كتاب Design of Machine Elements - صفحة 2
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 كتاب Design of Machine Elements

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انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2, 3  الصفحة التالية
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عدد المساهمات : 15293
التقييم : 25467
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 31
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Design of Machine Elements    كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 1:09 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Design of Machine Elements
Third Edition
V. B. Bhandari  

كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 D_o_m_12
ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Preface xvii
Visual Walkthrough xxi
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Machine Design 1
1.2 Basic Procedure of Machine Design 2
1.3 Basic Requirements of Machine Elements 3
1.4 Design of Machine Elements 4
1.5 Traditional Design Methods 8
1.6 Design Synthesis 8
1.7 Use of Standards in Design 9
1.8 Selection of Preferred Sizes 11
1.9 Aesthetic Considerations in Design 14
1.10 Ergonomic Considerations in Design 15
1.11 Concurrent Engineering 17
Short Answer Questions 19
Problems for Practice 19
2. Engineering Materials 20
2.1 Stress–Strain Diagrams 20
2.2 Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials 23
2.3 Cast Iron 26
2.4 BIS System of Designation of Steels 29
2.5 Plain-carbon Steels 30
2.6 Free-cutting Steels 32
2.7 Alloy Steels 32
2.8 Overseas Standards 34
2.9 Heat Treatment of Steels 36
2.10 Case Hardening of Steels 37
2.11 Cast Steel 38
Contentsvi Contents
2.12 Aluminium Alloys 39
2.13 Copper Alloys 41
2.14 Die-casting Alloys 43
2.15 Ceramics 44
2.16 Plastics 45
2.17 Fibre-reinforced Plastics 48
2.18 Natural and Synthetic Rubbers 49
2.19 Creep 50
2.20 Selection of Material 51
2.21 Weighted Point Method 51
Short Answer Questions 53
3. Manufacturing Considerations in Design 55
3.1 Selection of Manufacturing Method 55
3.2 Design Considerations of Castings 57
3.3 Design Considerations of Forgings 59
3.4 Design Considerations of Machined Parts 61
3.5 Hot and Cold Working of Metals 62
3.6 Design Considerations of Welded Assemblies 62
3.7 Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) 64
3.8 Tolerances 65
3.9 Types of Fits 66
3.10 BIS System of Fits and Tolerances 67
3.11 Selection of Fits 69
3.12 Tolerances and Manufacturing Methods 69
3.13 Selective Assembly 70
3.14 Tolerances For Bolt Spacing 72
3.15 Surface Roughness 73
Short Answer Questions 73
Problems for Practice 74
4. Design Against Static Load 76
4.1 Modes of Failure 76
4.2 Factor of Safety 77
4.3 Stress–strain Relationship 79
4.4 Shear Stress and Shear Strain 80
4.5 Stresses Due To Bending Moment 81
4.6 Stresses Due To Torsional Moment 82
4.7 Eccentric Axial Loading 83
4.8 Design of Simple Machine Parts 84
4.9 Cotter Joint 85
4.10 Design Procedure for Cotter Joint 90
4.11 Knuckle Joint 94
4.12 Design Procedure for Knuckle Joint 99
4.13 Principal Stresses 104
4.14 Theories of Elastic Failure 106Contents vii
4.15 Maximum Principal Stress Theory 107
4.16 Maximum Shear Stress Theory 108
4.17 Distortion-Energy Theory 110
4.18 Selection and Use of Failure Theories 112
4.19 Levers 117
4.20 Design of Levers 118
4.21 Fracture Mechanics 128
4.22 Curved Beams 130
4.23 Thermal Stresses 135
4.24 Residual Stresses 136
Short Answer Questions 137
Problems for Practice 138
5. Design Against Fluctuating Load 141
5.1 Stress Concentration 141
5.2 Stress Concentration Factors 142
5.3 Reduction of Stress Concentration 145
5.4 Fluctuating Stresses 149
5.5 Fatigue Failure 151
5.6 Endurance Limit 152
5.7 Low-cycle and High-cycle Fatigue 153
5.8 Notch Sensitivity 154
5.9 Endurance Limit—Approximate Estimation 155
5.10 Reversed Stresses—Design for Finite and Infinite Life 159
5.11 Cumulative Damage in Fatigue 166
5.12 Soderberg and Goodman Lines 167
5.13 Modified Goodman Diagrams 168
5.14 Gerber Equation 174
5.15 Fatigue Design under Combined Stresses 177
5.16 Impact Stresses 180
Short Answer Questions 182
Problems for Practice 182
6. Power Screws 184
6.1 Power Screws 184
6.2 Forms of Threads 185
6.3 Multiple Threaded Screws 187
6.4 Terminology of Power Screw 187
6.5 Torque Requirement—Lifting Load 189
6.6 Torque Requirement—Lowering Load 189
6.7 Self-locking Screw 190
6.8 Efficiency of Square Threaded Screw 190
6.9 Efficiency of Self-locking Screw 192
6.10 Trapezoidal and Acme Threads 192
6.11 Collar Friction Torque 193
6.12 Overall Efficiency 194viii Contents
6.13 Coefficient of Friction 194
6.14 Design of Screw and Nut 194
6.15 Design of Screw Jack 206
6.16 Differential and Compound Screws 214
6.17 Recirculating Ball Screw 215
Short-Answer Questions 216
Problems for Practice 217
7. Threaded Joints 219
7.1 Threaded Joints 219
7.2 Basic Types of Screw Fastening 220
7.3 Cap Screws 222
7.4 Setscrews 223
7.5 Bolt of Uniform Strength 224
7.6 Locking Devices 225
7.7 Terminology of Screw Threads 227
7.8 ISO Metric Screw Threads 228
7.9 Materials and Manufacture 230
7.10 Bolted Joint—Simple Analysis 231
7.11 Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Joints in Shear 233
7.12 Eccentric Load Perpendicular to Axis of Bolt 235
7.13 Eccentric Load on Circular Base 242
7.14 Torque Requirement for Bolt Tightening 248
7.15 Dimensions of Fasteners 249
7.16 Design of Turnbuckle 251
7.17 Elastic Analysis of Bolted Joints 254
7.18 Bolted Joint under Fluctuating Load 257
Short-Answer Questions 269
Problems for Practice 269
8. Welded and Riveted Joints 272
8.1 Welded Joints 272
8.2 Welding Processes 273
8.3 Stress Relieving of Welded Joints 274
8.4 Butt Joints 274
8.5 Fillet Joints 275
8.6 Strength of Butt Welds 276
8.7 Strength of Parallel Fillet Welds 277
8.8 Strength of Transverse Fillet Welds 278
8.9 Maximum Shear Stress in Parallel Fillet Weld 281
8.10 Maximum Shear Stress in Transverse Fillet Weld 282
8.11 Axially Loaded Unsymmetrical Welded Joints 284
8.12 Eccentric Load in the Plane of Welds 285
8.13 Welded Joint Subjected to Bending Moment 290
8.14 Welded Joint Subjected to Torsional Moment 294
8.15 Strength of Welded Joints 295Contents ix
8.16 Welded Joints Subjected to Fluctuating Forces 296
8.17 Welding Symbols 297
8.18 Weld Inspection 298
8.19 Riveted Joints 298
8.20 Types of Rivet Heads 301
8.21 Types of Riveted Joints 303
8.22 Rivet Materials 305
8.23 Types of Failure 306
8.24 Strength Equations 306
8.25 Efficiency of Joint 307
8.26 Caulking and Fullering 307
8.27 Longitudinal Butt Joint for Boiler Shell 311
8.28 Circumferential Lap Joint for Boiler Shells 318
8.29 Eccentrically Loaded Riveted Joint 321
Short-Answer Questions 325
Problems for Practice 325
9. Shafts, Keys and Couplings 330
9.1 Transmission Shafts 330
9.2 Shaft Design on Strength Basis 331
9.3 Shaft Design on Torsional Rigidity Basis 333
9.4 ASME Code for Shaft Design 334
9.5 Design of Hollow Shaft on Strength Basis 342
9.6 Design of Hollow Shaft on Torsional Rigidity Basis 344
9.7 Flexible Shafts 346
9.8 Keys 346
9.9 Saddle Keys 347
9.10 Sunk Keys 348
9.11 Feather Key 349
9.12 Woodruff Key 350
9.13 Design of Square and Flat Keys 350
9.14 Design of Kennedy Key 352
9.15 Splines 354
9.16 Couplings 356
9.17 Muff Coupling 357
9.18 Design Procedure for Muff Coupling 357
9.19 Clamp Coupling 359
9.20 Design Procedure for Clamp Coupling 360
9.21 Rigid Flange Couplings 362
9.22 Design Procedure for Rigid Flange Coupling 364
9.23 Bushed-pin Flexible Coupling 368
9.24 Design Procedure for Flexible Coupling 371
9.25 Design for Lateral Rigidity 376
9.26 Castigliano’s Theorem 380x Contents
9.27 Area Moment Method 382
9.28 Graphical Integration Method 383
9.29 Critical Speed of Shafts 385
Short-Answer Questions 388
Problems for Practice 389
10. Springs 393
10.1 Springs 393
10.2 Types of Springs 393
10.3 Terminology of Helical Springs 395
10.4 Styles of End 396
10.5 Stress and Deflection Equations 397
10.6 Series and Parallel Connections 399
10.7 Spring Materials 401
10.8 Design of Helical Springs 403
10.9 Spring Design—Trial-and-Error Method 405
10.10 Design against Fluctuating Load 405
10.11 Concentric Springs 425
10.12 Optimum Design of Helical Spring 430
10.13 Surge in Spring 432
10.14 Helical Torsion Springs 433
10.15 Spiral Springs 435
10.16 Multi-Leaf Spring 437
10.17 Nipping of Leaf Springs 439
10.18 Belleville Spring 441
10.19 Shot Peening 443
Short-Answer Questions 443
Problems for Practice 444
11. Friction Clutches 448
11.1 Clutches 448
11.2 Torque Transmitting Capacity 450
11.3 Multi-disk Clutches 456
11.4 Friction Materials 459
11.5 Cone Clutches 461
11.6 Centrifugal Clutches 465
11.7 Energy Equation 467
11.8 Thermal Considerations 469
Short-Answer Questions 470
Problems for Practice 471
12. Brakes 472
12.1 Brakes 472
12.2 Energy Equations 472
12.3 Block Brake with Short Shoe 475
12.4 Block Brake with Long Shoe 480Contents xi
12.5 Pivoted Block Brake with Long Shoe 482
12.6 Internal Expanding Brake 485
12.7 Band Brakes 490
12.8 Disk Brakes 493
12.9 Thermal Considerations 496
Short-Answer Questions 496
Problems for Practice 497
13. Belt Drives 499
13.1 Belt Drives 499
13.2 Belt Constructions 501
13.3 Geometrical Relationships 503
13.4 Analysis of Belt Tensions 504
13.5 Condition for Maximum Power 507
13.6 Condition for Maximum Power (Alternative Approach) 507
13.7 Characteristics of Belt Drives 509
13.8 Selection of Flat-belts from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 514
13.9 Pulleys for Flat Belts 517
13.10 Arms of Cast-iron Pulley 520
13.11 V-belts 522
13.12 Selection of V-belts 534
13.13 V-grooved Pulley 535
13.14 Belt-Tensioning Methods 540
13.15 Ribbed V-belts 540
Short-Answer Questions 542
Problems for Practice 542
14. Chain Drives 544
14.1 Chain Drives 544
14.2 Roller Chains 546
14.3 Geometric Relationships 548
14.4 Polygonal Effect 549
14.5 Power Rating of Roller Chains 549
14.6 Sprocket Wheels 551
14.7 Design of Chain Drive 553
14.8 Chain Lubrication 555
14.9 Silent Chain 562
Short-Answer Questions 562
Problems for Practice 563
15. Rolling Contact Bearings 564
15.1 Bearings 564
15.2 Types of Rolling-contact Bearings 565
15.3 Principle of Self-aligning Bearing 568
15.4 Selection of Bearing-type 569
15.5 Static Load Carrying Capacity 569xii Contents
15.6 Stribeck’s Equation 569
15.7 Dynamic Load Carrying Capacity 571
15.8 Equivalent Bearing Load 571
15.9 Load-Life Relationship 572
15.10 Selection of Bearing Life 572
15.11 Load Factor 573
15.12 Selection of Bearing from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 573
15.13 Selection of Taper Roller Bearings 580
15.14 Design for Cyclic Loads and Speeds 588
15.15 Bearing with Probability of Survival other than 90 Per Cent 592
15.16 Needle Bearings 595
15.17 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 596
15.18 Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearings 596
15.19 Mounting of Bearing 597
Short-Answer Questions 598
Problems for Practice 599
16. Sliding Contact Bearings 601
16.1 Basic Modes of Lubrication 601
16.2 Viscosity 604
16.3 Measurement of Viscosity 605
16.4 Viscosity Index 605
16.5 Petroff’s Equation 606
16.6 McKee’s Investigation 607
16.7 Viscous Flow through Rectangular Slot 608
16.8 Hydrostatic Step Bearing 609
16.9 Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Bearing 611
16.10 Reynold’s Equation 619
16.11 Raimondi and Boyd Method 622
16.12 Temperature Rise 624
16.13 Bearing Design—Selection of Parameters 625
16.14 Bearing Constructions 634
16.15 Bearing Materials 635
16.16 Sintered Metal Bearings 637
16.17 Lubricating Oils 637
16.18 Additives for Mineral Oils 639
16.19 Selection of Lubricants 640
16.20 Greases 641
16.21 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 641
16.22 Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Contact Bearings 642
Short-Answer Questions 643
Problems for Practice 644
17. Spur Gears 646
17.1 Mechanical Drives 646
17.2 Gear Drives 647xii Contents
15.6 Stribeck’s Equation 569
15.7 Dynamic Load Carrying Capacity 571
15.8 Equivalent Bearing Load 571
15.9 Load-Life Relationship 572
15.10 Selection of Bearing Life 572
15.11 Load Factor 573
15.12 Selection of Bearing from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 573
15.13 Selection of Taper Roller Bearings 580
15.14 Design for Cyclic Loads and Speeds 588
15.15 Bearing with Probability of Survival other than 90 Per Cent 592
15.16 Needle Bearings 595
15.17 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 596
15.18 Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearings 596
15.19 Mounting of Bearing 597
Short-Answer Questions 598
Problems for Practice 599
16. Sliding Contact Bearings 601
16.1 Basic Modes of Lubrication 601
16.2 Viscosity 604
16.3 Measurement of Viscosity 605
16.4 Viscosity Index 605
16.5 Petroff’s Equation 606
16.6 McKee’s Investigation 607
16.7 Viscous Flow through Rectangular Slot 608
16.8 Hydrostatic Step Bearing 609
16.9 Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Bearing 611
16.10 Reynold’s Equation 619
16.11 Raimondi and Boyd Method 622
16.12 Temperature Rise 624
16.13 Bearing Design—Selection of Parameters 625
16.14 Bearing Constructions 634
16.15 Bearing Materials 635
16.16 Sintered Metal Bearings 637
16.17 Lubricating Oils 637
16.18 Additives for Mineral Oils 639
16.19 Selection of Lubricants 640
16.20 Greases 641
16.21 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 641
16.22 Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Contact Bearings 642
Short-Answer Questions 643
Problems for Practice 644
17. Spur Gears 646
17.1 Mechanical Drives 646
17.2 Gear Drives 647Contents xiii
17.3 Classification of Gears 647
17.4 Selection of Type of Gears 648
17.5 Law of Gearing 649
17.6 Terminology of Spur Gears 650
17.7 Standard Systems of Gear Tooth 653
17.8 Gear Trains 656
17.9 Interference and Undercutting 657
17.10 Backlash 658
17.11 Force Analysis 658
17.12 Gear Tooth Failures 665
17.13 Selection of Material 666
17.14 Gear Blank Design 667
17.15 Number of Teeth 670
17.16 Face Width 671
17.17 Beam Strength of Gear Tooth 672
17.18 Permissible Bending Stress 673
17.19 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 674
17.20 Estimation of Module Based on Beam Strength 677
17.21 Wear Strength of Gear Tooth 678
17.22 Estimation of Module Based on Wear Strength 680
17.23 Internal Gears 688
17.24 Gear Lubrication 690
Short-Answer Questions 690
Problems for Practice 690
18. Helical Gears 694
18.1 Helical Gears 694
18.2 Terminology of Helical Gears 694
18.3 Virtual Number of Teeth 695
18.4 Tooth Proportions 696
18.5 Force Analysis 697
18.6 Beam Strength of Helical Gears 702
18.7 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 702
18.8 Wear Strength of Helical Gears 703
18.9 Herringbone Gears 706
18.10 Crossed Helical Gears 708
Short-Answer Questions 709
Problems for Practice 710
19. Bevel Gears 711
19.1 Bevel Gears 711
19.2 Terminology of Bevel Gears 713
19.3 Force Analysis 715
19.4 Beam Strength of Bevel Gears 720
19.5 Wear Strength of Bevel Gears 722
19.6 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 722xiv Contents
19.7 Spiral Bevel Gears 727
Short-Answer Questions 728
Problems for Practice 728
20. Worm Gears 730
20.1 Worm Gears 730
20.2 Terminology of Worm Gears 731
20.3 Proportions of Worm Gears 733
20.4 Force Analysis 735
20.5 Friction in Worm Gears 737
20.6 Selection of Materials 741
20.7 Strength Rating of Worm Gears 742
20.8 Wear Rating of Worm Gears 744
20.9 Thermal Considerations 745
Short-Answer Questions 747
Problems for Practice 747
21. Flywheel 749
21.1 Flywheel 749
21.2 Flywheel and Governor 750
21.3 Flywheel Materials 750
21.4 Torque Analysis 751
21.5 Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy 752
21.6 Solid Disk Flywheel 753
21.7 Rimmed Flywheel 755
21.8 Stresses in Rimmed Flywheel 756
Short-Answer Questions 767
Problems for Practice 767
22. Cylinders and Pressure Vessels 768
22.1 Thin Cylinders 768
22.2 Thin Spherical Vessels 769
22.3 Thick Cylinders—Principal Stresses 770
22.4 Lame’s Equation 771
22.5 Clavarino’s and Birnie’s Equations 772
22.6 Cylinders with External Pressure 774
22.7 Autofrettage 775
22.8 Compound Cylinder 775
22.9 Gaskets 779
22.10 Gasketed Joint 780
22.11 Unfired Pressure Vessels 783
22.12 Thickness of Cylindrical and Spherical Shells 785
22.13 End Closures 785
22.14 Openings in Pressure Vessel 791
Short-Answer Questions 794
Problems for Practice 794Contents xv
23. Miscellaneous Machine Elements 796
23.1 Oil Seals 796
23.2 Wire Ropes 797
23.3 Stresses in Wire Ropes 800
23.4 Rope Sheaves and Drums 804
23.5 Buckling of Columns 806
Short-Answer Questions 812
Problems for Practice 812
24. Statistical Considerations in Design 814
24.1 Frequency Distribution 814
24.2 Characteristics of Frequency Curves 816
24.3 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 817
24.4 Probability 819
24.5 Probability Distribution 819
24.6 Normal Curve 821
24.7 Population Combinations 823
24.8 Design and Natural Tolerances 825
24.9 Reliability 829
24.10 Probabilistic Approach to Design 830
Short-Answer Questions 840
Problems for Practice 841
25. Design of IC Engine Components 843
25.1 Internal Combustion Engine 843
25.2 Cylinder and Cylinder Liner 844
25.3 Bore and Length of Cylinder 845
25.4 Thickness of Cylinder Wall 845
25.5 Stresses in Cylinder Wall 846
25.6 Cylinder Head 847
25.7 Design of Studs for Cylinder Head 847
25.8 Piston 853
25.9 Piston Materials 854
25.10 Thickness of Piston Head 854
25.11 Piston Ribs and Cup 855
25.12 Piston Rings 856
25.13 Piston Barrel 857
25.14 Piston Skirt 858
25.15 Piston Pin 858
25.16 Connecting Rod 867
25.17 Buckling of Connecting Rod 868
25.18 Cross-section for Connecting Rod 869
25.19 Big and Small End Bearings 871xvi Contents
25.20 Big End Cap and Bolts 873
25.21 Whipping Stress 875
25.22 Crankshaft 880
25.23 Design of Centre Crankshaft 881
25.24 Centre Crankshaft at Top-Dead Centre Position 881
25.25 Centre Crankshaft at Angle of Maximum Torque 883
25.26 Side Crankshaft at Top-Dead Centre Position 892
25.27 Side Crankshaft at Angle of Maximum Torque 895
25.28 Valve-Gear Mechanism 903
25.29 Design of Valves 904
25.30 Design of Rocker Arm 906
25.31 Design of Valve Spring 910
25.32 Design of Push Rod 911
Short-Answer Questions 922
Problems for Practice 923
References 927
Index 930


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كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Design of Machine Elements    كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 15 مارس 2013, 1:09 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Design of Machine Elements
Third Edition
V. B. Bhandari  

كتاب Design of Machine Elements  - صفحة 2 D_o_m_12
ويتناول الموضوعات الأتية :


Preface xvii
Visual Walkthrough xxi
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Machine Design 1
1.2 Basic Procedure of Machine Design 2
1.3 Basic Requirements of Machine Elements 3
1.4 Design of Machine Elements 4
1.5 Traditional Design Methods 8
1.6 Design Synthesis 8
1.7 Use of Standards in Design 9
1.8 Selection of Preferred Sizes 11
1.9 Aesthetic Considerations in Design 14
1.10 Ergonomic Considerations in Design 15
1.11 Concurrent Engineering 17
Short Answer Questions 19
Problems for Practice 19
2. Engineering Materials 20
2.1 Stress–Strain Diagrams 20
2.2 Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials 23
2.3 Cast Iron 26
2.4 BIS System of Designation of Steels 29
2.5 Plain-carbon Steels 30
2.6 Free-cutting Steels 32
2.7 Alloy Steels 32
2.8 Overseas Standards 34
2.9 Heat Treatment of Steels 36
2.10 Case Hardening of Steels 37
2.11 Cast Steel 38
Contentsvi Contents
2.12 Aluminium Alloys 39
2.13 Copper Alloys 41
2.14 Die-casting Alloys 43
2.15 Ceramics 44
2.16 Plastics 45
2.17 Fibre-reinforced Plastics 48
2.18 Natural and Synthetic Rubbers 49
2.19 Creep 50
2.20 Selection of Material 51
2.21 Weighted Point Method 51
Short Answer Questions 53
3. Manufacturing Considerations in Design 55
3.1 Selection of Manufacturing Method 55
3.2 Design Considerations of Castings 57
3.3 Design Considerations of Forgings 59
3.4 Design Considerations of Machined Parts 61
3.5 Hot and Cold Working of Metals 62
3.6 Design Considerations of Welded Assemblies 62
3.7 Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) 64
3.8 Tolerances 65
3.9 Types of Fits 66
3.10 BIS System of Fits and Tolerances 67
3.11 Selection of Fits 69
3.12 Tolerances and Manufacturing Methods 69
3.13 Selective Assembly 70
3.14 Tolerances For Bolt Spacing 72
3.15 Surface Roughness 73
Short Answer Questions 73
Problems for Practice 74
4. Design Against Static Load 76
4.1 Modes of Failure 76
4.2 Factor of Safety 77
4.3 Stress–strain Relationship 79
4.4 Shear Stress and Shear Strain 80
4.5 Stresses Due To Bending Moment 81
4.6 Stresses Due To Torsional Moment 82
4.7 Eccentric Axial Loading 83
4.8 Design of Simple Machine Parts 84
4.9 Cotter Joint 85
4.10 Design Procedure for Cotter Joint 90
4.11 Knuckle Joint 94
4.12 Design Procedure for Knuckle Joint 99
4.13 Principal Stresses 104
4.14 Theories of Elastic Failure 106Contents vii
4.15 Maximum Principal Stress Theory 107
4.16 Maximum Shear Stress Theory 108
4.17 Distortion-Energy Theory 110
4.18 Selection and Use of Failure Theories 112
4.19 Levers 117
4.20 Design of Levers 118
4.21 Fracture Mechanics 128
4.22 Curved Beams 130
4.23 Thermal Stresses 135
4.24 Residual Stresses 136
Short Answer Questions 137
Problems for Practice 138
5. Design Against Fluctuating Load 141
5.1 Stress Concentration 141
5.2 Stress Concentration Factors 142
5.3 Reduction of Stress Concentration 145
5.4 Fluctuating Stresses 149
5.5 Fatigue Failure 151
5.6 Endurance Limit 152
5.7 Low-cycle and High-cycle Fatigue 153
5.8 Notch Sensitivity 154
5.9 Endurance Limit—Approximate Estimation 155
5.10 Reversed Stresses—Design for Finite and Infinite Life 159
5.11 Cumulative Damage in Fatigue 166
5.12 Soderberg and Goodman Lines 167
5.13 Modified Goodman Diagrams 168
5.14 Gerber Equation 174
5.15 Fatigue Design under Combined Stresses 177
5.16 Impact Stresses 180
Short Answer Questions 182
Problems for Practice 182
6. Power Screws 184
6.1 Power Screws 184
6.2 Forms of Threads 185
6.3 Multiple Threaded Screws 187
6.4 Terminology of Power Screw 187
6.5 Torque Requirement—Lifting Load 189
6.6 Torque Requirement—Lowering Load 189
6.7 Self-locking Screw 190
6.8 Efficiency of Square Threaded Screw 190
6.9 Efficiency of Self-locking Screw 192
6.10 Trapezoidal and Acme Threads 192
6.11 Collar Friction Torque 193
6.12 Overall Efficiency 194viii Contents
6.13 Coefficient of Friction 194
6.14 Design of Screw and Nut 194
6.15 Design of Screw Jack 206
6.16 Differential and Compound Screws 214
6.17 Recirculating Ball Screw 215
Short-Answer Questions 216
Problems for Practice 217
7. Threaded Joints 219
7.1 Threaded Joints 219
7.2 Basic Types of Screw Fastening 220
7.3 Cap Screws 222
7.4 Setscrews 223
7.5 Bolt of Uniform Strength 224
7.6 Locking Devices 225
7.7 Terminology of Screw Threads 227
7.8 ISO Metric Screw Threads 228
7.9 Materials and Manufacture 230
7.10 Bolted Joint—Simple Analysis 231
7.11 Eccentrically Loaded Bolted Joints in Shear 233
7.12 Eccentric Load Perpendicular to Axis of Bolt 235
7.13 Eccentric Load on Circular Base 242
7.14 Torque Requirement for Bolt Tightening 248
7.15 Dimensions of Fasteners 249
7.16 Design of Turnbuckle 251
7.17 Elastic Analysis of Bolted Joints 254
7.18 Bolted Joint under Fluctuating Load 257
Short-Answer Questions 269
Problems for Practice 269
8. Welded and Riveted Joints 272
8.1 Welded Joints 272
8.2 Welding Processes 273
8.3 Stress Relieving of Welded Joints 274
8.4 Butt Joints 274
8.5 Fillet Joints 275
8.6 Strength of Butt Welds 276
8.7 Strength of Parallel Fillet Welds 277
8.8 Strength of Transverse Fillet Welds 278
8.9 Maximum Shear Stress in Parallel Fillet Weld 281
8.10 Maximum Shear Stress in Transverse Fillet Weld 282
8.11 Axially Loaded Unsymmetrical Welded Joints 284
8.12 Eccentric Load in the Plane of Welds 285
8.13 Welded Joint Subjected to Bending Moment 290
8.14 Welded Joint Subjected to Torsional Moment 294
8.15 Strength of Welded Joints 295Contents ix
8.16 Welded Joints Subjected to Fluctuating Forces 296
8.17 Welding Symbols 297
8.18 Weld Inspection 298
8.19 Riveted Joints 298
8.20 Types of Rivet Heads 301
8.21 Types of Riveted Joints 303
8.22 Rivet Materials 305
8.23 Types of Failure 306
8.24 Strength Equations 306
8.25 Efficiency of Joint 307
8.26 Caulking and Fullering 307
8.27 Longitudinal Butt Joint for Boiler Shell 311
8.28 Circumferential Lap Joint for Boiler Shells 318
8.29 Eccentrically Loaded Riveted Joint 321
Short-Answer Questions 325
Problems for Practice 325
9. Shafts, Keys and Couplings 330
9.1 Transmission Shafts 330
9.2 Shaft Design on Strength Basis 331
9.3 Shaft Design on Torsional Rigidity Basis 333
9.4 ASME Code for Shaft Design 334
9.5 Design of Hollow Shaft on Strength Basis 342
9.6 Design of Hollow Shaft on Torsional Rigidity Basis 344
9.7 Flexible Shafts 346
9.8 Keys 346
9.9 Saddle Keys 347
9.10 Sunk Keys 348
9.11 Feather Key 349
9.12 Woodruff Key 350
9.13 Design of Square and Flat Keys 350
9.14 Design of Kennedy Key 352
9.15 Splines 354
9.16 Couplings 356
9.17 Muff Coupling 357
9.18 Design Procedure for Muff Coupling 357
9.19 Clamp Coupling 359
9.20 Design Procedure for Clamp Coupling 360
9.21 Rigid Flange Couplings 362
9.22 Design Procedure for Rigid Flange Coupling 364
9.23 Bushed-pin Flexible Coupling 368
9.24 Design Procedure for Flexible Coupling 371
9.25 Design for Lateral Rigidity 376
9.26 Castigliano’s Theorem 380x Contents
9.27 Area Moment Method 382
9.28 Graphical Integration Method 383
9.29 Critical Speed of Shafts 385
Short-Answer Questions 388
Problems for Practice 389
10. Springs 393
10.1 Springs 393
10.2 Types of Springs 393
10.3 Terminology of Helical Springs 395
10.4 Styles of End 396
10.5 Stress and Deflection Equations 397
10.6 Series and Parallel Connections 399
10.7 Spring Materials 401
10.8 Design of Helical Springs 403
10.9 Spring Design—Trial-and-Error Method 405
10.10 Design against Fluctuating Load 405
10.11 Concentric Springs 425
10.12 Optimum Design of Helical Spring 430
10.13 Surge in Spring 432
10.14 Helical Torsion Springs 433
10.15 Spiral Springs 435
10.16 Multi-Leaf Spring 437
10.17 Nipping of Leaf Springs 439
10.18 Belleville Spring 441
10.19 Shot Peening 443
Short-Answer Questions 443
Problems for Practice 444
11. Friction Clutches 448
11.1 Clutches 448
11.2 Torque Transmitting Capacity 450
11.3 Multi-disk Clutches 456
11.4 Friction Materials 459
11.5 Cone Clutches 461
11.6 Centrifugal Clutches 465
11.7 Energy Equation 467
11.8 Thermal Considerations 469
Short-Answer Questions 470
Problems for Practice 471
12. Brakes 472
12.1 Brakes 472
12.2 Energy Equations 472
12.3 Block Brake with Short Shoe 475
12.4 Block Brake with Long Shoe 480Contents xi
12.5 Pivoted Block Brake with Long Shoe 482
12.6 Internal Expanding Brake 485
12.7 Band Brakes 490
12.8 Disk Brakes 493
12.9 Thermal Considerations 496
Short-Answer Questions 496
Problems for Practice 497
13. Belt Drives 499
13.1 Belt Drives 499
13.2 Belt Constructions 501
13.3 Geometrical Relationships 503
13.4 Analysis of Belt Tensions 504
13.5 Condition for Maximum Power 507
13.6 Condition for Maximum Power (Alternative Approach) 507
13.7 Characteristics of Belt Drives 509
13.8 Selection of Flat-belts from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 514
13.9 Pulleys for Flat Belts 517
13.10 Arms of Cast-iron Pulley 520
13.11 V-belts 522
13.12 Selection of V-belts 534
13.13 V-grooved Pulley 535
13.14 Belt-Tensioning Methods 540
13.15 Ribbed V-belts 540
Short-Answer Questions 542
Problems for Practice 542
14. Chain Drives 544
14.1 Chain Drives 544
14.2 Roller Chains 546
14.3 Geometric Relationships 548
14.4 Polygonal Effect 549
14.5 Power Rating of Roller Chains 549
14.6 Sprocket Wheels 551
14.7 Design of Chain Drive 553
14.8 Chain Lubrication 555
14.9 Silent Chain 562
Short-Answer Questions 562
Problems for Practice 563
15. Rolling Contact Bearings 564
15.1 Bearings 564
15.2 Types of Rolling-contact Bearings 565
15.3 Principle of Self-aligning Bearing 568
15.4 Selection of Bearing-type 569
15.5 Static Load Carrying Capacity 569xii Contents
15.6 Stribeck’s Equation 569
15.7 Dynamic Load Carrying Capacity 571
15.8 Equivalent Bearing Load 571
15.9 Load-Life Relationship 572
15.10 Selection of Bearing Life 572
15.11 Load Factor 573
15.12 Selection of Bearing from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 573
15.13 Selection of Taper Roller Bearings 580
15.14 Design for Cyclic Loads and Speeds 588
15.15 Bearing with Probability of Survival other than 90 Per Cent 592
15.16 Needle Bearings 595
15.17 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 596
15.18 Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearings 596
15.19 Mounting of Bearing 597
Short-Answer Questions 598
Problems for Practice 599
16. Sliding Contact Bearings 601
16.1 Basic Modes of Lubrication 601
16.2 Viscosity 604
16.3 Measurement of Viscosity 605
16.4 Viscosity Index 605
16.5 Petroff’s Equation 606
16.6 McKee’s Investigation 607
16.7 Viscous Flow through Rectangular Slot 608
16.8 Hydrostatic Step Bearing 609
16.9 Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Bearing 611
16.10 Reynold’s Equation 619
16.11 Raimondi and Boyd Method 622
16.12 Temperature Rise 624
16.13 Bearing Design—Selection of Parameters 625
16.14 Bearing Constructions 634
16.15 Bearing Materials 635
16.16 Sintered Metal Bearings 637
16.17 Lubricating Oils 637
16.18 Additives for Mineral Oils 639
16.19 Selection of Lubricants 640
16.20 Greases 641
16.21 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 641
16.22 Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Contact Bearings 642
Short-Answer Questions 643
Problems for Practice 644
17. Spur Gears 646
17.1 Mechanical Drives 646
17.2 Gear Drives 647xii Contents
15.6 Stribeck’s Equation 569
15.7 Dynamic Load Carrying Capacity 571
15.8 Equivalent Bearing Load 571
15.9 Load-Life Relationship 572
15.10 Selection of Bearing Life 572
15.11 Load Factor 573
15.12 Selection of Bearing from Manufacturer’s Catalogue 573
15.13 Selection of Taper Roller Bearings 580
15.14 Design for Cyclic Loads and Speeds 588
15.15 Bearing with Probability of Survival other than 90 Per Cent 592
15.16 Needle Bearings 595
15.17 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 596
15.18 Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearings 596
15.19 Mounting of Bearing 597
Short-Answer Questions 598
Problems for Practice 599
16. Sliding Contact Bearings 601
16.1 Basic Modes of Lubrication 601
16.2 Viscosity 604
16.3 Measurement of Viscosity 605
16.4 Viscosity Index 605
16.5 Petroff’s Equation 606
16.6 McKee’s Investigation 607
16.7 Viscous Flow through Rectangular Slot 608
16.8 Hydrostatic Step Bearing 609
16.9 Energy Losses in Hydrostatic Bearing 611
16.10 Reynold’s Equation 619
16.11 Raimondi and Boyd Method 622
16.12 Temperature Rise 624
16.13 Bearing Design—Selection of Parameters 625
16.14 Bearing Constructions 634
16.15 Bearing Materials 635
16.16 Sintered Metal Bearings 637
16.17 Lubricating Oils 637
16.18 Additives for Mineral Oils 639
16.19 Selection of Lubricants 640
16.20 Greases 641
16.21 Bearing Failure—Causes and Remedies 641
16.22 Comparison of Rolling and Sliding Contact Bearings 642
Short-Answer Questions 643
Problems for Practice 644
17. Spur Gears 646
17.1 Mechanical Drives 646
17.2 Gear Drives 647Contents xiii
17.3 Classification of Gears 647
17.4 Selection of Type of Gears 648
17.5 Law of Gearing 649
17.6 Terminology of Spur Gears 650
17.7 Standard Systems of Gear Tooth 653
17.8 Gear Trains 656
17.9 Interference and Undercutting 657
17.10 Backlash 658
17.11 Force Analysis 658
17.12 Gear Tooth Failures 665
17.13 Selection of Material 666
17.14 Gear Blank Design 667
17.15 Number of Teeth 670
17.16 Face Width 671
17.17 Beam Strength of Gear Tooth 672
17.18 Permissible Bending Stress 673
17.19 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 674
17.20 Estimation of Module Based on Beam Strength 677
17.21 Wear Strength of Gear Tooth 678
17.22 Estimation of Module Based on Wear Strength 680
17.23 Internal Gears 688
17.24 Gear Lubrication 690
Short-Answer Questions 690
Problems for Practice 690
18. Helical Gears 694
18.1 Helical Gears 694
18.2 Terminology of Helical Gears 694
18.3 Virtual Number of Teeth 695
18.4 Tooth Proportions 696
18.5 Force Analysis 697
18.6 Beam Strength of Helical Gears 702
18.7 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 702
18.8 Wear Strength of Helical Gears 703
18.9 Herringbone Gears 706
18.10 Crossed Helical Gears 708
Short-Answer Questions 709
Problems for Practice 710
19. Bevel Gears 711
19.1 Bevel Gears 711
19.2 Terminology of Bevel Gears 713
19.3 Force Analysis 715
19.4 Beam Strength of Bevel Gears 720
19.5 Wear Strength of Bevel Gears 722
19.6 Effective Load on Gear Tooth 722xiv Contents
19.7 Spiral Bevel Gears 727
Short-Answer Questions 728
Problems for Practice 728
20. Worm Gears 730
20.1 Worm Gears 730
20.2 Terminology of Worm Gears 731
20.3 Proportions of Worm Gears 733
20.4 Force Analysis 735
20.5 Friction in Worm Gears 737
20.6 Selection of Materials 741
20.7 Strength Rating of Worm Gears 742
20.8 Wear Rating of Worm Gears 744
20.9 Thermal Considerations 745
Short-Answer Questions 747
Problems for Practice 747
21. Flywheel 749
21.1 Flywheel 749
21.2 Flywheel and Governor 750
21.3 Flywheel Materials 750
21.4 Torque Analysis 751
21.5 Coefficient of Fluctuation of Energy 752
21.6 Solid Disk Flywheel 753
21.7 Rimmed Flywheel 755
21.8 Stresses in Rimmed Flywheel 756
Short-Answer Questions 767
Problems for Practice 767
22. Cylinders and Pressure Vessels 768
22.1 Thin Cylinders 768
22.2 Thin Spherical Vessels 769
22.3 Thick Cylinders—Principal Stresses 770
22.4 Lame’s Equation 771
22.5 Clavarino’s and Birnie’s Equations 772
22.6 Cylinders with External Pressure 774
22.7 Autofrettage 775
22.8 Compound Cylinder 775
22.9 Gaskets 779
22.10 Gasketed Joint 780
22.11 Unfired Pressure Vessels 783
22.12 Thickness of Cylindrical and Spherical Shells 785
22.13 End Closures 785
22.14 Openings in Pressure Vessel 791
Short-Answer Questions 794
Problems for Practice 794Contents xv
23. Miscellaneous Machine Elements 796
23.1 Oil Seals 796
23.2 Wire Ropes 797
23.3 Stresses in Wire Ropes 800
23.4 Rope Sheaves and Drums 804
23.5 Buckling of Columns 806
Short-Answer Questions 812
Problems for Practice 812
24. Statistical Considerations in Design 814
24.1 Frequency Distribution 814
24.2 Characteristics of Frequency Curves 816
24.3 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 817
24.4 Probability 819
24.5 Probability Distribution 819
24.6 Normal Curve 821
24.7 Population Combinations 823
24.8 Design and Natural Tolerances 825
24.9 Reliability 829
24.10 Probabilistic Approach to Design 830
Short-Answer Questions 840
Problems for Practice 841
25. Design of IC Engine Components 843
25.1 Internal Combustion Engine 843
25.2 Cylinder and Cylinder Liner 844
25.3 Bore and Length of Cylinder 845
25.4 Thickness of Cylinder Wall 845
25.5 Stresses in Cylinder Wall 846
25.6 Cylinder Head 847
25.7 Design of Studs for Cylinder Head 847
25.8 Piston 853
25.9 Piston Materials 854
25.10 Thickness of Piston Head 854
25.11 Piston Ribs and Cup 855
25.12 Piston Rings 856
25.13 Piston Barrel 857
25.14 Piston Skirt 858
25.15 Piston Pin 858
25.16 Connecting Rod 867
25.17 Buckling of Connecting Rod 868
25.18 Cross-section for Connecting Rod 869
25.19 Big and Small End Bearings 871xvi Contents
25.20 Big End Cap and Bolts 873
25.21 Whipping Stress 875
25.22 Crankshaft 880
25.23 Design of Centre Crankshaft 881
25.24 Centre Crankshaft at Top-Dead Centre Position 881
25.25 Centre Crankshaft at Angle of Maximum Torque 883
25.26 Side Crankshaft at Top-Dead Centre Position 892
25.27 Side Crankshaft at Angle of Maximum Torque 895
25.28 Valve-Gear Mechanism 903
25.29 Design of Valves 904
25.30 Design of Rocker Arm 906
25.31 Design of Valve Spring 910
25.32 Design of Push Rod 911
Short-Answer Questions 922
Problems for Practice 923
References 927
Index 930


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