كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach
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 كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach

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كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach   كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach Emptyالأحد 10 فبراير 2013, 10:51 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach 9th Edition
Yunus A. Cengei
Michael A. Boles
Mehmet Kanoglu  

كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach Y_a_c_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


B R I E F C O N T E N T S
Chapter O N E
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 1
Chapter T W O
ENERGY, ENERGY TRANSFER, AND GENERAL ENERGY ANALYSIS 51
Chapter T H R E E
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 109
Chapter F O U R
ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED SYSTEMS 161
Chapter F I V E
MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CONTROL VOLUMES 211
Chapter S I X
THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 271
Chapter S E V E N
ENTROPY 323
Chapter E I G H T
EXERGY 413
Chapter N I N E
GAS POWER CYCLES 475
Chapter T E N
VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER CYCLES 543
Chapter E L E V E N
REFRIGERATION CYCLES 597
Chapter T W E L V E
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY RELATIONS 643
Chapter T H I R T E E N
GAS MIXTURES 675
Chapter F O U R T E E N
GAS–VAPOR MIXTURES AND AIR-CONDITIONING 711
Chapter F I F T E E N
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 747
Chapter S I X T E E N
CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 791
Chapter S E V E N T E E N
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 823
Chapter E I G H T E E N ( W E B Chapter )
RENEWABLE ENERGYix
BRIEF CONTENTS
A P P E N D I X 1
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) 881
A P P E N D I X 2
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) 931C O N T E N T S
Preface xvii
Chapter O N E
INTRODUCTION AND BASIC
CONCEPTS 1
1–1 Thermodynamics and Energy 2
Application Areas of Thermodynamics 3
1–2 Importance of Dimensions and Units 3
Some SI and English Units 6
Dimensional Homogeneity 8
Unity Conversion Ratios 9
1–3 Systems and Control Volumes 10
1–4 Properties of a System 12
Continuum 12
1–5 Density and Specific Gravity 13
1–6 State and Equilibrium 14
The State Postulate 14
1–7 Processes and Cycles 15
The Steady-Flow Process 16
1–8 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of
Thermodynamics 17
Temperature Scales 17
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 20
1–9 Pressure 21
Variation of Pressure with Depth 23
1–10 Pressure Measurement Devices 26
The Barometer 26
The Manometer 29
Other Pressure Measurement Devices 32
1–11 Problem-Solving Technique 33
Step 1: Problem Statement 33
Step 2: Schematic 33
Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations 34
Step 4: Physical Laws 34
Step 5: Properties 34
Step 6: Calculations 34
Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion 34
Engineering Software Packages 35
Equation Solvers 36
A Remark on Significant Digits 37
Summary 38
References and Suggested Readings 39
Problems 39
Chapter T W O
ENERGY, ENERGY TRANSFER, AND
GENERAL ENERGY ANALYSIS 51
2–1 Introduction 52
2–2 Forms of Energy 53
Some Physical Insight to Internal Energy 55
More on Nuclear Energy 56
Mechanical Energy 58
2–3 Energy Transfer by Heat 60
Historical Background on Heat 61
2–4 Energy Transfer by Work 62
Electrical Work 65
2–5 Mechanical Forms of Work 66
Shaft Work 66
Spring Work 67
Work Done on Elastic Solid Bars 67
Work Associated with the Stretching of a Liquid Film 68
Work Done to Raise or to Accelerate a Body 68
Nonmechanical Forms of Work 70
2–6 The First Law of Thermodynamics 70
Energy Balance 71
Energy Change of a System, ?Esystem 72
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer, Ein and Eout 73
2–7 Energy Conversion Efficiencies 78
Efficiencies of Mechanical and Electrical Devices 82
2–8 Energy and Environment 85
Ozone and Smog 86
Acid Rain 87
The Greenhouse Effect: Global Warming and Climate
Change 88
Topic of Special Interest: Mechanisms of
Heat Transfer 91
Summary 96
References and Suggested Readings 97
Problems 97
Chapter T H R E E
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 109
3–1 Pure Substance 110
3–2 Phases of a Pure Substance 110xi
CONTENTS
3–3 Phase-Change Processes of
Pure Substances 111
Compressed Liquid and Saturated Liquid 112
Saturated Vapor and Superheated Vapor 112
Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure 113
Some Consequences of Tsat and Psat Dependence 114
3–4 Property Diagrams for Phase-Change
Processes 116
1 The T-v Diagram 116
2 The P-v Diagram 118
Extending the Diagrams to Include the Solid Phase 118
3 The P-T Diagram 120
The P-v-T Surface 121
3–5 Property Tables 122
Enthalpy—A Combination Property 122
1a Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States 123
1b Saturated Liquid–Vapor Mixture 125
2 Superheated Vapor 128
3 Compressed Liquid 129
Reference State and Reference Values 130
3–6 The Ideal-Gas Equation of State 133
Is Water Vapor an Ideal Gas? 135
3–7 Compressibility Factor—A Measure of
Deviation from Ideal-Gas Behavior 136
3–8 Other Equations of State 139
van der Waals Equation of State 140
Beattie-Bridgeman Equation of State 140
Benedict-Webb-Rubin Equation of State 141
Virial Equation of State 142
Topic of Special Interest: Vapor Pressure and Phase
Equilibrium 144
Summary 148
References and Suggested Readings 149
Problems 149
Chapter F O U R
ENERGY ANALYSIS OF CLOSED
SYSTEMS 161
4–1 Moving Boundary Work 162
Polytropic Process 166
4–2 Energy Balance for Closed Systems 167
4–3 Specific Heats 172
4–4 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of
Ideal Gases 174
Specific Heat Relations of Ideal Gases 176
4–5 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of
Solids and Liquids 181
Internal Energy Changes 182
Enthalpy Changes 182
Topic of Special Interest: Thermodynamic Aspects of
Biological Systems 185
Summary 192
References and Suggested Readings 193
Problems 194
Chapter F I V E
MASS AND ENERGY ANALYSIS OF
CONTROL VOLUMES 211
5–1 Conservation of Mass 212
Mass and Volume Flow Rates 212
Conservation of Mass Principle 214
Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes 216
Special Case: Incompressible Flow 216
5–2 Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing
Fluid 219
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid 220
Energy Transport by Mass 221
5–3 Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems 222
5–4 Some Steady-Flow Engineering Devices 225
1 Nozzles and Diffusers 226
2 Turbines and Compressors 229
3 Throttling Valves 232
4a Mixing Chambers 233
4b Heat Exchangers 235
5 Pipe and Duct Flow 237
5–5 Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow
Processes 239
Topic of Special Interest: General Energy Equation 244
Summary 247
References And Suggested Readings 248
Problems 248
Chapter S I X
THE SECOND LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS 271
6–1 Introduction to the Second Law 272
6–2 Thermal Energy Reservoirs 273
6–3 Heat Engines 274
Thermal Efficiency 275
Can We Save Q
out? 277
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin–Planck
Statement 279xii
THERMODYNAMICS
6–4 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 279
Coefficient of Performance 280
Heat Pumps 281
Performance of Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat
Pumps 282
The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Clausius
Statement 284
Equivalence of the Two Statements 285
6–5 Perpetual-Motion Machines 286
6–6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 288
Irreversibilities 289
Internally and Externally Reversible Processes 290
6–7 The Carnot Cycle 291
The Reversed Carnot Cycle 293
6–8 The Carnot Principles 293
6–9 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 295
6–10 The Carnot Heat Engine 297
The Quality of Energy 298
Quantity versus Quality in Daily Life 299
6–11 The Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump 300
Topic of Special Interest: Household Refrigerators 303
Summary 307
References and Suggested Readings 308
Problems 308
Chapter S E V E N
ENTROPY 323
7–1 Entropy 324
A Special Case: Internally Reversible Isothermal Heat
Transfer Processes 327
7–2 The Increase of Entropy Principle 328
Some Remarks About Entropy 330
7–3 Entropy Change of Pure Substances 331
7–4 Isentropic Processes 334
7–5 Property Diagrams Involving Entropy 336
7–6 What is Entropy? 337
Entropy and Entropy Generation in Daily Life 340
7–7 The T ds Relations 341
7–8 Entropy Change of Liquids and Solids 343
7–9 The Entropy Change of Ideal Gases 346
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 347
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 347
Isentropic Processes of Ideal Gases 349
Constant Specific Heats (Approximate Analysis) 349
Variable Specific Heats (Exact Analysis) 350
Relative Pressure and Relative Specific Volume 350
7–10 Reversible Steady-Flow Work 354
Proof that Steady-Flow Devices Deliver the Most and
Consume the Least Work When the Process Is
Reversible 356
7–11 Minimizing the Compressor Work 357
Multistage Compression with Intercooling 358
7–12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Steady-Flow
Devices 361
Isentropic Efficiency of Turbines 361
Isentropic Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps 363
Isentropic Efficiency of Nozzles 365
7–13 Entropy Balance 367
Entropy Change of a System, ?Ssystem 368
Mechanisms of Entropy Transfer, Sin and Sout 368
1 Heat Transfer 368
2 Mass Flow 369
Entropy Generation, Sgen 370
Closed Systems 371
Control Volumes 372
Entropy Generation Associated with a Heat
Transfer Process 378
Topic of Special Interest: Reducing the Cost of
Compressed Air 380
Summary 389
References and Suggested Readings 390
Problems 390
Chapter E I G H T
EXERGY 413
8–1 Exergy: Work Potential of Energy 414
Exergy (Work Potential) Associated with Kinetic and
Potential Energy 415
8–2 Reversible Work and Irreversibility 417
8–3 Second-Law Efficiency 422
8–4 Exergy Change of a System 425
Exergy of a Fixed Mass: Nonflow (or Closed System)
Exergy 425
Exergy of a Flow Stream: Flow (or Stream) Exergy 428
8–5 Exergy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass 430
Exergy Transfer by Heat, Q 431
Exergy Transfer by Work, W 432
Exergy Transfer by Mass, m 432
8–6 The Decrease of Exergy Principle and Exergy
Destruction 433
Exergy Destruction 434
8–7 Exergy Balance: Closed Systems 435xiii
CONTENTS
8–8 Exergy Balance: Control Volumes 446
Exergy Balance for Steady-Flow Systems 447
Reversible Work 447
Second-Law Efficiency of Steady-Flow Devices 448
Topic of Special Interest: Second-Law Aspects of
Daily Life 454
Summary 458
References and Suggested Readings 459
Problems 460
Chapter N I N E
GAS POWER CYCLES 475
9–1 Basic Considerations in the Analysis
of Power Cycles 476
9–2 The Carnot Cycle and its Value
in Engineering 478
9–3 Air-Standard Assumptions 480
9–4 An Overview of Reciprocating Engines 481
9–5 Otto Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for Spark-Ignition
Engines 482
9–6 Diesel Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for
Compression-Ignition Engines 489
9–7 Stirling and Ericsson Cycles 493
9–8 Brayton Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for Gas-Turbine
Engines 497
Development of Gas Turbines 499
Deviation of Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles from Idealized
Ones 502
9–9 The Brayton Cycle with Regeneration 504
9–10 The Brayton Cycle with Intercooling, Reheating,
and Regeneration 506
9–11 Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycles 510
Modifications to Turbojet Engines 514
9–12 Second-Law Analysis of Gas Power
Cycles 516
Topic of Special Interest: Saving Fuel and Money by
Driving Sensibly 519
Summary 526
References and Suggested Readings 527
Problems 528
Chapter T E N
VAPOR AND COMBINED POWER
CYCLES 543
10–1 The Carnot Vapor Cycle 544
10–2 Rankine Cycle: the Ideal Cycle for Vapor Power
Cycles 545
Energy Analysis of the Ideal Rankine Cycle 545
10–3 Deviation of Actual Vapor Power Cycles
From Idealized Ones 548
10–4 How Can we Increase the Efficiency of the
Rankine Cycle? 551
Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg) 551
Superheating the Steam to High Temperatures
(Increases Thigh,avg) 552
Increasing the Boiler Pressure (Increases Thigh,avg) 552
10–5 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 555
10–6 The Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle 559
Open Feedwater Heaters 559
Closed Feedwater Heaters 561
10–7 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor Power Cycles 567
10–8 Cogeneration 569
10–9 Combined Gas–Vapor Power Cycles 574
Topic of Special Interest: Binary Vapor Cycles 577
Summary 579
References and Suggested Readings 579
Problems 580
Chapter E L E V E N
REFRIGERATION CYCLES 597
11–1 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 598
11–2 The Reversed Carnot Cycle 599
11–3 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Cycle 600
11–4 Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Cycle 603
11–5 Second-Law Analysis of Vapor-Compression
Refrigeration Cycle 605
11–6 Selecting the Right Refrigerant 609
11–7 Heat Pump Systems 611
11–8 Innovative Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Systems 613
Cascade Refrigeration Systems 613
Multistage Compression Refrigeration Systems 615
Multipurpose Refrigeration Systems with a Single
Compressor 617
Liquefaction of Gases 618
11–9 Gas Refrigeration Cycles 619
11–10 Absorption Refrigeration Systems 622xiv
THERMODYNAMICS
Topic of Special Interest: Thermoelectric Power Generation
and Refrigeration Systems 626
Summary 628
References and Suggested Readings 628
Problems 629
Chapter T W E L V E
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTY
RELATIONS 643
12–1 A Little Math—Partial Derivatives and
Associated Relations 644
Partial Differentials 645
Partial Differential Relations 647
12–2 The Maxwell Relations 649
12–3 The Clapeyron Equation 650
12–4 General Relations for du, dh, ds, cv, and cp 653
Internal Energy Changes 654
Enthalpy Changes 654
Entropy Changes 655
Specific Heats cv and cp 656
12–5 The Joule-Thomson Coefficient 660
12–6 The ?h, ?u, and ?s of Real Gases 662
Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases 662
Internal Energy Changes of Real Gases 664
Entropy Changes of Real Gases 664
Summary 667
References and Suggested Readings 668
Problems 668
Chapter T H I R T E E N
GAS MIXTURES 675
13–1 Composition of a Gas Mixture: Mass and Mole
Fractions 676
13–2 P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real
Gases 677
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 678
Real-Gas Mixtures 679
13–3 Properties of Gas Mixtures: Ideal and Real
Gases 682
Ideal-Gas Mixtures 683
Real-Gas Mixtures 687
Topic of Special Interest: Chemical Potential and
the Separation Work of Mixtures 690
Summary 700
References and Suggested Readings 701
Problems 702
Chapter F O U R T E E N
GAS–VAPOR MIXTURES AND
AIR-CONDITIONING 711
14–1 Dry and Atmospheric Air 712
14–2 Specific and Relative Humidity of air 713
14–3 Dew-Point Temperature 715
14–4 Adiabatic Saturation and Wet-Bulb
Temperatures 717
14–5 The Psychrometric Chart 720
14–6 Human Comfort and Air-Conditioning 721
14–7 Air-Conditioning Processes 723
Simple Heating and Cooling (? = constant) 724
Heating with Humidification 725
Cooling with Dehumidification 727
Evaporative Cooling 728
Adiabatic Mixing of Airstreams 730
Wet Cooling Towers 732
Summary 734
References and Suggested Readings 736
Problems 736
Chapter F I F T E E N
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 747
15–1 Fuels and Combustion 748
15–2 Theoretical and Actual Combustion
Processes 752
15–3 Enthalpy of Formation and Enthalpy of
Combustion 758
15–4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 762
Steady-Flow Systems 762
Closed Systems 763
15–5 Adiabatic Flame Temperature 767
15–6 Entropy Change of Reacting Systems 769
15–7 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems 771
Topic of Special Interest: Fuel Cells 776
Summary 778
References and Suggested Readings 779
Problems 779
Chapter S I X T E E N
CHEMICAL AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM 791
16–1 Criterion for Chemical Equilibrium 792xv
CONTENTS
16–2 The Equilibrium Constant for Ideal-Gas
Mixtures 794
16–3 Some Remarks about the K
P of Ideal-Gas
Mixtures 798
16–4 Chemical Equilibrium for Simultaneous
Reactions 802
16–5 Variation of K
P with Temperature 804
16–6 Phase Equilibrium 806
Phase Equilibrium for a Single-Component System 806
The Phase Rule 807
Phase Equilibrium for a Multicomponent System 808
Summary 813
References and Suggested Readings 814
Problems 815
Chapter S E V E N T E E N
COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 823
17–1 Stagnation Properties 824
17–2 Speed of Sound and Mach Number 827
17–3 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow 829
Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area 831
Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases 833
17–4 Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles 836
Converging Nozzles 836
Converging–Diverging Nozzles 840
17–5 Shock Waves and Expansion Waves 844
Normal Shocks 844
Oblique Shocks 850
Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves 854
17–6 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible
Friction (Rayleigh Flow) 858
Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow 864
Choked Rayleigh Flow 865
17–7 Steam Nozzles 867
Summary 870
References and Suggested Readings 872
Problems 872
Chapter E I G H T E E N
(W E B Chapter )
RENEWABLE ENERGY
18–1 Introduction
18-2 Solar Energy
Solar Radiation
Flat-Plate Solar Collector
Concentrating Solar Collector
Linear Concentrating Solar Power Collector
Solar-Power-Tower Plant
Solar Pond
Photovoltaic Cell
Passive Solar
Applications
Solar Heat Gain through Windows
18–3 Wind Energy
Wind Turbine Types and Power
Performance Curve
Wind Power Potential
Wind Power Density
Wind Turbine Efficiency
Betz Limit for Wind Turbine Efficiency
18–4 Hydropower
Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plant
Turbine Types
18–5 Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Power Production
18–6 Biomass Energy
Biomass Resources
Conversion of Biomass to Biofuel
Biomass Products
Electricity and Heat Production by Biomass
Solid Municipality Waste
Summary
References and Suggested Readings
Problems
A P P E N D I X O N E
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(SI UNITS) 881
Table A–1 Molar mass, gas constant, and criticalpoint properties 882
Table A–2 Ideal-gas specific heats of various
common gases 883
Table A–3 Properties of common liquids, solids,
and foods 886
Table A–4 Saturated water—Temperature
table 888
Table A–5 Saturated water—Pressure table 890
Table A–6 Superheated water 892
Table A–7 Compressed liquid water 896
Table A–8 Saturated ice–water vapor 897
Figure A–9 T-s diagram for water 898
Figure A–10 Mollier diagram for water 899
Table A–11 Saturated refrigerant-134a—
Temperature table 900
Table A–12 Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure
table 902
Table A–13 Superheated refrigerant-134a 903xvi
THERMODYNAMICS
Figure A–14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a 905
Figure A–15 Nelson–Obert generalized
compressibility chart 906
Table A–16 Properties of the atmosphere at high
altitude 907
Table A–17 Ideal-gas properties of air 908
Table A–18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2 910
Table A–19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2 912
Table A–20 Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,
CO
2 914
Table A–21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon
monoxide, CO 916
Table A–22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen,
H
2 918
Table A–23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor,
H
2O 919
Table A–24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic
oxygen, O 921
Table A–25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl,
OH 921
Table A–26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function
of formation, and absolute entropy at
25°C, 1 atm 922
Table A–27 Properties of some common fuels and
hydrocarbons 923
Table A–28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium
constant K
p 924
Figure A–29 Generalized enthalpy departure
chart 925
Figure A–30 Generalized entropy departure
chart 926
Figure A–31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total
pressure 927
Table A–32 One-dimensional isentropic compressible-flow functions for an ideal gas
with k = 1.4 928
Table A–33 One-dimensional normal-shock functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.4 929
Table A–34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal
gas with k = 1.4 930
A P P E N D I X T W O
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(ENGLISH UNITS) 931
Table A–1E Molar mass, gas constant, and criticalpoint properties 932
Table A–2E Ideal-gas specific heats of various
common gases 933
Table A–3E Properties of common liquids, solids,
and foods 936
Table A–4E Saturated water—Temperature
table 938
Table A–5E Saturated water—Pressure table 940
Table A–6E Superheated water 942
Table A–7E Compressed liquid water 946
Table A–8E Saturated ice–water vapor 947
Figure A–9E T-s diagram for water 948
Figure A–10E Mollier diagram for water 949
Table A–11E Saturated refrigerant-134a—
Temperature table 950
Table A–12E Saturated refrigerant-134a—Pressure
table 951
Table A–13E Superheated refrigerant-134a 952
Figure A–14E P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a 954
Table A–16E Properties of the atmosphere at high
altitude 955
Table A–17E Ideal-gas properties of air 956
Table A–18E Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen,
N
2 958
Table A–19E Ideal-gas properties of oxygen,
O
2 960
Table A–20E Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,
CO
2 962
Table A–21E Ideal-gas properties of carbon
monoxide, CO 964
Table A–22E Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen,
H
2 966
Table A–23E Ideal-gas properties of water vapor,
H
2O 967
Table A–26E Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function
of formation, and absolute entropy at
77°F, 1 atm 969
Table A–27E Properties of some common fuels and
hydrocarbons 970
Figure A–31E Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total
pressure 971
INDEX 973
NOMENCLATURE 981
CONVERSION FACTORS 983


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach   كتاب Thermodynamics - An Engineering Approach Emptyالجمعة 21 أكتوبر 2016, 7:37 pm

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