pumps, 471–473, 491
maintaining line connections of,
512
measuring, 513
operating pressure in, 449
piping for, 454–457
properties of, 448
pumping down, 464
in refrigeration dehumidifiers,
542
removing, 464–465
reversing valve for, 491–493,
494
in scroll compressor, 426
symptoms of overcharged, 463
symptoms of problems with,
433, 434, 456, 457, 462,
515
symptoms of shortage of, 462
thermostatic expansion valves
for, 450–453
in water-cooled condensers, 441
refrigeration dehumidifiers,
541–543
relative humidity, 363, 519
defined, 521
desirable levels of, 520
measuring, 373
recommended for airconditioning systems, 378
reducing, 520–521
relative radiating surface, 77
relay contactor, 57
relays, 499, 501
relief valves
components of, 199–200, 203,
204
in domestic hot-water heaters,
197–206
functions of, 198–199
in hot-water discharge line, 202
importance of, 198
installation of, 201–202
in piping diagram, 20–21
safety requirements for, 199
symptoms of problems with, 237
temperature-sensing element in,
199–200, 201–202
vacuum, 206, 208
See also pressure relief valves;
temperature relief valves
repair coupling, 9
repair kits, for heating mats, 67
resistance tests, 58
resistors, 120, 121
restaurants, fresh air requirements
for, 288, 385
return grille electronic air cleaners,
548–549, 552–553, 554, 565,
566, 569, 570
return line, in radiant heating
systems, 7
return manifold, 16
reverse-cycle conditioning, 471
reversing valve, 473
four-way, 492–493
in heat pumps, 491–493
revolving ventilators, 290–291
ridge ventilators, 293–294
roof curbs, 303–304
roof ventilators
angle rings for, 302
base of, 289, 299–301
components of, 295–296
connection to roof, 299–301
dampers for, 304–307
fan, 294–295
function of, 289
inlet air openings in, 298–299Index 669
prefabricated roof curbs for,
303–304
purpose of, 298
revolving, 290–291
ridge, 293–294
siphonage, 294
stationary-head, 290
stiffener angles for, 303
turbine, 291–293
types of, 289–290
room air conditioners, 421, 424
rotary compressors, 427–428
rotating-bed dehumidifiers, 538,
539
rpm ratio, 320
Rumford fireplaces, 158
distinguishing features of, 162
invention of, 160
reducing turbulence in, 162
vertical path of flue in, 163
run capacitor, 498, 518
S
sacrificial anode rod, 193
saddle valves, symptoms of
problems with, 536
safety codes, for water heaters,
230–231
safety controls, for gas-fired water
heaters, 215–220
safety relief valves
components of, 199–200, 203,
204
in domestic hot-water heaters,
197–206
functions of, 198–199
in hot-water discharge line, 202
safety requirements for, 199
temperature-sensing element in,
199–200, 201–202
See also pressure relief valves;
temperature relief valves
safety switches, for gas-fired pool
heater, 257
sail switches, 559–561
sandwich floor construction,
35–36, 37
scale buildup, 191
schools, fresh air requirements for,
288, 385
scroll compressor, 426
Seasonable Energy Efficiency
Ratio (SEER), 424, 488
semihermetic compressors, 430
sensible heat, 368
gains of, 379
removal of, 541
sensor bulbs, 452–453
serpentine coil patterns, 41–43
service check valve, 19
service valves, for heat pumps,
502–503, 504–505
shade factors, 391
sheathed cable, 126


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