كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation - صفحة 2
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 كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation

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عدد المساهمات : 16123
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation    كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأربعاء 10 أبريل 2013, 8:33 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation
Peter Mullinger
Associate Professor, School of Chemical Engineering
University of Adelaide, South Australia
Barrie Jenkins
Consulting Engineer, High Wycombe, Bucks, UK  

كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 I_a_p_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxi
List of Figures xxiii
List of Tables xxxi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What is a furnace? 3
1.1.1 Furnace outline 4
1.1.2 Furnace classification 5
1.1.3 Principle objectives of furnace designers and operators 5
1.2 Where are furnaces used? Brief review of current furnace applications
and technology 7
1.2.1 Ceramics, brick making and pottery 7
1.2.2 Cement and lime 8
1.2.3 Glass making 11
1.2.4 Metal ore smelting 13
1.2.5 Metal refining 16
1.2.6 Flash and fluid bed furnaces 18
1.2.7 Metal physical processing 20
1.2.8 Incinerators and resource recovery furnaces 24
1.2.9 Furnaces with reducing atmospheres 24
1.2.10 Oil refining and petrochemical furnaces 25
1.3 Drivers for improved efficiency 28
1.4 Concluding remarks 29
References 29
Chapter 2 The combustion process 31
2.1 Simple combustion chemistry 32
2.1.1 The complete oxidation of carbon 32
2.1.2 The complete oxidation of hydrogen 32
2.1.3 The incomplete oxidation of carbon 33
2.1.4 The oxidation of carbon monoxide 33
2.2 Combustion calculations 33
2.3 Chemical reaction kinetics 36
2.3.1 Types of reactions 37
2.3.2 Reaction rate theory 38viii Contents
2.3.3 Reaction rate behaviour 40
2.3.4 Burning droplets and particles 43
2.4 The physics of combustion 47
2.4.1 The role of primary air 50
2.4.2 The role of swirl flows 56
2.4.3 Turbulence in jets 57
2.4.4 Secondary flow aerodynamics 59
2.4.5 Effect of excess air on fuel consumption 61
2.4.6 Multiple burner installations 62
Nomenclature 63
References 6
Chapter 3 Fuels for furnaces 67
3.1 Gaseous fuels 69
3.1.1 Properties of natural gas 69
3.1.2 Manufactured gas 69
3.1.3 Wobbe number or index 71
3.1.4 Flammability limits 72
Calculation of the flammable limits for mixtures
of gases 72
Influence of temperature and pressure on the limits 73
3.1.5 Flame radiation from gaseous fuels 75
3.2 Liquid fuels 75
3.3 Solid fuels 77
3.3.1 Ash 79
3.4 Waste fuels 79
3.5 Choice of fuel 80
3.5.1 Furnace performance 81
Heat transfer 81
Furnace atmosphere 83
Flexibility of operation 83
Effect of ash 84
Refractory life 84
Fuel cost and security of supply 85
Fuel handling system capital and running costs 85
3.6 Safety 86
3.7 Emissions 86
Nomenclature 86
References 87
Solid fuel bibliography 88
Chapter 4 An introduction to heat transfer in furnaces 89
4.1 Conduction 90
4.1.1 Steady state conduction 914.1.2 Transient conduction 93
Analytical approach 93
Numerical approach 96
4.2 Convection 100
4.2.1 Dimensional analysis 101
4.2.2 Application to convective heat transfer 102
4.2.3 Evaluating convective heat transfer coefficients 104
4.2.4 High temperature convective heat transfer 108
4.3 Radiation 113
4.3.1 Physical basics of radiative exchange 114
4.3.2 Emissivity and absorptivity 117
4.3.3 View factors 121
Equivalent grey surface 126
4.3.4 Mean beam length 127
4.4 Electrical heating 128
4.4.1 Resistance heating 128
Direct resistance heating 129
Indirect resistance heating 129
4.4.2 Arc heating 129
Electrode devices 130
Electrodeless devices 131
4.4.3 Induction heating 132
4.4.4 Dielectric heating 133
4.4.5 Infrared heating 133
Nomenclature 134
References 136
Appendix 4A Tables of emissivity data 137
Chapter 5 Flames and burners for furnaces 141
5.1 Types of flame 142
5.1.1 Premixed flames 143
5.1.2 Turbulent jet diffusion flames 145
5.1.3 Heterogeneous combustion 145
Atomisation of liquid fuels and pulverisation of coal 146
The importance of drop and particle size 148
5.2 Function of a burner and basics of burner design 152
5.2.1 The essential importance of heat flux profiles 154
5.2.2 Flame stabilisation 155
5.3 Gas burners 158
5.3.1 Premixed burners 158
Effect of excess air (mixture ratio) on flame temperature 160
Radiant wall burners 161
Use of premix burners in low NOx applications 162
Safety issues with premix burners 162
Size limitations 165
Contents ixx Contents
5.3.2 Turbulent jet diffusion burners 165
5.3.3 Precessing jet diffusion burners 167
5.4 Oil burners 168
5.4.1 Turndown 171
5.4.2 Atomisers 172
Pressure jet atomisers 173
Twin fluid atomisers 176
5.5 Pulverised coal burners 179
5.6 Furnace aerodynamics 182
Burner and furnace air flow patterns 184
5.6.1 Single burner systems 184
Package burner installations 185
Rotary kilns and driers, etc. 185
5.6.2 Multiple burner systems 186
5.6.3 Combustion air duct design 188
5.6.4 Common windbox and plenum design 192
5.7 Combustion system scaling 193
5.7.1 Example of combustion system scaling 194
5.8 Furnace noise 196
5.8.1 Combustion roar 198
5.8.2 Nozzle and turbulent jet noise 198
5.8.3 Fan noise 199
5.8.4 Pipe and valve noise 199
5.8.5 Furnace noise attenuation 200
5.8.6 Combustion driven oscillations 201
Nomenclature 204
References 205
Chapter 6 Combustion and heat transfer modelling 209
6.1 Physical modelling 211
6.1.1 Thring-Newby parameter 214
6.1.2 Craya-Curtet parameter 214
6.1.3 Becker throttle factor 215
6.1.4 Curtet number 215
6.1.5 Relationship between scaling parameters 216
6.1.6 Determining the required model flows 216
6.1.7 Applying the scaling parameter 216
6.1.8 Applying a post-measurement correction 217
6.2 Mathematical modelling 217
6.2.1 Simple well-stirred furnace models 219
6.2.2 Long furnace models 227
6.2.3 Two- and three-dimensional zone models 229
6.2.4 Computational fluid dynamics models 233
Gridding of CFD models 235
Convergence of CFD models 237
6.2.5 Particle drag in combustion systems 2376.3 Application of modelling to furnace design 238
Nomenclature 239
References 241
Chapter 7 Fuel handling systems 243
7.1 Gas valve trains 244
7.1.1 Safety shutoff systems 245
Double block and bleed 246
Leak testing and proving 246
7.2 Fuel oil handling systems 246
7.2.1 Storage, pumping and heating 247
7.2.2 Oil valve trains 249
7.3 Pulverised coal handling and firing systems 251
7.3.1 Raw coal bunkers and feeders 252
7.3.2 Coal grinding and drying 253
Coal drying characteristics 253
7.3.3 Coal mills 254
Ball mills 255
Vertical spindle mills 257
High speed mills 258
7.3.4 Coal mill grinding capacity 260
Coal fineness 261
Coal dryness 262
7.3.5 Pulverised coal grinding and firing systems 262
Direct and indirect firing systems 262
Direct firing 263
Semi-direct firing 263
Indirect firing 263
Semi-indirect firing 263
7.3.6 Coal system drying capacity 266
7.3.7 Coal firing system fans 270
7.3.8 Fine coal storage 271
7.3.9 Fine coal feeding and conveying 274
Volumetric feeders 275
Mass flow feeders 276
7.3.10 Pulverised coal conveying 278
7.4 Waste fuel handling 280
7.4.1 Waste gas fuel handling 281
7.4.2 Waste liquid fuel handling 282
7.4.3 Solids waste fuel handling 282
Size distribution 282
7.4.4 Environmental benefits and health hazards of
waste fuel utilisation 283
Nomenclature 284
References 284
Applicable codes and standards 285
Contents xixii Contents
Chapter 8 Furnace control and safety 287
8.1 Process control 288
8.1.1 Basic furnace control strategies 289
Control of product temperature 289
Fuzzy logic and rule-based systems 290
8.2 Furnace instrumentation 290
8.2.1 Temperature measurement 290
8.2.2 Heat input measurement 295
Flow measurement of liquid and gaseous fuels 295
Calorific value measurement 296
Solid fuels 296
8.2.3 Determination of excess air 297
8.3 Flue gas analysis 300
8.3.1 Extractive gas sampling systems and analysers 302
Sample probe installation 302
Cold gas extractive systems 305
Hot wet gas extractive systems 305
Dilution extractive systems 306
8.3.2 In-situ systems 306
Dust monitors 307
Oxygen analysers 308
Cross-duct analysers 309
8.4 Combustion control 312
8.5 Ensuring furnace safety 313
8.5.1 Risk factors in furnace operation 313
8.5.2 Furnace start-up 314
Critical time for ignition during furnace start-up 316
8.5.3 Operation with insufficient combustion air 317
Corrective action for unintentional sub-stoichiometric operation 318
8.5.4 Flame quenching 318
8.5.5 Eliminating ignition sources 319
8.6 Burner management systems 319
8.6.1 Safety requirements for burner management systems 320
8.6.2 False trips 322
8.6.3 Achieving acceptable safety standards with programmable
logic controller burner management systems 323
8.6.4 Choosing an appropriate safety integrity level 324
8.6.5 Determining the safety integrity level of the BMS system 326
8.6.6 Flame detectors 329
Nomenclature 332
References 332
Certification and testing organisations 333
Chapter 9 Furnace efficiency 335
9.1 Furnace performance charts 338
9.2 Mass and energy balances 3419.2.1 On-site measurement 342
Flue gas sampling and analysis 344
Calibration and errors in plant instrumentation 345
9.2.2 Constructing mass and energy balances 346
9.3 Energy conversion 358
9.3.1 Low and high grade heat 360
9.3.2 Exergy and pinch point analysis 362
9.4 Heat recovery equipment 363
9.4.1 Recuperative heat exchangers 364
9.4.2 Regenerative heat exchangers 366
9.4.3 General heat exchanger design procedure 368
9.5 Identifying efficiency improvements 369
Nomenclature 372
References 372
Chapter 10 Emissions and environmental impact 375
10.1 Formation of carbon monoxide 377
10.2 Formation of nitrogen oxides 378
10.2.1 Thermal NO
x formation 379
10.2.2 Fuel NO
x formation 381
10.2.3 Prompt NOx formation 382
10.2.4 NO
x modelling 384
10.3 Formation of sulphur oxides 385
10.4 Formation of intermediate combustion products 386
10.4.1 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 386
10.4.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 386
10.4.3 PCBs, dioxins and furans 387
10.5 Particulate emissions 390
10.5.1 Formation of soot 390
10.5.2 Formation and composition of fuel ash 393
10.5.3 Non-combustible volatile cycles 394
10.6 Environmental control of emissions 396
10.6.1 Prevention and abatement of emissions 397
Pre-flame control 397
In-flame control 399
End-of-pipe control 405
10.6.2 Dispersion modelling 408
References 409
Chapter 11 Furnace construction and materials 413
11.1 Basic performance requirements of the furnace structure 414
11.2 Basic construction methods 415
11.2.1 Brick lining 417
11.2.2 Monolithic linings 419
Castable refractory 419
Contents xiiixiv Contents
Traditional installation of castable refractory 420
Installation of castable refractory by gunning 421
Drying and curing of cast and gunned refractory 423
Mouldable and rammable refractories 424
11.2.3 Furnace steelwork 425
11.2.4 Furnace roof construction 426
11.2.5 Furnace cooling systems 428
11.3 Practical engineering considerations in the use of refractories 431
11.4 Ceramic refractory materials 433
11.4.1 Testing of refractories 434
11.4.2 Properties and uses of refractories 435
Silica and siliceous refractories 435
Alumina and aluminous refractories 435
Chromite/magnesite/alumina refractories 436
Dolomite refractories 437
Zircon and zirconia refractories 437
Carbon refractories 438
Insulating refractories 438
11.5 Heat resisting and refractory metals 438
11.5.1 Effect of elevated temperature on metal properties 439
11.5.2 High temperature alloys 441
Service temperature 442
Intergranular corrosion 442
Proprietary high nickel alloys 443
11.6 Practical engineering considerations in the use of high
temperature metals 443
11.7 Concluding remarks 444
References 445
Selection of relevant standards 445
Advisory organisations 446
Appendix 11A General properties of selected refractory materials 447
Chapter 12 Furnace design methods 455
12.1 Introduction 456
12.1.1 Design constraints 458
12.1.2 Cost of design changes 459
12.2 Conceptual design 459
12.2.1 Process functions 460
Straight-through furnace system 464
Separation furnace system 464
Combining furnace with downstream separation 464
Combining and separation furnace system 464
12.2.2 Defining the physical and chemical changes 464
12.2.3 Preliminary mass and energy balances 46612.2.4 Reliability of available process knowledge 466
Existing processes 467
New processes and pilot plants 467
12.2.5 Effect of upstream and downstream processes 468
12.2.6 Fuel choice 469
Fuel chemical compatibility with the process 470
Heat transfer compatibility with the process 472
12.2.7 Potential for heat recovery and choice of equipment 474
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot
product 475
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot
flue gas 476
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from shell
losses or cooling water 478
Economic considerations 479
12.3 Furnace sizing 479
Slab heating furnace design 487
Oil heating furnace design 489
Aggregate processing furnace 492
12.4 Burner selection 496
12.5 Detailed analysis and validation of the furnace design 500
12.6 Furnace instrumentation and controls 501
Nomenclature 503
References 504
Author index 507
Subject index


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كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation    كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأربعاء 10 أبريل 2013, 8:33 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation
Peter Mullinger
Associate Professor, School of Chemical Engineering
University of Adelaide, South Australia
Barrie Jenkins
Consulting Engineer, High Wycombe, Bucks, UK  

كتاب Industrial and Process Furnaces - Principles, Design and Operation  - صفحة 2 I_a_p_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword xvii
Preface xix
Acknowledgements xxi
List of Figures xxiii
List of Tables xxxi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 What is a furnace? 3
1.1.1 Furnace outline 4
1.1.2 Furnace classification 5
1.1.3 Principle objectives of furnace designers and operators 5
1.2 Where are furnaces used? Brief review of current furnace applications
and technology 7
1.2.1 Ceramics, brick making and pottery 7
1.2.2 Cement and lime 8
1.2.3 Glass making 11
1.2.4 Metal ore smelting 13
1.2.5 Metal refining 16
1.2.6 Flash and fluid bed furnaces 18
1.2.7 Metal physical processing 20
1.2.8 Incinerators and resource recovery furnaces 24
1.2.9 Furnaces with reducing atmospheres 24
1.2.10 Oil refining and petrochemical furnaces 25
1.3 Drivers for improved efficiency 28
1.4 Concluding remarks 29
References 29
Chapter 2 The combustion process 31
2.1 Simple combustion chemistry 32
2.1.1 The complete oxidation of carbon 32
2.1.2 The complete oxidation of hydrogen 32
2.1.3 The incomplete oxidation of carbon 33
2.1.4 The oxidation of carbon monoxide 33
2.2 Combustion calculations 33
2.3 Chemical reaction kinetics 36
2.3.1 Types of reactions 37
2.3.2 Reaction rate theory 38viii Contents
2.3.3 Reaction rate behaviour 40
2.3.4 Burning droplets and particles 43
2.4 The physics of combustion 47
2.4.1 The role of primary air 50
2.4.2 The role of swirl flows 56
2.4.3 Turbulence in jets 57
2.4.4 Secondary flow aerodynamics 59
2.4.5 Effect of excess air on fuel consumption 61
2.4.6 Multiple burner installations 62
Nomenclature 63
References 6
Chapter 3 Fuels for furnaces 67
3.1 Gaseous fuels 69
3.1.1 Properties of natural gas 69
3.1.2 Manufactured gas 69
3.1.3 Wobbe number or index 71
3.1.4 Flammability limits 72
Calculation of the flammable limits for mixtures
of gases 72
Influence of temperature and pressure on the limits 73
3.1.5 Flame radiation from gaseous fuels 75
3.2 Liquid fuels 75
3.3 Solid fuels 77
3.3.1 Ash 79
3.4 Waste fuels 79
3.5 Choice of fuel 80
3.5.1 Furnace performance 81
Heat transfer 81
Furnace atmosphere 83
Flexibility of operation 83
Effect of ash 84
Refractory life 84
Fuel cost and security of supply 85
Fuel handling system capital and running costs 85
3.6 Safety 86
3.7 Emissions 86
Nomenclature 86
References 87
Solid fuel bibliography 88
Chapter 4 An introduction to heat transfer in furnaces 89
4.1 Conduction 90
4.1.1 Steady state conduction 914.1.2 Transient conduction 93
Analytical approach 93
Numerical approach 96
4.2 Convection 100
4.2.1 Dimensional analysis 101
4.2.2 Application to convective heat transfer 102
4.2.3 Evaluating convective heat transfer coefficients 104
4.2.4 High temperature convective heat transfer 108
4.3 Radiation 113
4.3.1 Physical basics of radiative exchange 114
4.3.2 Emissivity and absorptivity 117
4.3.3 View factors 121
Equivalent grey surface 126
4.3.4 Mean beam length 127
4.4 Electrical heating 128
4.4.1 Resistance heating 128
Direct resistance heating 129
Indirect resistance heating 129
4.4.2 Arc heating 129
Electrode devices 130
Electrodeless devices 131
4.4.3 Induction heating 132
4.4.4 Dielectric heating 133
4.4.5 Infrared heating 133
Nomenclature 134
References 136
Appendix 4A Tables of emissivity data 137
Chapter 5 Flames and burners for furnaces 141
5.1 Types of flame 142
5.1.1 Premixed flames 143
5.1.2 Turbulent jet diffusion flames 145
5.1.3 Heterogeneous combustion 145
Atomisation of liquid fuels and pulverisation of coal 146
The importance of drop and particle size 148
5.2 Function of a burner and basics of burner design 152
5.2.1 The essential importance of heat flux profiles 154
5.2.2 Flame stabilisation 155
5.3 Gas burners 158
5.3.1 Premixed burners 158
Effect of excess air (mixture ratio) on flame temperature 160
Radiant wall burners 161
Use of premix burners in low NOx applications 162
Safety issues with premix burners 162
Size limitations 165
Contents ixx Contents
5.3.2 Turbulent jet diffusion burners 165
5.3.3 Precessing jet diffusion burners 167
5.4 Oil burners 168
5.4.1 Turndown 171
5.4.2 Atomisers 172
Pressure jet atomisers 173
Twin fluid atomisers 176
5.5 Pulverised coal burners 179
5.6 Furnace aerodynamics 182
Burner and furnace air flow patterns 184
5.6.1 Single burner systems 184
Package burner installations 185
Rotary kilns and driers, etc. 185
5.6.2 Multiple burner systems 186
5.6.3 Combustion air duct design 188
5.6.4 Common windbox and plenum design 192
5.7 Combustion system scaling 193
5.7.1 Example of combustion system scaling 194
5.8 Furnace noise 196
5.8.1 Combustion roar 198
5.8.2 Nozzle and turbulent jet noise 198
5.8.3 Fan noise 199
5.8.4 Pipe and valve noise 199
5.8.5 Furnace noise attenuation 200
5.8.6 Combustion driven oscillations 201
Nomenclature 204
References 205
Chapter 6 Combustion and heat transfer modelling 209
6.1 Physical modelling 211
6.1.1 Thring-Newby parameter 214
6.1.2 Craya-Curtet parameter 214
6.1.3 Becker throttle factor 215
6.1.4 Curtet number 215
6.1.5 Relationship between scaling parameters 216
6.1.6 Determining the required model flows 216
6.1.7 Applying the scaling parameter 216
6.1.8 Applying a post-measurement correction 217
6.2 Mathematical modelling 217
6.2.1 Simple well-stirred furnace models 219
6.2.2 Long furnace models 227
6.2.3 Two- and three-dimensional zone models 229
6.2.4 Computational fluid dynamics models 233
Gridding of CFD models 235
Convergence of CFD models 237
6.2.5 Particle drag in combustion systems 2376.3 Application of modelling to furnace design 238
Nomenclature 239
References 241
Chapter 7 Fuel handling systems 243
7.1 Gas valve trains 244
7.1.1 Safety shutoff systems 245
Double block and bleed 246
Leak testing and proving 246
7.2 Fuel oil handling systems 246
7.2.1 Storage, pumping and heating 247
7.2.2 Oil valve trains 249
7.3 Pulverised coal handling and firing systems 251
7.3.1 Raw coal bunkers and feeders 252
7.3.2 Coal grinding and drying 253
Coal drying characteristics 253
7.3.3 Coal mills 254
Ball mills 255
Vertical spindle mills 257
High speed mills 258
7.3.4 Coal mill grinding capacity 260
Coal fineness 261
Coal dryness 262
7.3.5 Pulverised coal grinding and firing systems 262
Direct and indirect firing systems 262
Direct firing 263
Semi-direct firing 263
Indirect firing 263
Semi-indirect firing 263
7.3.6 Coal system drying capacity 266
7.3.7 Coal firing system fans 270
7.3.8 Fine coal storage 271
7.3.9 Fine coal feeding and conveying 274
Volumetric feeders 275
Mass flow feeders 276
7.3.10 Pulverised coal conveying 278
7.4 Waste fuel handling 280
7.4.1 Waste gas fuel handling 281
7.4.2 Waste liquid fuel handling 282
7.4.3 Solids waste fuel handling 282
Size distribution 282
7.4.4 Environmental benefits and health hazards of
waste fuel utilisation 283
Nomenclature 284
References 284
Applicable codes and standards 285
Contents xixii Contents
Chapter 8 Furnace control and safety 287
8.1 Process control 288
8.1.1 Basic furnace control strategies 289
Control of product temperature 289
Fuzzy logic and rule-based systems 290
8.2 Furnace instrumentation 290
8.2.1 Temperature measurement 290
8.2.2 Heat input measurement 295
Flow measurement of liquid and gaseous fuels 295
Calorific value measurement 296
Solid fuels 296
8.2.3 Determination of excess air 297
8.3 Flue gas analysis 300
8.3.1 Extractive gas sampling systems and analysers 302
Sample probe installation 302
Cold gas extractive systems 305
Hot wet gas extractive systems 305
Dilution extractive systems 306
8.3.2 In-situ systems 306
Dust monitors 307
Oxygen analysers 308
Cross-duct analysers 309
8.4 Combustion control 312
8.5 Ensuring furnace safety 313
8.5.1 Risk factors in furnace operation 313
8.5.2 Furnace start-up 314
Critical time for ignition during furnace start-up 316
8.5.3 Operation with insufficient combustion air 317
Corrective action for unintentional sub-stoichiometric operation 318
8.5.4 Flame quenching 318
8.5.5 Eliminating ignition sources 319
8.6 Burner management systems 319
8.6.1 Safety requirements for burner management systems 320
8.6.2 False trips 322
8.6.3 Achieving acceptable safety standards with programmable
logic controller burner management systems 323
8.6.4 Choosing an appropriate safety integrity level 324
8.6.5 Determining the safety integrity level of the BMS system 326
8.6.6 Flame detectors 329
Nomenclature 332
References 332
Certification and testing organisations 333
Chapter 9 Furnace efficiency 335
9.1 Furnace performance charts 338
9.2 Mass and energy balances 3419.2.1 On-site measurement 342
Flue gas sampling and analysis 344
Calibration and errors in plant instrumentation 345
9.2.2 Constructing mass and energy balances 346
9.3 Energy conversion 358
9.3.1 Low and high grade heat 360
9.3.2 Exergy and pinch point analysis 362
9.4 Heat recovery equipment 363
9.4.1 Recuperative heat exchangers 364
9.4.2 Regenerative heat exchangers 366
9.4.3 General heat exchanger design procedure 368
9.5 Identifying efficiency improvements 369
Nomenclature 372
References 372
Chapter 10 Emissions and environmental impact 375
10.1 Formation of carbon monoxide 377
10.2 Formation of nitrogen oxides 378
10.2.1 Thermal NO
x formation 379
10.2.2 Fuel NO
x formation 381
10.2.3 Prompt NOx formation 382
10.2.4 NO
x modelling 384
10.3 Formation of sulphur oxides 385
10.4 Formation of intermediate combustion products 386
10.4.1 Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 386
10.4.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 386
10.4.3 PCBs, dioxins and furans 387
10.5 Particulate emissions 390
10.5.1 Formation of soot 390
10.5.2 Formation and composition of fuel ash 393
10.5.3 Non-combustible volatile cycles 394
10.6 Environmental control of emissions 396
10.6.1 Prevention and abatement of emissions 397
Pre-flame control 397
In-flame control 399
End-of-pipe control 405
10.6.2 Dispersion modelling 408
References 409
Chapter 11 Furnace construction and materials 413
11.1 Basic performance requirements of the furnace structure 414
11.2 Basic construction methods 415
11.2.1 Brick lining 417
11.2.2 Monolithic linings 419
Castable refractory 419
Contents xiiixiv Contents
Traditional installation of castable refractory 420
Installation of castable refractory by gunning 421
Drying and curing of cast and gunned refractory 423
Mouldable and rammable refractories 424
11.2.3 Furnace steelwork 425
11.2.4 Furnace roof construction 426
11.2.5 Furnace cooling systems 428
11.3 Practical engineering considerations in the use of refractories 431
11.4 Ceramic refractory materials 433
11.4.1 Testing of refractories 434
11.4.2 Properties and uses of refractories 435
Silica and siliceous refractories 435
Alumina and aluminous refractories 435
Chromite/magnesite/alumina refractories 436
Dolomite refractories 437
Zircon and zirconia refractories 437
Carbon refractories 438
Insulating refractories 438
11.5 Heat resisting and refractory metals 438
11.5.1 Effect of elevated temperature on metal properties 439
11.5.2 High temperature alloys 441
Service temperature 442
Intergranular corrosion 442
Proprietary high nickel alloys 443
11.6 Practical engineering considerations in the use of high
temperature metals 443
11.7 Concluding remarks 444
References 445
Selection of relevant standards 445
Advisory organisations 446
Appendix 11A General properties of selected refractory materials 447
Chapter 12 Furnace design methods 455
12.1 Introduction 456
12.1.1 Design constraints 458
12.1.2 Cost of design changes 459
12.2 Conceptual design 459
12.2.1 Process functions 460
Straight-through furnace system 464
Separation furnace system 464
Combining furnace with downstream separation 464
Combining and separation furnace system 464
12.2.2 Defining the physical and chemical changes 464
12.2.3 Preliminary mass and energy balances 46612.2.4 Reliability of available process knowledge 466
Existing processes 467
New processes and pilot plants 467
12.2.5 Effect of upstream and downstream processes 468
12.2.6 Fuel choice 469
Fuel chemical compatibility with the process 470
Heat transfer compatibility with the process 472
12.2.7 Potential for heat recovery and choice of equipment 474
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot
product 475
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from hot
flue gas 476
Estimating the potential for heat recovery from shell
losses or cooling water 478
Economic considerations 479
12.3 Furnace sizing 479
Slab heating furnace design 487
Oil heating furnace design 489
Aggregate processing furnace 492
12.4 Burner selection 496
12.5 Detailed analysis and validation of the furnace design 500
12.6 Furnace instrumentation and controls 501
Nomenclature 503
References 504
Author index 507
Subject index


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