كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 44
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes    كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes  Emptyالإثنين 04 مارس 2013, 6:48 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes
J. Beddoes & M. J. Bibby
Carleton  University, Canada    

كتاب Principles of Metal Manufacturing Processes  P_o_m_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface
1.  Metal processing and manufacturing
1.1  Introduction
1.2  The manufacturing engineering discipline
1.3  Materials  used in manufacturing
1.4  Raw materials to  finished product
1.5  Primary manufacturing processes  -  steelmaking
1.6  Primary manufacturing processes  -  aluminium production
1.7  Secondary manufacturing
1.8  Problems
2.  Solidification  and  casting processes
2.1  Introduction
2.2  Major  casting techniques
2.3  Solidification mechanism
2.4  Solidification volume shrinkage
2.5  Heat transfer during  solidification
2.6  Defects produced  during casting
2.7  Shape casting materials
2.8  Design  of shape castings for manufacturing
2.9  Problems
Case  study  1" Manufacture  of can  body  stock  -  1. Casting
Case  study 2" Cosworth-Ford  casting process
3.  Stress and  strain  during deformation
3.1  Introduction
3.2  Engineering stress-strain
3.3  True  stress and  true  strain
3.4  Relationship  between engineering and  true  stress-strain
3.5  Deformation  work
3.6  Physical  significance of the  strain  hardening exponent  
91 vi Contents
3.7  Hot  deformation
3.8  Superplasticity
3.9  Problems  
4.  Bulk deformation  processes
4.1  Introduction
4.2  Friction  during  bulk deformation
4.3  Forging
4.4  Extrusion
4.5  Drawing
4.6  Rolling
4.7  Analytical methods  for bulk deformation  processes
4.8  Problems
Case study  3:  Manufacture  of can body stock  -  2.  Rolling  
5.  Sheet forming processes
5.1  Introduction
5.2  Formability
5.3  Shearing
5.4  Bending
5.5  Stretch forming
5.6  Deep drawing
5.7  Effect  of anisotropic  sheet properties  on  formability
5.8  Pressworking  of metals
5.9  Problems
Case  study 4:  Manufacture  of can body stock  -  3.  Sheet forming  
6.  Powder metallurgy
6.1  Introduction
6.2  Powder production
6.3  Powder characteristics
6.4  Powder compaction
6.5  Metal injection moulding
6.6  Problems  
7.  Machining processes
7.1  Introduction
7.2  Mechanical  machining methods
7.3  Nontraditional  machining processes
7.4  Comparison  of methods
7.5  Problems  
8.  Joining  processes
8.1  Introduction
8.2  Welding
8.3  Brazing  
263 Contents vii
8.4  Soldering
8.5  Problems
Case study  5: Processing  to produce  automobile  radiators
Case  study 6: Manufacture  of stainless  steel  automotive  exhaust  systems  
9.  Surface modification  for wear resistance
9.1  Introduction
9.2  Types of wear
9.3  Diffusional  processes
9.4  Flame  and  induction  hardening
9.5  Plating processes
9.6  Thin  film coatings
9.7  Problems  
Appendix A:  Useful constants  309
Appendix  B: Useful conversion  factors  310
Appendix  C:  Hardness conversion  312
Index  313
Index
abrasion  58, 280
abrasive 202
waterjet machining  191,223-4
acetylene 241-2,  265
acrylates 221
activation energy  183, 291-2
adaptive control 223
adhesion 214, 280-1
adhesive 232-3,  264,  280, 282-3
alcohols 221
alligatoring  130-1,  138
alumina  12, 70, 203,  219, 243,  306
aluminium 3, 4,  55, 66,  137, 295
319.2, 62
AA-1100 79, 90,  120, 135, 136, 163, 208
AA-2017 79
AA-3003  270-4
AA-3004 69, 79,  170-2
AA-4004 272
AA-4047 272
AA-4104 272
AA-4343  272-4
AA-5050 265
AA-5052  163
AA-5182 69
AA-6061  265
AA-7072 272
AA-7075  79, 208
A356.2  62
C355.2  62
G6290 62
alloys 206
brazing 267
cans 67-71
casting alloys 60-2
chloride 296
continuous casting 22-3
deep drawing  159
degassing 54
density 260
die casting 30
grain refinement  35
hydrogen solubility 52-3
ingot  18, 20-1,  41,  138
killed  steel  19,  152
limiting draw ratio  160
lubrication  102
machining 212, 223, 229
powder  181,268
primary processing  12-15
radiators  270-4
shape casting 27,  72
shrinkage 36
smelter 38
sow 38-40,  69
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
welding 237, 238, 240, 243,  252, 269
aluminizing 286, 296
amalgams, dental  174
amides 221
ammonia  178, 294-5
ammonium iodide 297
anisotropic sheet  158-62
anisotropy  106
mean  159, 276
planar 276
plastic  159-64,  276
anneal  52, 68, 97,  140, 155, 162, 171, 178,
253, 276-7
anode 223, 225,  300
antifoaming additive  221 314 Index
antifreeze  270, 274
antimicrobial agents 221
antimisting additive 221
antimony 268
apparent density  180-1
arc  177
argon 54, 70,  176-7,  185, 237-8,  304-5
argon-oxygen-decarburization 276, 278
Arrhenius relationship 291
aspiration 55-6
atomic diffusion  183
atomic weight  301-3,  308
atomization  174, 175-7
centrifugal  177-8
gas  176-7,  188
water  175-7,  188
attrition mill 179
austenite  58-9,  256-9,  285-8, 292, 295-6,
297, 299
austenitization 255-6
automobile
body  142, 143, 162, 241,244
camshaft 253
connecting rod  174, 253
crankshaft  174, 253, 301
exhaust 275-8,  296
fuel injection 225
gas tanks 245
radiators 270-4
piston rings  302-3
Avogadro constant 309
back-up rolls  122-3,  125-7,  140
bacteria 221
bainite 258, 261
ball mill 179-80
barrelling  104, 109
basal plane  161
basic oxygen furnace 9,  12,  16
bauxite 4,  12, 70
Bayer Process  12-14,  16,  70
bend radius  147-8
bending  146, 148-50,  155, 162
bending jacks  125, 141
Bernoulli's equation  56-7
Bessemer 1, 21
converter 7-8,  9,  12,  16, 276
beverage  cans 21, 23, 67-71,142,  152, 158,
166, 230, 284
billet 115, 119, 120, 135
biocides 221
bismuth 208, 268, 273
blankholder  152-4
blast furnaces 4-7,  12, 59
blisters  52
blowholes  19
body centred cubic  161,275
bodymaker 166-70
borates 221
boring  193-6
boron nitride  97
brass 220, 270
brazing 218, 232-3,  250, 263-7,  269
dip 267
fluxless 273
furnace 265-7,  270
sheet 272-3
torch 265, 267
brinelling 280, 284-5
bronze 30,  131,220
buckling 115
built-up edge 215-16,  220-1
burr  144-5, 223
cadmium 253, 268, 302
calciners  14
calcium carbonate  5
camshaft 253
can body stock  138-41,  166-72
canmaking  166
capacitor 300
capillary 264
car body 142, 143, 162, 241,244
carbide 214, 216-17, 220, 303
carbon 7, 8, 9,  12,  14-15,  57-60,  66, 216,
242, 257, 276-7,  296, 306
dioxide 8,  15,  19, 27,  185, 228, 235, 287
electrodes  10,  12
equivalent  concentration 261
interstitial  in steel 143
monoxide 5, 8, 9,  12,  15,  185, 287
oxidize 178
steel 9, 206-8, 215, 253, 285, 299
carbonaceous  184, 285
carbonitriding 286, 295-6
carburizing 285-95,  306
flame 242
gas 286, 287-8,  307
liquid  286, 288
pack 286, 287
case 285, 288, 295-6,  307
case depth 286, 288, 292-3 Index 315
cast iron  5, 27,  36, 57-61,  66, 72, 206, 229
ductile  60-1
gray 58-9,  220
malleable 60
nodular 60-1
white 57-60
cast cobalt tool 216-17
casting  18-75,  107, 190
continuous  12,  16, 21-3,  24,  35, 47-9,  63,
71, 76, 122, 171,179,  276
die 27-8,  30, 62
direct chill 20-1,  35, 70
electromagnetic 21,  70,  140
gravity 27,  30
Hazelett 23
ingot  16,  18-21,  23, 24, 63, 76,  115, 122,
170-1
investment 29-30,  187
lost-wax 29-30
permanent mould 27-30
sand 25-7,  30,  36-8,  55-6,  61-2,  73,
216
shape  16, 23-30,  57-61,  63, 229, 290
catalytic converters 245, 275, 276
cathode 225, 300, 302, 308
cathodic 274
caustic soda  12
cavitation 280-1,282
cementation 296-7,  308
cemented carbide  173
cementite 58-60,  256
centrifugal atomization  177-8
ceramic 217-18
characteristic hardness curve 258, 261
charcoal 287
checkers 8
chemical  vapour deposition  304-6
chill crystals 31-5
chip  190-1,209-11,  221,223
thickness 209-10,  213, 230
undeformed  thickness  194, 196, 198, 201,
203-7
chlorine  54, 70, 221
chromic acid  302
chromium  179, 216, 227, 263, 268, 276, 295,
297, 302
chromium carbides 276
chromium sesquioxide  268
chromizing 286, 296-7
chuck  192-3
Chvorinov's rule 46-7
clad 253, 272
coal  5
coated carbides  218, 305
cobalt 216, 227
coils  123, 140, 142, 238, 254
induction  299
magnetic 226
transformer 254, 298
coke 5-6,  178
cold isostatic pressing  182
Coldstream process  179-80
collapsible  tube  115
columnar  grains 32-5,  39, 234
combustion  140
comminution  179
compaction
cold  174, 181-3,  185, 187, 188
hot  174, 181,185
computer  140, 162, 188, 222,  246
aided design 223
aided manufacturing  223
integrated manufacturing  223
concrete 5
connecting rod  173-4
constituent particles  170-1
continuous  casting  12,  16, 21-3,  24,  35,
47-9,  63, 71, 76,  122, 171,179,  276
continuous  cooling transformation  diagram
257-8
continuous  path control  222
contouring control 222
cope 25-6,  61
copper 4, 21-3,  33-4,  174, 179, 204, 224,
230, 240
cutting energy 206
density  181, 184, 260
hydrogen solubility 53
limiting draw ratio  160
machining 208, 212
plating 302-3
radiator 270
roll bonding 253
shrinkage  36
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
thermal expansion  36
tubing 299
welding  242, 252
copper sulphate  179
core 25-6,  62, 74
coring 34, 49, 66 316 Index
corrosion  220,  234, 242, 253, 262-3,  270,
274, 276-7,  279, 296, 302-3
corrosion inhibitors  221
Cosworth process 27, 61, 72-5
counterboring  200
countersinking  200
crankshaft  174, 253, 301
creep 278
crucible 243-4
cryolite  15
cupper  166, 167
cupping  143, 166-8
cutting  144-6,  195
depth  191,195,  201,204-5,  207, 209-10,
213-15,  219-20,  229, 230
edge  191-2,  194, 196, 198-9,  201-6,  213,
229
efficiency 204-7
feed  191-2,  207
fluid  190, 220-2
laser 227-8
mechanics 209
specific energy 203-7
speed  191, 192, 194, 207, 214, 215, 219,
220, 222
thread  194
tool  190, 215,  222
cyanide 296
cyaniding 296
dead metal zone  115-16
deep drawability 276
deep drawing 68,  152-5,  157-9,  162, 164-7
deformation
bulk  16, 24,  76,  99-137,  147
cold 95
elastic 77-8,  81-2,  86, 254
homogeneous  78, 86-8,  98,  108
hot 91-4,  97,  98,  111, 187
ideal work of 89-90,  96,  108, 136, 230
inhomogeneous  93,  129, 130-1,  138
local 251-2,  254
mechanical  251
plane strain  111
plane stress  111
plastic  58,  77-8,  80-2,  86, 91, 97, 99,
143-5,  158-60,  170, 182, 190, 246, 254,
281,284
pressure  119
resistance  119
shear 211
sheet  16, 76
work 88-91,121,211
degas  22,  54-5,  68,  70
degree of densification  181
dendrite  32-4,  41, 49-50,  63,  107
dendritic  173, 179
density 4, 42-5,  47,  183, 187-9,  260, 308, 310
apparent  180-1,  187
energy 240
full  181,187
green  182, 185
powder  180
power 226, 227
tap  180-1
detergent 221
dewaxing  184
die
blocker  103-4
casting 27-8,  30, 62
clearance  144-5
closed  103-4,  112-13
extrusion  115, 117
finishing  103-4
geometry factor  148-9
holder  117
impression  104
open  103-4,  112, 113
wiping  149, 163
dielectric  224-5
diffuse  177, 242, 288, 290, 294, 296
diffusion  92,  187, 221,230,  253, 285-97
activation energy  193, 291-2
atomic 42,  183
bonding 254, 264
constant  183, 289-94,  306
flow 288-91
flux 289-90
frequency factor  183, 291-2
grain boundary  96,  183
hydrogen 236
layer 264-5
surface  183
volume  183
direct reduction  7
dislocation  58, 78, 92,  143, 172
draft 61-2,  105
drag 25-6,  61
drawing 99-100,  102, 117, 121-2,  128, 133,
155-6,  162
deep 68,  152-5,  157-9,  162, 164-7
re-  154-8,  166-8,  172, 230 Index 317
drill bit  197-9
drill press  195, 198, 205
drilling  190, 196-9,  206,  223,  227,  229
dry scrubber  15
ductile tears  83
ductility 80,  82,  171
dynamic recovery 92,  96,  127
dynamic recrystallization 92, 96,  127
earing  159, 171,277
ears  159, 170-1,276
eddy current  298-9
Einstein equation  293
elastic limit 3
elastic modulus  77,  148, 149, 248,  310
elastic-plastic method  135
electric arc furnace  9,  16, 22,  276
electric arc welding 233-40
electrical discharge machining  191,224-6
electrochemical 300
electrochemical machining  191,223-5
electrode  10,  12, 224-5,  233-40,  244,  257
electrode coating 235-6
electrodeposition  302
electroless 300,  303
electrolysis  174, 179, 301
electrolyte  179, 225,  300,  302
electrolytic cell  179, 223,  300
electromagnetic
casting 21,  70,  140
pumping  72-3
electron 226,  236,  237
beam drilling 226-7
beam heating  304
beam machining  191,226-7,  244
beam welding 233,  241,244
charge 309
rest mass  309
volt 309
electroplating 300, 302-3,  308
elongation  79,  80,  96,  98,  171
emulsion  169, 221
engineering strain  77,  80-2,  85,  87, 97,  136
engineering stress 76-8,  80-1,  87-8,  96,  97
equivalent carbon  concentration  261
erode 279
erosion  223,  280-1
cavitation 280-1,282
impingement 280-1,282
resistant  304
slurry 280-1,282
Euler bending  formula  248
eutectic 50,  57-9,  61,  65
eutectoid  58-9,  258
exothermic  187, 243
explosion  39,  140, 187, 288
explosive welding 233
extreme pressure  additive 221
extrusion  82, 99-100,  115-21,128,  133, 134
backward  115-16
cold  117-20,  135
forward  115-17
hot  120-1
impact  115-16,  120, 164, 165
lubrication  102
multiplying factor  118
pressure  117-18
ratio  118
face centred cubic  161-2
facing  193-4,  204, 206,  229
Faraday's laws 300-3
fatigue
failure  177
strength  253
surface 279,  280,  284-5
fatty oils  102
feed rods  193
feed screws  193
ferric oxide  178
ferrite 59-60,  208,  256,  258,  261
ferromanganese  19
ferrosilicon  19
Fick's first law 289-90
Fick's  second law 290
filler metal 232, 236,  238,  24071,  243,  250,
263-7
finite element method  134-5
fire extinguishers  120-1
flame carburizing 242
flame hardening  297-8
flank  192, 198, 199, 202
flash gutters  103-4
flask 25-6
flat rolling  111,146
flatness  141, 166
flexible manufacturing  223
flow stress  107, 110, 113, 121
fluid mechanics  18
incompressible  133
inviscid  133
fluorides  15, 54, 272 318 Index
flute  198-9
flux 9,  12, 54, 70, 235, 239, 272, 289-90,  298
fool's gold 5
forging 34, 82, 99-100,  102, 103-15,  128,
133, 134, 211
closed die  103-4,  112-13
cylinders  107-11
impression  103-4,  112-13
open die  103-4,  112, 114, 135
rectangular parts  111-12,  129
formability 34, 69, 91, 95,  142-4,  151, 158,
162, 171,270,  276-7
forming limit  151
forming limit diagram  152, 17 i
fossil fuel 8, 52, 69, 72,  140, 185
four-high mill  122-3,  125, 129, 136, 138-41
Fourier 42
frequency factor  183, 291-2
fretting 280-1,282-3
friction 91, 97,  100-3,  109, 115, 123, 127,
128-9,  132, 135, 136, 157, 170, 279
angle 211-12
chip-tool 210-11
coefficient of 100-2,  109-11,  119, 122,
129, 135, 136, 137, 213-14,  220, 230,
282
multiplying factor  109-10
pressure  119
resistance  119
slipping  101
sticking  101, 109, 119, 129
welding 233, 252
furnace  72,  173, 263, 287
basic oxygen 9,  12,  16
batch  140
blast 4-7,  12, 59
brazing 265-7, 270
continuous 266
electric 72-3,  185
electric arc 9,  16, 22, 276
elements  174
explosion 288
holding 69, 73
reheat 22
reverberatory 69
vacuum 274
fusion welding 232, 254
fusion zone 234-5,  239, 255-60
galling 280, 282-4
galvanizing 296
gangue 5,  178
garnet 223
gas
atomization  176-7,  188
carbonitriding 295
carburizing 282, 287-8,  307
constant, universal  183
de- 22, 54-5,  68,  70
metal arc welding 233
natural 287, 295
nitriding 294
porosity 52-5,  63, 66,  177, 236, 237
turbine  174, 186-7, 223, 282, 304, 306
welding 233, 241-4
Gaussian error function 42-3,  290-1
generalized  tool life equation 219-20
glass  102-3
glycol 270
gold 5,  174, 210, 303
Goldschmidt process 268
grain
boundary  31, 96, 276
boundary diffusion  183
boundary sliding 96
columnar 32-5,  39, 234
equiaxed  34-5,  127
growth  127
rearrangement  96
refine 34_5,  68, 70
size 27, 40, 95-6
structure  106, 140
graphite  18, 58-60,  72,  102-3,  111,186, 224,
253-4
gravity casting 27, 30
green density  182, 185
green strength  181
grinding  190, 196, 202-3,  205-6, 230, 243,
280
haematite 5
Hall-Hrroult  1,  12,  14-16, 70
hard chromium plating 302-3
hardenability 257-8
hardness 91, 92, 95,  171, 173, 214, 216-17,
257, 260-1,269,  281,285,  296
Hazelett casting 22
headstock  192-4
health and safety
acne 221
antimisting additive 221
carbonitriding 296 Index 319
carburizing 287-8
casting 22,  39-40,  47
degassing 54
dermatitus 221
explosion  39,  140, 187, 288
eye damage 235
metallic dust  187
tumours  221
welding safety 235, 244
hearth  6, 69
open  8,  16
heat
affected zone 234-5,  239, 252, 255-64,
269
capacity 42-3,  221
conduction  183
conductive flow 290
exchangers 245, 253-4
flux 41, 43-4,  64
latent 31-2,  44-5,  47,  64, 69, 255, 256
dimensionless 47
sink 42
specific 45, 47, 259-60,  311
transfer  18, 20,  33, 38, 40-9,  246, 258-9,
270, 287-8
treatment 3,  15-16,  52, 63,  174, 208, 227,
258, 279, 296, 308
helium 237
hexagonal close packed  161, 164
high speed  steels 216-17,  220
Hrgan~is process  178
Hollomon equation  85,  87-90,  97, 98,  107,
113
homogenization  68,  71,170
Hooke's law 77,  86
hot cracking 62
hot isostatic pressing  185-7,  189
hot line  138-40
hydrocarbons  185
hydrofluoric acid  306
hydrogen  19, 52-4,  66,  70, 72,  178, 185, 236,
262, 294, 302
ice 36
ideal deformation  work  89-90,  96,  108, 136,
230
incandescent light bulbs  173
inclusions  55, 69-70,  72,  171,177
Inconel 208, 223
indentor  251
induction coil 299-300
induction hardening  297-300,  306, 308
induction heating 298-300
industrial revolution  1, 7
ingate 25, 57
ingot  16, 23,  38, 63,  76,  99,  103, 115, 122,
129, 171,253,  272
aluminium 20-1,  41,  69-70,  138
capped  19-20
killed  19
rimmed  19-20
semikilled  19
steel 18-20
injection moulding  187-8
interdendritic  34, 49
internal energy  133
interstitial  143-4,  291
investment casting 29-30,  187
inviscid  133
ions 236, 238, 304
iron 9,  170, 216, 243,  291
density 260
hydrogen solubility  53
powder  174, 178
specific heat 260
thermal conductivity 260
iron ore 4, 5, 8
iron oxide 9, 243, 280
iron powder  177-8,  181
iron pyrite 5
ironing 68, 70,  157-8,  166-72,  230, 284
isostatic pressing  174, 189
cold  182
hot  185-7,  189
joining  16, 76, 232-74
Kelly, William  1
keyhole method 240
kinetic energy 281
ladle 5-6,  15, 21, 25,  30,  38,  54, 69, 72
laser
carbon dioxide 228
cutting 227-8
machining  191,227-8
neodymium doped  yttrium aluminium
garnet 228
neodymium-glass 228
latent heat 31-2,  44-5,  47, 64, 69, 255, 256
lathe  192-3,  204-6,  229, 230
launder 20, 55, 69-70 320  Index
lead 22-3,  179, 208, 212, 253, 268, 302
lime 8, 9,  12
limestone 5, 8,  178
limit  analysis  133
limiting draw ratio  155-6,  160
linear control 222
liquid carbonitriding 296
liquid carburizing 286, 288
liquidus 33
lost-wax 29-30
lower bound  133
lubricant  101-3,  119, 125, 127, 131,135,
136, 137, 140-1,166-7,  170, 174, 181,
184, 198, 208, 220-1,279,  282, 285
lubrication  101-3,  129, 136, 157, 169, 181,
221,284
Liiders lines 143-4
luminous zone 241-2
machinability 60, 91,207-9,  222, 233
machining  16, 20, 30, 76, 91,  107, 173, 188,
190-231
boring  193-6
comparison of methods 228-9
electrical discharge  191,224-6
electrochemical  191,223-5
electron beam  191,226-7,  244
laser  191,227-8
mechanical  191-223
Merchant's  analysis 21 O- 12, 230
metal removal rate  191, 194-6,  198,
203-7,  228-9
multiple point  196-203
nontraditional 223-9
orthogonal 209, 213, 214, 230
power 203-7,  228
single point  191-6
time  191
waterjet  191,223-4,  229
machinist 222
macroporosity 37, 39, 46, 49, 52, 65
magnesium 4, 35, 60, 66,  170, 237, 243, 268,
273
magnetic 298, 305
magnetic permeability 299
magnetite  5,  178
magnetrons 305
malleable  253
manganese 7, 9,  12, 70,  170, 179, 216, 257,
263, 295
martensite 208, 256-9,  262-3, 277, 285, 297
martensitic 257-8,  260-2,  269, 294, 299
mass transport  183, 290, 293
mean anisotropy  159
mechanical  fasteners 232-3
mechanical  machining  191-23
Merchant's analysis 21 O- 12, 230
metal inert gas arc welding 237-8,  241,260,
267, 277
metal injection moulding  187-8
metal removal rate  191, 194-6,  198, 203-7,
228-9
metal powder  173, 174
metallic dust  187
methane 287
microelectronics  268
microporosity 49-52,  57, 66
microsegregation 34, 49, 57
mill
attrition  179
ball mill  179-80
breakdown  122, 124, 138-9, 272
cold  136
end 202
face 202
four-high  122-3,  125, 129, 136, 138-41
hot 71
mini-  12, 22
peripheral 202
planetary  126
reversing  122, 127
.rolling 23,  122-32,  136, 253
scale 178
Sendzimir  125-7,  129
stiffness 129
tandem  123, 125, 127, 138-40
tumbler ball mill  179-80
two-high  122-4,  136
vibratory ball  179
milling  190, 196, 199-202, 205-7, 222, 230
mineral oil  102, 11 O, 131, 136, 137, 221
mini-mill  12, 22
Mohr's circle 171
molybdenum 174, 179, 180, 216, 227, 263,
295
molybdenum disulfide  103
moment of inertia 249, 311
Mond process 305
monel 34
mould  18, 20-8,  31-3,  36, 41, 43, 47, 63, 64,
70-1,  72-3,  182, 243
multiple point tool  191, 196 Index 321
mushy zone 33, 49-51
near net shaping  173, 186
necking 78, 80, 82-3,  91, 93, 95, 96, 98,  122,
143, 151-2,  157, 160, 164, 171-2, 276
neodymium doped yttrium aluminium
garnet laser 228
neodymium-glass laser 228
neutral axis 147-8, 247, 249-50
neutral flame 241
neutral point  128
nickel 4, 33-4,  53,  179, 186, 216, 227, 253,
260, 263, 276, 302-3,  305
nickel carbonyl 305
nickel sulphate  303
niobium 35, 216, 277
nitralloy 295
nitriding 286, 294.-5
nitrogen 8-9,  12,  16, 54, 70,  72,  143, 185,
189, 239, 244, 276-7,  288, 294-6
NOCOLOK 272
numerically controlled  190-1,222-3
octahedral planes  161-2
olivine sand 223
Olsen cupping test  143, 162
open hearth  8-9
orange peel  143
outer envelope 241-2
oxidation  185, 187, 234, 265, 268, 278, 297,
304
oxidative wear 280, 283-5
oxidizing flame 242
oxyacetylene 296, 297
pack carburizing 286, 287
parallel axis theorem 249
parting line 63
passivate  188
pasteurization  170
pattern 25-6,  36, 61
pearlite  58-9,  208, 258, 261
pentlandite  ore 305
permanent mould casting 27-30
petroleum solvents 221
phase diagram  51
A1-Si 65
Cu-Ni  34
Fe-C  58
phosphorus 7, 9,  12, 59
photon 227
physical vapour deposition 304-5
piezoelectric  254
pig iron 4, 7, 8,  12,  16,  17,  18
pipelines  235
pitting 280, 284-5
planar anisotropy 277
plane strain  111,129
plane stress  111
planetary mill  126
planing  190, 195-7,  205-6
plasma 233, 305
plasma arc welding 233, 240
plastic  anisotropy  159-64, 276
plastic  injection moulding  187
plastics 4, 91,187,  303
plate  122, 138, 253
plate shear  138-9
platen  107-11,135,  253
plating 300-3,  308
polybutanes 221
polyglycols 221
polymers 4
porosity  173
casting  19, 28, 63, 73
gas 52-5,  63, 66,  177, 236, 237
macro 37, 39, 46, 49,  52, 65
micro 49-52,  57, 66
residual  184
solidification  63
potassium fluoraluminate 272
potassium silver cyanide 308
potential function  133
potline  15, 69
pots  15, 38
pouring basin 25, 55
powder 268
density  180
metallurgy 173-89
production  175-80
power  133, 136, 137, 165
acoustical 254
cutting 215
extrusion  119-21
forging  108
machining  191,203-7,  228
rolling  126, 128-32
precipitators  13-14
preheating 262-3,  269
press brake  146-7
pressure vessels 235, 239
pressure welding 250-1 322  Index
pressworking  162
printed circuit boards  254
prismatic plane  161
propane  265
propellors  281
pulverization  174, 175, 179-80
punch pressure  119-20
punch-stretch  test  151
pyramidal planes  161
Pyron process  178
pyrophoric  187
Pythagoras's theorem  129
quench 287, 296, 299
quench hardened 285, 294, 297
radiator 268, 270-4
rails 8, 244
reaming  199-200
recrystallization 34, 92, 99,  107, 113, 115,
127
recrystallize  140, 276
recycle  12, 69, 223
red mud  13-14
redrawing  154-8,  166-8,  172, 230
reducing flame 265
reduction  in area 80, 96,  148
reduction,  of metal oxides  177-9
redundant  work 90-1,109
refrigerators 252, 254
regenerators 8
residual  stress  62, 245-9,  256
resistance welding 233, 244-5
resistivity 299
reverse polarity 236-8,  241,267
rigid-viscoplastic  method  135
ring compression test  114
riser 25-7,  36, 37-8,  46,  51,  57, 59, 63, 64-5
rivet 233, 285
Rockwell 286, 287, 294, 312
roll bonding 233, 253-4,  272
rolling 82, 99-100,  102, 117, 122-34,  163
breakdown 253
can stock  138-41
cold  123, 125, 127, 129, 131,136,  138-44,
152, 158, 171,272,  277
flat  111,128-9,  142, 146
forces  128-32
hot  127, 129, 138-41,  170-1,272
mill 23,  122-32,  136, 253
power  128-32
separating force  132, 136
torque  130, 132
rotating electrode process  177-8
runners  25,  57
salt 267, 274, 275, 288, 296, 303
sand
casting 25-7,  30, 36-8,  55-6,  61-2,  73,
216
olivine 223
silica 223
zircon  73-4
scalp 20,  68,  71
scoring  170, 284
scuffing 284
segregation 20,  173
micro- 34, 49,  57
seizure  280, 282-3
semi-conductor  254
Sendzimir mill  125-7,  129
sensitization  276-7
shape  analysis  162
shape casting  16, 23-30,  57-61,  63, 229, 290
shape  sensor roll  141
shaping  190, 195-7,  205-6,  229
shear
angle 209, 212, 215, 230
plane 209-12
spinning  150
strength  119, 145, 211,230
stress  101, 171
shearing  144-6,  162, 170
sheet forming  142-72
sheet metal  82, 99,  136, 142, 144-7,  244
shielded (manual) metal arc welding 233,
235-7,  240, 260, 267, 269
shipbuilding  239
shrinkage 244
centreline  63
liquid  36
solid 36
solidification 25,  36-41,  53,  59, 62,  186,
245
volume 36
SiAION 219
siderite 5
Sievert's law 53
silica 73, 223
silicon  7, 9,  15,  19, 27,  61,  71,170,  253, 257,
268, 297
silicon  carbide 203 Index 323
silicon nitride  219
siliconizing 286,  296-7
silver 5,  174, 268,  303, 308
single point tool  191-6
sinter  173-4,  187-8
sintering  181, 183-5,  187
skin effect 299
skip incline  5-6
slag 5-6,  7,  8, 9,  12,  19, 21,  54, 70,  171,
235-6,  243
slip-line  analysis  133-5
slip systems  143, 159-62
slipping friction  101
slitter  138-9
slitting 68,  1.46, 272
slug  115-16,  120, 165
smelter 38, 68-9
soap  102, 222
sodium
aluminate  13-14
carbonate 296
chloride 296
cyanate 296
cyanide 288, 296
hypophosphite 303
solderability 270
soldering 232, 250,  267
solid solution  170
solid state welding 232, 250-4
solidification  18-75,  107, 171, 176, 239
directional  234
expansion 268
mechanism  30-5
pipe 37-8
porosity 63
shrinkage 25,  36-41,  53,  59, 62,  186,
245
time 43-4
solidus 33, 263,  270, 272,  274
solute atmosphere  143-4
sow 38-40,  69
spalling 280, 284-5
specific cutting energy 203-7
specific energy 88
specific heat 45, 47, 259-60,  311
spinning  150
split ends  130
spray can  115
springback  147-9,  269
sprue 25-7,  55-7,  63
sputtering  304-5
stainless steel  186, 213,
austenitic 207-8,  260, 276,  308
exhaust systems 275-9
ferritic  275-8,  296,  308
lubrication  102
martensitic  260
nitriding  295
roll bonding 253
sensitization 276-7
type 302 79, 86, 91,  110-11,230
type  304 208
type 409 276
type 410 79,  86,  189
welding 238, 240,  242
stamping  162
steadite  59
steel 3,  18,  102, 212,  223
AISI  1008 79,  163
AISI  1015 79
AISI  1016 214
AISI1020  207, 208
AISI  1035 220
AISI  1040 208
AISI  1045 79
AISI  1060 220
AISI  1112 207, 208
AISI  3140 208
AISI 4140 208
AISI 4350 220
AISI  8620 79
alloy 206
aluminium killed  152
aluminized  275
carbon  9, 206-8,  215, 253, 285, 299
continuous casting 21-2
converters  7-12,  16
degassing 54
deoxidized  19
ductile  155
embrittle  8
grain refinement  35
high carbon  220
high speed 216-17,  220
ingot casting  18-20
integrated  mills  12
limiting draw  ratio  160
low alloy 9, 257-8,  260, 263,  269, 277
low carbon  76-8,  143, 162, 208, 229, 285,
297,  308
low interstitial  144
lubrication  102 324 Index
steel cont.
mild 23, 230, 275
mini-mill  12, 22
nitralloy 295
nitriding 295
plain carbon  12, 263, 277
SAE1010 291
scrap 7,  12
shrinkage 36
tool  135, 162, 180
steelmaking 4-12,  178, 185, 189
sticking friction  101, 109, 119, 129
stimulated emission  227
straight line control 222
straight polarity 236-7,  240-1,267
strain
elastic  78
engineering  77, 80-2,  84-5,  97,  136
hardening 78, 91, 96, 99,  108, 117, 123,
127, 133, 137, 155, 157, 172, 182
hardening exponent 79, 85-6,  91, 95, 96,
107, 143, 151,162,  164, 208, 276
incremental 81-2
inhomogeneous 83
major  152
minor  152
plane  111,129
plastic 78
rate 92-3,  95, 96, 97, 98,  107-9,  113, 115,
120, 130, 133-5
rate sensitivity exponent 79, 94,  108, 151
rate  strength constant 79, 93,  108
true 80-9,  93, 96, 97, 99,  107-8,  135, 136,
147-8,  163, 276
strand  21, 76
stream function  133
strength constant 79, 85, 96,  107, 164
stress
0.2%  offset yield 78
corrosion cracking 262
drawing  121
elastic  86
engineering  76-8,  80-1,  87-8, 96, 97
flow 107, 110, 113, 121
mean true flow 89, 96,  117, 129, 130-1
plane  111
relieving 63, 263
residual 62, 245-9,  256, 263
shear  101,171
thermal 62, 246
true 80-2,  86-9,  93, 96, 98, 99,  113, 120
yield 78,  135, 148, 154
stretch forming  150-2,  162
stretcher strain marks  143
strip  123, 128-9,  136, 142, 144
sublimation 228
submerged arc welding 233, 239, 241,260,
268
sulphate 302
sulphonates 221
sulphonic acids 221
sulphur 5, 7, 9,  12,  178, 221,239
sulphur dioxide  15
superalloys  174, 208, 223
superplasticity 95-6,  97, 98
surface
diffusion  183
energy 31,  183-4
machined  191,193,  197, 200
tension  183
transient  191,193,  197, 200
work  191,193,  197
swarf 223
tailstock  150, 193
talc 25
tandem mill 123, 125, 127, 138-40
tantalum 216
tap density  180-1
Taylor tool life equation 219-20,  230
temper  171-2
temper roll  143
texture  140, 159-62,  171,276-7
thermal
conduction 255
conductivity 41, 42, 45, 47, 74, 214, 216,
259-60,  270, 311
diffusivity 42,  183
distortion  185
expansion  123
expansion coefficient 36, 74
gradients 245
shock 294
shock resistance  216
shrinkage  105
stress  62, 246
undercooling 33-4
welding 233, 241-5
thermally activated  183, 187, 291,294-5
thermit welding 233, 241,243-4,  268
thermoplastic  187
thin film 303-6 Index 325
tin  212, 253, 268,  302
titanium  13, 35,  161,186,  223,  277,  295
density 4, 260
diboride  35,  70
limiting draw  ratio  160
powder  177
specific heat  260
thermal conductivity  260
welding 244
tool
age  1
carbide  214,  303,  305-6
face  191-2
feed  193
generalized life equation  219-20
life 207-8,  214,  219-20
materials 214-19
multiple point  191
post  192-3,211,230
rake  angle 209,  212,  214,  230
single-point  191-6
Taylor life equation  219-20,  230
wear  191, 213-20
top  gas  5
torch  241-2,  265,  267,  296
toxicity 221
transformer 254,  298
transistor inverter  300
transport,  mass  183, 290,  293
Tresca  101, 119
tribological 279
tribology 279
true strain  80-9,  93,  96,  97,  99,  107-8,  135,
136, 147-8,  163, 276
true  stress  80-2,  86-9,  93,  96,  98,  99,  113,
120
tumbler ball mill  179-80
tundish  21-4,  175-6
tungsten  173, 177- 9,  180, 216,  223,  227, 238,
240,  295
tungsten carbide  180, 216,  223,  230
tungsten  inert gas arc welding 233,  238-9,
260,  267, 277
turbine
airfoils 224
blades  30
discs  174
gas  174, 186-7,  223,  282,  304, 306
turning  190-6,  220,  230
tuy+res 7, 276
two-high mill  122-4,  136
ultimate tensile strength  62,  78,  79, 98,  141,
148,  164, 276
ultrasonic welding 233,  254-5,  277
ultraviolet  305
undeformed  chip thickness  194, 196, 198,
201,203-7
undercool  31-2,  33-4
constitutional  33-4
thermal  33-4
universal  gas constant  183, 291,309
upper  bound  114, 130,. 133
upsetting  107-11
cold  107-8,  110-11
hot  108-9
valence 301-3,  308
vanadium  35, 216
vibratory ball mill  179
Vickers pyramid hardness  257,  261-2,  312
viscoelastic 4
viscosity  102
visioplasticity  134
volume
constancy  83, 85,  94,  110, 133
diffusion  183
expansion  244
water atomization  175-7,  188
water glass 27
waterjet machining  191,223-4
WC-Co  216-18
wear  101-2,  253, 279-308
adhesion  280-1
adhesive 280, 282-3
impact 280,  284-5
oxidative 280, 283-5
polishing  280
tool  191,213-20
weldability 233, 276-7
welding 214,  232-63,  264,  282,  303
butt  234,  240, 245-7,  249-50,  255,  269
cold  182, 183
cooling time 258-63
current  260
distortion  245-50
electric arc 233
electron  beam 233,241,244
explosive 233
fillet 234,  246-7,  249
forge  249-50
friction  233,  252 326  Index
welding cont.
fusion 232-50,  254, 256
gas 233, 241-4
gas metal arc 233
heat affected zone 234-5, 239, 252,
256-64,  269
heat transfer efficiency 260, 268
laser 227
metal inert gas arc 237-8, 241,260,  277
microstructure 254-63
plasma arc 233, 240-1
preheating 262-3,  269
pressure 250-2
properties 254-63
resistance  233, 244-5
roll bonding 233, 253-4
seam 233, 244-5,  272
shielded  (manual) metal arc 233, 235-7,
240, 260, 267, 269
solid state 232, 250-4
speed 259-62,  269
spot 233, 244-5,  250
submerged arc 233, 239, 241,260, 268
thermal 233, 241-5
thermit 233, 241,243-4,  268
torch 241-2
tungsten inert gas arc 233, 238-9, 241,
260, 277
ultrasonic 233, 254-5,  277
voltage 260
wet 264
wire  121,237-9
work 310
deformation 88-91,121,211
hardening 91-2,  97,  172
ideal deformation 89-90,  96,  108, 136, 230
redundant 90-1,  109
rolls  122-3,  125-7,  129, 136, 140-1
surface  191,193,  197
X-ray gauge  138-9
yeasts 221
yield strength 3, 62, 79, 97,  121-2,  141,149,
159, 171-2, 213, 246, 276
yield stress 78,  135, 148, 154
Young's modulus 77, 86
zinc 4, 5, 22-3,  30,  160-1,  164, 165, 268,
274, 296, 302
zircon 73-4
zirconium 244, 277


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