كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide
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 كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide    كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide  Emptyالأربعاء 02 يناير 2013, 9:21 pm

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Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide
Second Edition
Paul E. Mix

كتاب Introduction to Nondestructive Testing - A Training Guide  I_t_n_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Preface xxv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Digital Technology, 1
1.2 Smaller Is Better, 2
1.3 Medical Marvels, 5
1.4 Improving Shuttle Safety, 6
1.5 Airport Security, 9
1.6 Process Control, 9
1.7 Instrument Synchronization with PXI, 10
1.8 PCI vs. PXI, 11
1.9 60,000-Mile-High Elevator, 11
1.10 Proliferation of Information, 12
2 Acoustic Emissions 15
2.1 Principles and Theory, 15
2.2 Signal Propagation, 16
2.3 Physical Considerations, 16
2.4 The AE Process Chain, 17
2.5 Time Considerations, 18
2.6 AE Parameters, 18
2.7 The AE Measurement Chain, 20
2.7.1 Coupling Agents, 21
2.7.2 AE Sensors, 21
vii2.7.3 Sensor Attachment, 22
2.7.4 Sensor to Preamplifier Cable, 22
2.7.5 AE Preamplifier, 23
2.7.6 Preamplifier to System Cable, 23
2.8 Vallen AMSY-5 High-Speed AE System, 24
2.8.1 Frequency Filter, 24
2.8.2 The A/D Converter, 25
2.8.3 Feature Extraction, 25
2.8.4 Transient Recorder, 25
2.8.5 Data Buffer, 26
2.8.6 Personal Computer and Software, 26
2.8.7 Sensor Coupling Test (Autocalibration), 26
2.9 Location Calculation and Clustering, 27
2.9.1 Location Calculation Based on Time Differences, 27
2.9.2 Clustering, 29
2.9.3 Sample Analysis Screen, 30
2.9.4 Visualization of Measurement Results, 32
2.10 Advantages and Limitations of AE Testing, 32
2.10.1 Advantages, 32
2.10.2 Advantages of Using Operating Medium (Gas or
Liquid), 32
2.10.3 Advantages Compared to Other NDT Methods, 33
2.10.4 Limitations, 33
2.10.5 Location Errors, 33
2.11 AMSY-5 Main Features, 34
2.12 AE Transducers, 34
2.13 Kistler Piezotron® Acoustic Emission Sensors and Couplers, 35
2.14 AE Sensor Construction, 35
2.15 Summary of AE Sensor Features, 36
2.16 Technical Specifications—8152B2 Sensor, 36
2.17 AE Coupler Features, 36
2.18 Technical Specifications—5125B Coupler, 38
2.18.1 Input, 38
2.18.2 Output, 38
2.19 Acoustic Emission Technology, 38
2.20 AE Applications, 39
2.21 AE Theory, 39
2.22 Applications, 41
2.22.1 Behavior of Materials—Metals, Ceramics, Composites,
Rocks, Concrete, 41
2.22.2 Nondestructive Testing During Manufacturing
Processes, 41
2.22.3 Monitoring Structures, 41
2.22.4 Special Applications, 41
viii CONTENTSCONTENTS ix
2.23 Advanced Equipment, 42
2.23.1 PCI-2 AE Unit, 42
2.23.2 Key Features, 42
2.23.3 PCI-8, 16-Bit, 8-Channel AE Unit, 43
2.23.4 MicroSAMOSTM, Budget, Compact AE System, 44
2.23.5 DiSP Systems, 45
2.23.6 PCI/DSP-4 Card, 45
2.23.7 Features of PCI/DSP-4 System Board, 47
2.23.8 PCI/DSP-4 Board Operation and Functions, 47
2.23.9 DiSP System Block Diagram, 49
2.23.10 Other Company Products, 50
2.24 Codes, Standards, Practices, Guidelines, and Societies, 50
2.24.1 Sheer Numbers, 52
2.24.2 Terminology, 52
2.24.3 Common Term Definitions, 52
2.24.4 General Principles, 53
2.24.5 Measurement Techniques and Calibration, 53
2.24.6 Areas of Opportunity, 53
2.25 Application and Product-Specific Procedures, 54
2.26 Impact-Echo Method, 54
2.26.1 Background, 54
2.26.2 Finite Element Code, 55
2.26.3 Ball Bearing–Generated Stress, 55
2.26.4 Impact-Echo Transducer Development, 56
2.26.5 Frequency Domain Analysis, 56
2.26.6 Theory of Operations, 56
2.26.7 Propagation of Waves, 57
2.26.8 Impact-Echo Instrumentation, 59
2.26.8.1 System Components, 59
2.26.8.2 Heavy-Duty Carrying Case, 60
2.26.8.3 Computer Recommendations, 60
2.27 Technical Specifications, 61
2.27.1 Hand-Held Transducer Unit, 61
2.27.2 A/D Data Acquisition System, 62
2.27.3 Windows-Based Software, 63
2.28 Applications, 64
3 Electromagnetic Testing Method 65
3.1 Eddy Current Theory, 66
3.1.1 Surface Mounted Coils, 66
3.1.2 Encircling Coils, 71
3.2 Magnetic Flux Leakage Theory, 73
3.3 Eddy Current Sensing Probes, 793.4 Flux Leakage Sensing Probes, 83
3.4.1 Induction Coils, 83
3.4.2 Hall Effect Sensors, 84
3.5 Factors Affecting Flux Leakage, 87
3.6 Signal-to-Noise Ratio, 88
3.7 Test Frequency, 88
3.8 Magnetization for Flux Leakage Testing, 90
3.9 Coupling, 95
3.10 Eddy Current Techniques, 95
3.11 Instrument Design Considerations, 96
3.12 UniWest US-454 EddyViewTM, 98
3.12.1 E-Lab Model US-450, 101
3.12.2 ETC-2000 Scanner, 102
3.13 Institut Dr. Foerster, 103
3.14 Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing, 106
3.15 Applications, 108
3.15.1 General Eddy Current Applications, 108
3.15.2 Specific Eddy Current Applications, 110
3.15.3 General Flux Leakage Applications, 111
3.15.4 Specific Leakage Flux Applications, 111
3.16 Use of Computers, 112
3.17 Barkhausen Noise/Micromagnetic Testing, 112
3.17.1 Introduction, 112
3.18 Early Applications, 113
3.19 Principles of Measurement, 114
3.20 Equipment, 115
3.21 Technical Specifications, 117
3.22 Calibration and Testing, 117
3.23 Current Applications, 120
3.23.1 Applications in Aircraft/Automotive/Marine
Industries, 120
3.24 General Applications, 121
3.24.1 Pipe/Tubing/Sheet/Plate Manufacturing, 121
3.25 Electromechanical Acoustic Transducers (EMATs), 121
3.25.1 EMATs Advantages Over Piezoelectric
Transducers, 122
3.26 Basic Theory of Operation, 122
3.27 Recent Applications and Developments, 123
3.28 Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM)
Method, 124
3.29 ACFM Principles of Operation, 125
3.29.1 Bx and Bz Components, 126
3.29.2 Butterfly Plot, 127
3.30 Probe Design, 127
3.31 Applications, 128
x CONTENTS4 Laser Testing Methods 131
4.1 Introduction, 131
4.2 Disadvantages, 132
4.3 Main Advantages, 132
4.4 Laser Theory, 132
4.5 Laser Safety, 133
4.6 Laser Classification, 133
4.7 Training, 134
4.8 Profilometry Methods, 134
4.8.1 Stylus Profilometry, 135
4.8.2 Optical Profilometry, 135
4.8.3 White Light Interferometry, 135
4.9 Basic TV Holography/ESPI Interferometry, 136
4.9.1 Single Laser Operation, 136
4.9.2 Camera Operation, 136
4.9.3 Applications, 137
4.9.4 Thermal Stresses, 139
4.9.5 Quantitative Aspects of Mechanical Stress, 140
4.9.6 Qualitative Aspects, 141
4.10 Nanometric Profiling Measurements, 141
4.10.1 Introduction, 141
4.10.2 Autofocus Principle, 142
4.10.3 Specifications, 142
4.10.3.1 Sensor, 142
4.10.3.2 Camera, 142
4.11 Conoscopic Holography, 143
4.11.1 Theory, 143
4.11.2 Specifications, 143
4.12 Confocal Measurement, 144
4.12.1 Specifications, 144
4.12.1.1 Sensor, 144
4.12.1.2 Camera, 144
4.13 NanoSurf Confocal Microscopy, 145
4.13.1 Introduction, 145
4.13.2 Standard Components, 146
4.13.3 Options, 146
4.14 3D Confocal Microscopy, 146
4.14.1 Principle of Operation, 146
4.14.2 Advantages, 146
4.14.3 Specifications, 146
4.15 Nanometric Profiling Applications, 147
4.16 Scanning Laser Profilometry, 147
4.16.1 Optical Principle, 148
4.16.2 Probes, 149
CONTENTS xi4.16.3 3D Profiler, 149
4.16.4 LP-2000TM Control Unit, 150
4.17 Laser-Scanned Penetrant Inspection (LSPITM-Patent Pending), 152
4.17.1 Applications, 154
4.18 Advanced Techniques, 154
4.19 Natural and External Excitation, 154
4.20 Strain/Stress Measurement, 155
4.20.1 Theory of Operation, 155
4.20.2 Technical Data, 156
4.21 Longer Range 3D Speckle Interferometry System, 157
4.21.1 Technical Data, 158
4.21.2 Hardware and Software Options, 158
4.21.3 Applications for 3D-ESPI Systems, 158
4.21.4 Technical Data, 160
4.22 Nondestructive Testing (NDT), 161
4.23 Shearography, 161
4.23.1 Principle of Laser Shearography, 161
4.23.2 Compact Shearography System, 162
4.23.3 Technical Data, 163
4.24 Portable Shearography System, 164
4.24.1 Technical Data, 164
4.24.2 Other Applications, 165
4.25 Feltmetal Inspection System, 166
4.25.1 Setup and Technique, 166
4.25.2 Technical Data, 166
4.26 Optional Applications, 168
4.27 Optical Inspection Systems, 168
4.27.1 ARAMIS, 168
4.27.2 Industry-Specific Applications, 170
4.27.3 Measuring Procedure, 170
4.27.4 Measurement Results, 170
4.27.5 Measurement Advantages, 170
4.27.6 Comparison of ESPI and 3D Image Correlation, 171
4.27.7 ARAMIS HR Specifications, 172
4.28 ARGUS, 172
4.29 TRITOP, 174
4.29.1 Photogrammetric Offline System, 174
4.29.2 Measurable Object Size, 174
4.29.3 Digital Photogrammetry Functionality, 174
4.30 System Advantages, 175
4.31 Portable Measuring System Technique, 175
4.32 Dynamic TRITOP, 177
4.33 Other Laser Methods, 177
4.33.1 Measurement of Hot Spots in Metal/Semiconductor
Field-Effect Transistors, 177
xii CONTENTS5 Leak Testing Methods 179
5.1 Introduction, 179
5.2 Fundamentals, 180
5.3 Ultrasonic Leak Testing, 180
5.3.1 Ultrasonic Leak Detectors, 180
5.4 Bubble Leak Testing, 183
5.5 Dye Penetrant Leak Testing, 183
5.6 Pressure Change Leak Testing, 183
5.7 Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Testing, 184
5.8 Mass Spectrometer Leak Detector, 184
5.9 MSLD Subsystems, 184
5.9.1 Spectrometer Tube, 185
5.9.2 Vacuum Systems, 186
5.10 Vacuum System Configurations, 186
5.10.1 Conventional (Direct) Flow, 186
5.10.2 Contraflow (Reverse) Flow, 187
5.10.3 Midstage Flow, 188
5.10.4 Multiple Flow, 188
5.11 Electronics, 189
5.11.1 I/O Functions, 190
5.12 Methods of Leak Detection, 190
5.13 Vacuum Testing Method (Outside-In), 191
5.13.1 Locating Leaks, 191
5.13.2 Measuring Leaks, 192
5.14 Pressure Test Method (Inside-Out), 192
5.14.1 Locating Leaks, 192
5.14.2 Measuring Leaks, 193
5.15 Accumulation Testing Method, 194
5.16 Vacuum Systems, 194
5.17 Pressurized Systems, 195
5.18 MSLD Configurations, 196
5.18.1 “Wet” or “Dry” Pumps, 196
5.18.2 Cabinet or Workstation Models, 196
5.18.3 Portable Units, 197
5.18.4 Component or Integratable Units, 197
5.19 Calibration, 197
5.19.1 Calibrated Leaks, 198
5.20 Radioisotope Tracer Leak Testing, 198
5.21 Bubble Leak Testing, 199
5.21.1 Leak Detector Solution, 199
5.21.2 Vacuum Box Bubble Tracer Leak Testing, 199
5.21.3 Pressure Bubble Leak Testing, 200
5.21.4 Indications, 201
5.22 Pressure Change Leak Testing, 202
CONTENTS xiii5.22.1 Principles, 202
5.22.2 Terminology, 202
5.22.3 Equipment, 203
5.22.4 Pressurizing Gases, 204
5.23 Pressure Change Measurement Testing, 205
5.23.1 Reference System Technique, 207
5.24 Leakage Rate and Flow Measurement Testing, 207
5.25 Nuclear Reactor Systems, 208
5.26 Halogen Diode Leak Testing, 209
5.26.1 Principles, 209
5.26.2 Terminology, 210
5.26.3 Gases and Equipment, 210
5.26.4 Calibration, 210
5.27 “Sniffer” Techniques, 212
5.27.1 Equipment Operation and Servicing, 212
5.27.2 Normal Operation, 212
5.28 VIC MSLD Leak Detectors, 213
5.29 MSLD Subsystems, 216
5.29.1 Spectrometer Tube, 217
5.29.2 Vacuum System, 218
5.30 Operating Sequence (MS-40 and MS-40 Dry), 219
5.31 Calibration Sequence (MS-40 and MS-40 Dry), 220
6 Liquid Penetrant Tests 221
6.1 Introduction, 221
6.2 Processing, 222
6.3 Test Methods, 224
6.3.1 Water Washable Fluorescent Penetrant Process, 224
6.3.2 Post-Emulsification Fluorescent Process, 226
6.3.3 Reverse Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Process, 227
6.3.4 Visible Dye Penetrant Process, 227
6.3.5 Water Emulsifiable Visible Dye Penetrant
Process, 228
6.3.6 Water Washable Visible Dye Penetrant Process, 228
6.3.7 Post-Emulsifiable Visible Dye Penetrant Process, 229
6.3.8 Solvent Clean Visible Dye Penetrant Process, 229
6.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Methods, 230
6.5 Test Equipment, 231
6.6 Penetrant Materials, 236
6.7 System Comparisons, 238
6.8 Applications, 239
6.9 Measurement of UV and Visible Light, 242
6.10 Automatic and Semiautomatic Penetrant Testing
Methods, 245
xiv CONTENTS7 Magnetic Particle Testing 247
7.1 Magnetic Principles, 247
7.2 Magnets and Magnetic Fields, 249
7.3 Discontinuities and Defects, 252
7.4 Induced Magnetic Fields, 254
7.5 Circular and Longitudinal Fields, 257
7.6 Selection of Magnetizing Method, 262
7.7 Commercial Equipment, 263
7.8 Wet and Dry Particle Inspection, 264
7.9 MT Improvements, 267
7.9.1 Remote Magnetic Particle Inspection, 269
7.9.2 Probe Power, 269
7.9.3 Lightweight UV Lamps, 270
7.9.4 Dual Light (UV/Visible and Visible) Particle
Indications, 270
7.10 Applications, 270
7.11 Residual Fields and Demagnetization, 273
7.12 Magnetic Flux Strips, 275
7.13 Hall Effect Gaussmeter, 276
7.14 The Hysteresis Curve, 277
7.15 Selection of Equipment, 280
7.16 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Method, 285
7.17 Magnetic Rubber Inspection, 285
7.17.1 Introduction, 285
7.17.2 Inspection Principles, 285
7.17.3 Advantages of MRI, 286
7.17.4 Formulations, 287
7.18 Underwater MRI, 288
7.18.1 Technique, 288
7.18.2 Disadvantages, 288
7.19 Magnetic Penetrameters, 289
7.20 Automatic and Semiautomatic Inspection, 289
7.21 Magwerks Integrated System Tracking Technology, 290
7.21.1 Basic Operation, 290
7.21.1.1 Basic Operation—Automatic Mode, 291
7.21.1.2 Applications, 295
7.22 Discontinuities and Their Appearances, 296
7.23 Nonrelevant Indications, 297
8 Neutron Radiographic Testing 301
8.1 Introduction, 301
8.2 Physical Principles, 303
8.3 Neutron Radiation Sources, 304
CONTENTS xv8.4 Neutron Activation Analysis, 304
8.5 Ward Center TRIGA Reactor, 307
8.6 Radiation Hazards and Personal Protection, 309
8.7 Radiation Detection Imaging, 311
8.7.1 Conversion Screens, 312
8.7.2 Indirect Transfer Method, 312
8.7.3 Direct Transfer Method, 312
8.7.4 Fluorescent Screens, 313
8.8 Electronic Imaging, 313
8.9 Nonimaging Detectors, 313
8.10 Neutron Radiographic Process, 313
8.11 Interpretation of Results, 315
8.12 Other Neutron Source Applications, 316
8.13 Neutron Level Gauges, 320
8.14 Californium-252 Sources, 321
8.15 Neutron Radioscopic Systems, 321
8.15.1 Introduction, 321
8.15.2 Neutron Imaging System Components, 322
8.15.3 Online Inspection Systems, 323
8.15.4 Characteristics of Aluminum Corrosion, 323
8.15.5 Thermal Neutron Inspection System Requirements, 324
8.15.6 Conclusions, 324
9 Radiographic Testing Method 325
9.1 Industrial Radiography, 325
9.1.1 Personnel Monitoring, 325
9.1.2 Selected Definitions, 326
9.1.3 Survey Instruments, 327
9.1.4 Leak Testing of Sealed Sources, 329
9.1.5 Survey Reports, 331
9.2 Work Practices, 331
9.3 Time—Distance—Shielding—Containment, 332
9.4 Regulatory Requirements, 335
9.5 Exposure Devices, 335
9.6 State and Federal Regulations, 337
9.7 Basic Radiographic Physics, 338
9.7.1 Introduction—Isotope Production, 338
9.8 Fundamental Properties of Matter, 339
9.9 Radioactive Materials, 340
9.9.1 Stability and Decay, 341
9.9.2 Activity, 341
9.9.3 Half-Life, 342
9.10 Types of Radiation, 343
9.11 Interaction of Radiation with Matter, 346
xvi CONTENTS9.12 Biological Effects, 348
9.13 Radiation Detection, 352
9.13.1 Survey Instruments, 354
9.14 Radiation Sources, 356
9.14.1 Isotope Sources, 356
9.15 Portable Linear Accelerators, 359
9.16 Special Radiographic Techniques, 360
9.17 Standard Radiographic Techniques, 361
9.17.1 Introduction, 361
9.17.2 Basic Principles, 363
9.17.3 Screens, 364
9.17.4 Film Composition, 365
9.18 The Radiograph, 365
9.18.1 Image Quality, 370
9.18.2 Film Handling, Loading, and Processing, 374
9.18.3 High-Intensity Illuminators, 376
9.19 Fluoroscopy Techniques, 377
9.20 Flat Panel Digital Imaging Systems, 378
9.21 Flat Panel Systems vs. Fuji Dynamix CR Imaging System, 379
9.21.1 Resolution, 379
9.21.2 Ghost Images, 380
9.21.3 Image Lag, 380
9.21.4 Dark Current Noise, 381
9.21.5 Portability, 381
9.21.6 Temperature Sensitivity, 381
9.21.7 Flexibility, 381
9.21.8 Fragility, 381
9.21.9 Advantages, 381
9.22 Industrial Computed Tomography, 382
9.22.1 Scan Procedure, 382
9.22.2 Applications of Industrial Computed Tomography, 383
9.22.3 CT System Components, 384
9.23 Automatic Defect Recognition, 387
9.23.1 Imaging Improvements, 387
9.23.2 LDA Design and Operation, 389
9.23.3 ADR Techniques, 389
9.23.4 Neural Network Artificial Intelligence (AI), 390
9.23.5 Rule Base Using Specific Algorithms, 392
9.23.5.1 Operating Sequence, 392
9.23.6 ADR Advances of a PC Platform Over Proprietary
Hardware, 392
9.23.7 ADR Techniques, 392
9.23.8 SADR, 392
9.23.9 Conclusions, 393
9.24 The Digitome® Process, 393
CONTENTS xvii9.24.1 Examination Concept, 394
9.24.2 Digital Flat Panel Detector, 395
9.24.3 Image Acquisition, 396
9.24.4 Flaw Location and Measurement, 396
9.24.5 Other Applications, 396
9.25 Manufacturing Processes and Discontinuities, 397
9.26 Other Isotope Applications, 397
9.26.1 Electron Capture Detection, 397
9.26.2 Moisture Gauging, 397
9.26.3 Bone Density, 400
9.26.4 Gamma and Beta Thickness Gauging, 401
9.26.5 Gamma and Beta Backscatter Thickness Gauging, 401
9.26.6 Gamma Level Gauging, 402
9.26.7 Gamma Density Measurement, 402
9.26.8 Point Level Switch, 404
9.26.8.1 Features and Benefits, 405
9.26.9 Oil Well Logging, 405
10 Thermal/Infrared Testing Method 407
10.1 Basic Modes of Heat Transfer, 407
10.2 The Nature of Heat Flow, 408
10.2.1 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions, 408
10.2.1.1 Exothermic Reactions, 408
10.2.1.2 Endothermic Reactions, 409
10.3 Temperature Measurement, 409
10.4 Common Temperature Measurements, 410
10.4.1 Melting Point Indicators, 410
10.5 Color Change Thermometry, 411
10.5.1 Irreversible Color Change Indicators, 411
10.5.2 Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Indicators, 413
10.5.3 Liquid in Glass Thermometers, 415
10.6 Temperature Sensors with External Readouts, 416
10.6.1 Thermocouple Sensors, 416
10.6.2 Special Thermocouple Products, 418
10.6.3 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs), 418
10.6.3.1 RTD Sensing Elements and Typical
Temperature Ranges, 418
10.6.4 Resistance Temperature Elements (RTEs), 420
10.7 Infrared Imaging Energy, 420
10.8 Heat and Light Concepts, 421
10.9 Pyrometers, 422
10.9.1 Error Correction, 422
10.9.2 Principles of Operation, 423
10.9.2.1 Narrow-Band Optical Pyrometers, 423
10.9.2.2 Broad-Band Optical Pyrometers, 424
xviii CONTENTS10.9.3 Design and Operations of Optical Pyrometers, 426
10.9.4 Applications for Broad-Band Optical Pyrometers, 427
10.9.5 Installation of Optical Pyrometers, 427
10.10 Infrared Imaging Systems, 427
10.10.1 Blackbody Calibration Sources, 427
10.11 Spacial Resolution Concepts, 428
10.11.1 FOV, IFOV, MIFOV, and GIFOV, 428
10.11.2 Angular Resolving Power, 428
10.11.3 Error Potential in Radiant Measurements, 429
10.12 Infrared Testing Method, 429
10.12.1 Preventive and Predictive Maintenance Programs, 429
10.12.2 Electrical PdM Applications, 429
10.12.3 Mechanical PdM Applications, 430
10.13 High-Performance Thermal Imager for Predictive
Maintenance, 430
10.13.1 Predictive Maintenance Program, 431
10.13.2 Specifications, 432
10.13.2.1 Thermal, 432
10.13.2.2 Controls, 433
10.13.2.3 Optional Features, 433
10.13.2.4 Other, 433
10.14 High-Performance Radiometric IR System, 433
10.14.1 Introduction, 433
10.14.2 Applications, 434
10.14.3 Theory of Operation, 434
10.14.4 Operating Technique, 436
10.14.5 Typical Specifications, 438
10.15 Mikron Instrument Company, Inc., 439
10.16 Mikron 7200V Thermal Imager and Visible Light Camera, 440
10.16.1 General Features, 440
10.16.2 Technical Data, 440
10.16.2.1 Performance, 440
10.16.2.2 Presentation, 441
10.16.2.3 Measurement, 441
10.16.2.4 Interface, 442
10.17 High-Speed IR Line Cameras, 442
10.17.1 General Information—MikroLine Series 2128, 442
10.17.2 High-Speed Temperature Measurement of Tires, 442
10.17.2.1 Camera Specifications, 443
10.18 Other Thermal Testing Methods, 444
10.18.1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, 444
10.18.1.1 DLATGS Pyroelectric Detectors, 447
10.18.1.2 FTIR Evaluation of Hard Disk Fluororesin
Coating, 447
10.18.1.3 Measurement of Film Thickness on a Silicon
Wafer, 448
CONTENTS xix10.18.2 Advanced Mercury Analyzer, 448
10.18.2.1 Introduction, 448
10.18.2.2 Theory of Operation, 449
10.18.2.3 Software, 450
10.18.3 Identification of Materials, 450
10.18.3.1 Thermoelectric Alloy Sorting, 450
10.18.3.2 Applications, 453
10.18.4 Advantages and Disadvantages, 454
10.18.4.1 Advantages, 454
10.18.4.2 Disadvantages, 456
11 Ultrasonic Testing 457
11.1 Introduction, 457
11.2 Definition of Acoustic Parameters of a
Transducer, 458
11.3 Noncontacting Ultrasonic Testing, 458
11.3.1 NCU Transducers, 460
11.3.2 Instant Picture Analysis System, 463
11.3.3 Limitations, 465
11.3.4 Bioterrorism, 466
11.4 Ultrasonic Pulsers/Receivers, 466
11.5 Multilayer Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge, 470
11.6 Conventional Ultrasound, 471
11.6.1 Flaw Detection, 473
11.6.2 Frequency, 474
11.6.3 Ultrasonic Wave Propagation, 476
11.6.4 Acoustic Impedance, 477
11.6.5 Reflection and Refraction, 478
11.6.6 Diffraction, Dispersion, and Attenuation, 481
11.6.7 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Fields, 482
11.6.8 Generation of Ultrasonic Waves, 483
11.6.9 Search Unit Construction, 484
11.6.10 Test Methods, 489
11.7 Ultrasonic Testing Equipment, 498
11.7.1 Equipment Operation, 507
11.7.2 Flaw Transducers, 509
11.7.2.1 Instrument Features, 509
11.7.2.2 Ultrasonic Specifications, 510
11.7.2.3 Physical Description and Power
Supply, 510
11.7.3 Testing Procedures, 512
11.7.3.1 Variables Affecting Results, 517
11.8 Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD), 519
xx CONTENTS12 Vibration Analysis Method 521
12.1 Introduction, 521
12.2 Principles/Theory, 522
12.2.1 Modes of Vibration, 522
12.2.2 Resonance, 523
12.2.3 Degrees of Freedom, 524
12.3 Sources of Vibration, 524
12.4 Noise Analysis, 525
12.5 Stress Analysis, 525
12.6 Modal Analysis, 526
12.7 Vibration Analysis/Troubleshooting, 527
12.7.1 Rotating Equipment Analysis, 527
12.7.2 Order Analysis, 527
12.8 Transfer Functions, 528
12.9 Predictive Maintenance, 528
12.10 Failure Analysis, 529
12.11 Impact Testing and Frequency Response, 529
12.12 Pass and Fail Testing, 530
12.13 Correction Methods, 530
12.13.1 Alignment and Balance, 530
12.13.2 Beat Frequency, 530
12.13.3 Vibration Damping, 532
12.13.4 Dynamic Absorber/Increasing Mass, 534
12.13.5 Looseness/Nonlinear Mechanical Systems, 536
12.13.6 Isolation Treatments, 536
12.13.7 Speed Change, 540
12.13.8 Stiffening, 540
12.14 Machine Diagnosis, 541
12.15 Sensors, 543
12.15.1 Strain Gauges, 543
12.15.2 Accelerometers, 544
12.15.3 Velocity Sensors, 545
12.15.4 Displacement Sensors, 545
12.16 Rolling Element Bearing Failures, 547
12.17 Bearing Vibration/Noise, 548
12.18 Blowers and Fans, 550
12.19 Vibrotest 60 Version 4, 550
12.20 Signal Conditioning, 555
12.20.1 Acoustic Filters, 555
12.21 Equipment Response to Environmental Factors, 555
12.21.1 Temperature/Humidity, 555
12.22 Data Presentation, 555
12.22.1 Acceleration, Velocity, and Displacement, 555
12.22.2 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)/Time Waveform, 556
CONTENTS xxi12.22.3 Cepstrum Analysis, 557
12.22.4 Nyquist Frequency/Plot, 557
12.22.5 Orbit, Lissajous, X-Y, and Hysteresis Plots, 559
12.23 Online Monitoring, 560
12.23.1 Trend Analysis, 560
12.24 Portable Noise and Vibration Analysis System, 560
12.24.1 Typical Applications, 562
12.24.2 System Requirements, 562
12.25 Laser Methods, 562
12.25.1 Theory of Operation, 563
12.25.2 Applications, 565
12.25.3 Specifications, 566
12.26 TEC’s Aviation Products, 567
12.26.1 Analyzer Plus Model 1700, 567
12.26.1.1 Flexible System, 568
12.26.1.2 User Friendly, 568
12.26.1.3 Expandability, 568
12.26.1.4 Quality Commitment, 568
12.26.1.5 Engine Fan Balancing Application, 569
12.26.1.6 Technical Specifications, 569
12.26.2 ProBalancer Analyzer 2020, 570
12.26.2.1 Software Features, 571
12.26.2.2 Technical Specifications, 572
12.26.3 Viper 4040, 572
12.26.3.1 Automated Track and Balancing, 572
12.26.3.2 Vibration Analysis, 574
12.26.3.3 Acoustic Analysis, 574
12.26.3.4 Technical Specifications, 574
13 Visual and Optical Testing 575
13.1 Fundamentals, 575
13.2 Principles and Theory of Visual Testing, 576
13.3 Selection of Correct Visual Technique, 576
13.4 Equipment, 578
13.4.1 Borescopes, 578
13.4.2 Jet Engine Inspection, 581
13.4.3 Nuclear Applications, 582
13.4.4 Other Applications, 584
13.5 Fiberscopes and Videoscopes, 584
13.5.1 Applications, 585
13.6 SnakeEyeTM Diagnostic Tool, 587
13.7 Industrial Videoscopes, 589
13.7.1 Equipment and Features, 589
13.7.2 Instrument Setup, 590
xxii CONTENTS13.7.3 3D Viewing, 592
13.7.4 Applications, 592
13.7.5 Working Tools, 592
13.8 Projection Microscopes, 593
13.8.1 Leica FS4000 Forensic Comparison Microscope, 596
13.9 The Long-Distance Microscope, 600
13.9.1 New Developments, 600
13.9.2 Model K-2 Long-Distance Microscope, 601
13.9.2.1 Numerical Aperture (NA), 604
13.9.2.2 Care and Cleaning, 605
13.9.3 InfiniVar CFM-2 Video Inspection
Microscope, 605
13.9.4 AccordionTM Machine Vision, 607
13.9.5 InFocus Microscope Enhancement System, 607
13.9.5.1 Spherical Aberrations, 607
13.9.5.2 InFocus Corrections, 608
13.9.5.3 Applications, 608
13.10 InfiniMaxTM Long-Distance Microscope, 611
13.11 Remote Visual Inspection, 611
13.11.1 Industries—Applications, 614
13.11.2 Camera Head Options, 616
13.11.3 Camera Pan and Tilt Features, 617
13.11.4 Hand-Held Controller, 618
13.11.5 Camera Control Unit, 619
13.11.6 Hand-Held Controller Details, 620
13.11.7 Applications, 622
13.12 Robotic Crawler Units, 623
13.12.1 Control Unit, 623
13.12.2 Cable Reels, 623
13.12.3 Crawler and Camera Options, 624
13.12.4 Applications, 624
13.13 Pipe and Vessel Inspections/Metal Joining Processes, 626
13.14 Ocean Optics Photometers, 629
13.14.1 Optical Resolution, 630
13.14.2 System Sensitivity, 633
13.14.3 Specifications, 634
13.14.4 Applications, 636
14 Overview of Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A, 2001
Edition 639
14.1 Purpose, 639
14.1.1 Personnel Qualification and Certification in
Nondestructive Testing 639
14.2 NDT Levels of Qualification, 640
CONTENTS xxiii14.3 Recommended NDT Level III Education, Training, and
Experience, 640
14.4 Written Practice, 641
14.5 Charts, 641
14.6 Recommended Training Courses, 641
14.6.1 Acoustic Emissions Testing Method, 641
14.6.2 Electromagnetic Testing Method, 643
14.6.3 Laser Testing Methods—Holography/Shearography, 644
14.6.4 Laser Testing Methods—Profilometry, 646
14.6.5 Leak Testing Methods, 646
14.6.6 Liquid Penetrant Testing Methods, 648
14.6.7 Magnetic Particle Testing Method, 648
14.6.8 Neutron Radiographic Testing Method, 649
14.6.9 Radiographic Testing Method, 651
14.6.10 Thermal/Infrared Testing Method, 653
14.6.11 Ultrasonic Testing Method, 654
14.6.12 Vibration Analysis Method, 655
14.6.13 Visual Testing Method, 656
14.6.14 Appendix, 657
14.6.14.1 Example Questions, 657
14.6.14.2 Answers to Example Questions, 658
14.6.15 A Dynamic Document, 658
14.6.16 Special Disclaimer, 659
Appendix 1: Bibliography of Credits 661
Appendix 2: Company Contributors 667
Index 67
A-scan, 470, 499, 500
Abrasion-resistance thermocouples, 418
Absolute bearing vibrations, 529, 541
Absolute shaft vibrations, 541
Absorptivity, 421
Absorbed dose, 326, 327
Accelerators, 303, 309, 323, 324, 337, 345,
359, 387, 397
Acceleration, 555, 556
Accelerometers, 544
Accordion machine vision, 607
Accumulated dose, 332
Accumulation testing method, 194
Acoustic filters, 555
Acoustic focusing, 485
Acoustic impedance, 477–479
Acoustic pressure vs. target distance,
461, 462
AE burst, 18–20, 25, 34
AE Coupler, 36–38
AE parameters, 18, 19
AE process chain, 17
AE measurement chain, 20
AE preamplifier, 23
AE sensor features, 36
AE sensors, 21, 35, 36, 39
AE theory, 39
Adhesive bonding, 54, 323
Adoptive reference subtraction, 391
Advanced mercury analyzer, 448–450
Advanced pan-tilt zoom camera system,
616–623
Afocal variation system (AVS), 601
Agreement states, 338
Air/gas propagation transducers,
460–463
Airport security, 9
Alignment, 114, 170, 390, 444, 524, 530,
555
Alignment and balance, 530
Alkali metals and water reactions, 408
Alloy analyzer, 10, 577
Alloy sorting, 450–456
Alpha particles, 313, 343–346
Alternating current field measurement,
(ACFM), 124–130, 658
Aluminum corrosion, 321, 323
Ambient radiance, 423, 424
INDEX
671
Introduction to Nondestructive Testing: A Training Guide, Second Edition, by Paul E. Mix
Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.672 INDEX
Amdata automatic pipe scanner
(AMAPS), 507, 508
American Society for Testing and
Materials (ASTM), 51–53, 56, 106, 238,
246, 268, 269,
Amplitude-distance blocks, 515, 516
Analyzer Plus Model 1700, 567–569
Angio-genesis therapy, AGT, 6
Angular resolving power, 428
Angulation, 495, 590
Annual limit on intake (ALI), 326
Anthrax spores, 466
Antialiasing filters, 574
Ariane 5 launch vehicle, 166
ARAMIS optical system, 168–170, 172
Arterial research, 434
Artificial intelligence (AI), 390
Artificial standards, 239, 514, 515, 577
As low as reasonably achievable
(ALARA), 326
Attenuated total reflection (ATR), 446
Attenuation domain transducers, 458
Attenuation losses, 482, 518
Autoclave ink, 413
Autofocus principle, 142
Automated comparison bridge, 596
Automatic defect recognition (ADR),
387–393
Automatic film processing, 375
Automatic marking, 513
Automotive applications, 181, 434, 587
Autoranging sensor, 574
Aviation analysis functions, 572, 573
B-scan, 500, 629
Backscatter radiation, 316
Bandwidth (BW), 11, 42, 46, 361, 362,
413, 442, 458, 461, 468, 485, 487, 550,
553, 619
Bandwidth center frequency (BCF),
458
Basic modes of heat transfer, 407
Bearcon signature (BCS), 553
Bearing condition (Bearcon), 548, 549
Bearing vibration/noise, 548, 549
Beat frequency, 530, 532
Beam collimation, 314, 315
Beam divergence, 311, 481, 482, 489,
518
Beam purity indicator, 316
Becquerel, Henry, 338
Beta particles, 345, 346, 354
Betatrons, 345
Bimetal dial thermometers, 416
Biological damage, 134, 349
Biological effects (of radiation),
348–351
Bioterrorism, 466
Blackbody, 421, 427, 428, 439, 653
Bluetooth technology, 1
Blower and fans, 550
Boiling water reactor (BWR), 507
Bolting, 577
Bone density, 400
Bottom-blown furnaces, 409
Borescopes, 578–584
Break squeal analysis, 565
Breeder reactor, 340, 582
Broad-band optical pyrometers, 424–426
Bubble leak testing, 183, 199–202, 657
Building vibration, 524
Bulk polymerization, 409
Bunsen-Roscoe reciprocity law, 368
Butterfly plot, 127
C-scan, 122, 458, 502, 513
Cable reels, 623, 625
Calculated dose rate, 333
Calibrated leaks, 198
Camera control unit, 619, 620
Camera pan and tilt features, 617, 618
Carbon composite/s, 53
CFRP, carbon fiber reinforced plastic,
164, 165
Castings, 226, 239, 263, 289, 338, 356, 387,
393, 576, 577, 652
Casting defects, 398
Celsius temperature, 410
Cepstrum analysis, 557, 558
Characteristic curve, 315, 366–368
CCD camera, 132, 141, 152, 154, 160, 161,
163, 165, 168, 170, 172, 322, 387, 585
CCD detector, 131, 146, 149, 566, 614,
629, 633, 634
Cineradiographic work, 361
Climate controlled chambers, 521, 555
Closed circuit TV (CCTV), 580, 581, 583,
585INDEX 673
Clustering, 27, 29, 30
Coercive force, 91, 92, 249, 278, 279
Cold neutrons, 316
Cold-vapor atomic absorption
spectroscopy (CVAAS), 450
Collection phase, 450
Color change crayons, 413
Color change paints, 412
Color change thermometry, 411–415
Color contrast, 224, 227, 232, 237–239,
264, 412
Comb liftering, 557
Compliance, 525, 528, 575
Composite material, 39, 53, 138, 161, 162,
164, 165, 483
Compressed fiber, 3, 460
Comptom effect., 346
Constant color intensity control (CCIC),
598
Crawler and camera options, 624, 625
Crime scene investigations (CSI),
595–599
CT scanners, 383
CT system components, 384–387
Comparison microscopes, 593–600
Computer interface dosimeter (CID),
352, 353
Condensation polymerization, 409
Conduction, 407, 408, 427, 429, 482
Confocal measurement, 144
Confocal microscopy, 145–147
Confocal point sensor, 142
Conoscopic holography, 143
Constructive interference, 532
Contact probe, 131, 180–182, 491, 550
Contact testing, 473, 478, 485, 489, 494,
499, 512
Contamination, 179, 187, 188, 196, 228,
238, 290, 293, 328, 329, 331, 350, 375,
458, 466
Continuously focusable microscope, 600
Contoured focusing, 487
Contoured shoes, 504, 505
Contraflow, 187–188, 196
Control rods, 340, 583
Convection, 407, 408, 427, 429, 434
Conventional flow, 188, 189
Conventional ultrasound, 471–488
Cooled mid-wave IR detection, 434
Corrosion, 10, 24, 33, 41, 42, 52, 108, 110,
121, 128, 130, 147, 152, 224, 228, 317,
321–324, 430, 451, 472, 506, 521, 529,
547, 550, 576–578, 584, 590, 622
Counts per minute (CPM), 328, 355
Coupling agents, 21, 56, 459, 474, 494, 498,
Crack propagation, 38, 41
Crystal mosaic, 488
Crayons, 410, 411, 413
Curie, Marie and Pierre, 338
Custom periscope, 582
Cylindrical focusing, 487
D-scan, 629
Damping factor, 532
Damping ratio (z), 532
Data acquisition with a network
(DAWN), 562
Data analyzer, 521
Decomposition phase, 450
Defect identification, 391
Deformation, 15, 16, 32, 35, 38, 120, 121,
137, 141, 154–156, 158, 159, 161–163,
168, 170–172, 175, 177, 526, 527, 550,
562–564, 566
Degradation of hybrid rocket motor
insulation, 465
Degrees of freedom (DOF), 464, 524
Destructive interference, 532
Detection phase, 450
Detecting speeds, 574
Diffraction, dispersion and attenuation,
481, 482
Digital speckle pattern interferometry
(DSPI), 155
Digital technology, 1, 406
Digital video recording, 622
Digitome X-ray imaging, 393–396
Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 556
Displacement measurements, 541, 555,
556
Displacement sensors, 545–547
Distance amplitude correction (DAC),
510
DLATGS Pyroelectric detector, 447
Dose rates, 309, 310, 327, 331, 332, 333,
335, 341, 342, 345, 350, 354, 356
Double pulsed ruby laser system,
563–565674 INDEX
Dry developer, 226, 228, 238
Dry pumps, 196
Dye penetrant, 172, 183, 222, 223,
227–230, 232, 236, 238, 578
Dye penetrant leak testing, 183
Dynamic absorber, 534–536
Dynamic behavior analysis, 541
Dynamic Tritop system, 177
Econoscope, 585, 586
Eddy current/s, 2, 3, 65–73, 79–82, 88–90,
96–108, 110, 111, 114, 121–123, 125,
150, 232, 507, 546, 547, 575, 576, 625,
643, 657
Edge detection, 391
Elastic energy, 16, 17
Electric discharged machined (EDM),
501
Electromagnetic radiation, 133, 343
Electromagnetic spectrum, 132, 134, 233,
234, 345, 421
Electron capture detection, 397
Emissivity, 421–429, 433, 436, 438, 440
Endothermic reaction, 408, 409
Engine fan balancing, 569
Engine vibration analysis, 565
Enhanced external counterpulsation,
EECP, 6
Environmental factors, 328, 329, 426,
434, 440, 510, 525, 555, 569, 578, 624,
653, 657
Epithermal neutrons, 303, 312, 317,
321
Equivalent penetrameter sensitivity
(EPS), 374
Error potential in radiant
measurements, 429
ESPI interferometry, 135, 136, 154, 155,
157–159, 168, 169, 171, 172, 562–565
Examination of damage to vessel
diffuser plates, 622, 623
Exothermic reaction, 375, 408, 409
Explosive devices, 9, 321, 650
Exposure factor, 362
Exposure time, 136, 172, 308, 310–314,
327, 332, 356, 360–370, 381, 396, 466
Extreme vibration attenuation (EVA)
pad, 533, 534
Extrusions, 576, 578
Failure analysis, 170, 529, 543
Fan trim balancing, 572
Fast Fourier transform (FFT), 48, 544,
548, 550, 553, 556, 557, 560, 574
Fatigue cracks, 42, 128, 229, 253, 256, 263,
288, 500, 501, 548
Fault recognition, 541
Feature extraction, 25, 43, 44, 48
Fiberscopes and Videoscopes, 584–587
Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), 165
Field of view (FOV), 171, 428, 433, 436,
438, 440
Film badge, 310, 326, 327, 330, 352–354
Film graininess, 316, 371
Film thickness on a silicon wafer, 448
Finite element method (FEM), 158, 168,
170, 269
Fission fragments, 345, 346
Fission reactor, 340
Flash radiography, 360
Flat panel digital imaging, 378–381
Flaw detection, 3, 39, 76, 79, 82, 84, 94,
111, 122, 123, 459, 471–473, 502, 512
Flaw image contrast, 371
Flaw transducers, 509, 510
Flexible fiberscopes, 576, 584–589
Fluorescent penetrant, 152, 153 223–225,
227, 229, 233, 236–239, 242, 245
Fluorescent penetrant inspection,
laser-scanned (LSPI), 152, 153
Fluororesin film coatings, 447, 448
Fluoroscopy, 377, 378
Focal distance (FD), 487, 488
Focal plane array (FPA), 435, 436, 438,
440
Forensic comparison, 596, 599, 610
Forgings, 289, 519, 576, 578
Forming limit curve (FLC), 143
Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer,
444–448
Fraunhofer zone, 482
Frequency analysis, 541
Frequency considerations, 512
Frequency domain transducers, 458
Frequency response, 529
Frequency response function (FRF), 526,
599
Fresnel and Fraunhofer fields, 482, 483
Fresnel zone, 482, 487INDEX 675
Fringe line/s, 140
Frisker stations, 329
Fuel rods, 340
Fuji Dynamix computed radiography,
379–381
Full field view, 132, 159
Full width half maximum (FWHM), 630
Fundamental resonant frequency, 475,
498
Fundamentals of radiation safety, 338
Gamma density measurement, 402, 404
Gas matrix piezo (GMP) transducers, 461
Gamma level gauging, 402, 403–405
General Atomics, 308
Generation of ultrasonic waves, 483, 484
G-M survey meter, 327–329
Geometric unsharpness, 314, 324, 363,
364, 371
Geometric and mathematical TOFD
model, 627, 628
GLARE, fiberglass and aluminum, 165
Glare, 171, 227, 377
Golden image technique, 390
Graininess, 314, 316, 371
Gray (Gy) Si unit of absorbed dose, 326
Graybody, 422, 428
Greenberg, E. H., 451
Ground individual field of view
(GIFOV), 428
H and D curve, 367
Half-life, 304, 342
Half-value layer, 335, 348, 360
Halogen diode, 209, 210–213, 657
Hall effect, 67, 83–87, 92, 95, 275, 276
Hall coefficient, 85
Hand-held controller, 620–622
Headphones, 180–182
Heat filters, 377
Heat flow, 407, 408, 653
Heat reactive ink, 415
Heat transfer, 210, 407, 408, 653
Helicopter main rotor vibration
measurements, 570
Helium mass spectrometer leak testing,
184
High-end engine vibration analysis, 572
High-intensity illuminators, 376
High macroscopic cross section, 303
High-speed, high-resolution spectral
data, 629
High-speed IR line camera, 442–444
High-speed temperature measurement
of tires, 442–444
Holographic image, 136, 137, 141
Holographic interference, 138
Holographic sensor, 142
Holography, 132, 136, 137, 140, 141, 143,
644, 645, 658
Homeland security, 637
Horizontal ATR operation, 446, 447
Hydrogenous material, 303, 317, 321, 323
Hysteresis curve, 90, 277, 278
Identification of materials (IM), 305, 316,
448, 450–456
Identification of nuclear fuel bundle
serial numbers, 622, 623
Illumination manager, 598
Image domain transducers, 458
Image freeze and storage, 622
Image quality indicators (IQI), 315, 372,
374
Image unsharpness, 371
Immersion transducers, 482, 489
Impact-echo, 54–57, 59–61, 63, 64
Impact testing, 529
Improper film handling, 374
Improper film processing, 376
Increasing mass, 534–536
Index of refraction, 481
Individual field of view (IFOV), 428,
429, 433, 436, 440
Industrial computed tomography,
382–387
Industrial polymerization, 409
Industrial radiography, 325, 337, 338
Industrial videoscopes, 589–593
Inertance, 528
InFocus corrections, 608
InFocus microscope enhancement
system, 607
Infrared, 2, 10, 407, 408, 420, 421,
427–429, 435, 444, 458, 653, 654, 658
Infrared imaging, 408, 420, 427–429
Inspection speed, 76, 95, 168, 264, 266,
513676 INDEX
Inspection speeds for tubular elements,
513
IC packaging, 147
Intergranular stress corrosion cracking
(IGSCC), 506, 507
Intensifying screens, 364, 365
Interference patterns, 138, 139, 599
Interferogram, 161
Instant picture analysis system (iPass),
463
Inverse square law, 333, 348, 366
Ion chamber, 217, 309, 310, 317, 327, 346,
352, 354, 399, 401, 402, 587
Ionizing radiation, 309, 312, 326, 327,
339, 346, 352, 359
Iso cubes, 533
Isolation treatments, 536–540
Isotope production, 338, 341
Irrelevant moving bands of color (heat),
436
Irreversible color change indicators, 411
JCAMP standard, 445
Jet engine inspection, 581, 582
Jet engine data acquisition module
(JEDA), 568
Journal bearings, 536
Joystick menu navigation, 620
Kaiser effect, 16
Kelvin scale, 410
Kirchoff’s Law, 420
Labels, 236, 312, 313, 411–415, 620
Lacquers, 411
Lamb waves, 476, 477, 493, 494, 497
Laser Methods, 562–566
Laser profilometer, 142, 578
Laser safety, 133, 644–646
Laser thermometer, 423–425
Laser-scanned penetrant inspection
(LSPI), 152–154
LP-2000 laser profilometer, 150, 151
Leak rate/s, 180, 183, 184, 190, 192,
197–199, 207–209, 211, 214, 215, 217
Leak testing, bubble, 183, 199–201, 657
Leak testing, dye penetrant, 183
Leak testing, MSLD, 184, 186, 196, 198,
213, 216
Leak testing, pressure change, 183, 203,
205–209, 657
Leak testing, ultrasonic, 180, 183
L/D ratio, 307, 308, 311, 314, 316, 323,
324
Liquid crystal inks, 414
Liquid in glass thermometers, 415
Liquid penetrant testing, 221–224, 228,
231, 232, 239, 244, 245, 262, 648, 657
Linear diode array (LDA), 385–390
Locating leaks, 180, 191, 192
Long distance microscope (LDM),
600–607
Longitudinal wave, 35, 476–478,
489–492, 498, 627, 629
Looseness, 536
Lucite shoes, 487
Lucite wedges, 487
Machine diagnosis, 541–543
Machine vision systems, 601
Macroscopic cross section, 303
Magnetic crawlers, 575
Magnetism, 90, 112–115, 248, 251, 263,
273, 274, 277–279, 289, 523, 643
Man-made radiation, 326
Manipulator bridge, 503, 504
Mass, 36, 67, 171, 522–524, 527, 528, 534,
536, 541, 544, 545
Mass spectrometer leak detector, 184,
186, 198, 216
Material parameters, 514
Measured individual field of view
(MIFOV), 428
Measuring area, 156, 158, 160, 164, 170,
172, 566
Measuring leaks, 180, 192, 193
Measuring sensitivity, 156, 158, 164, 165,
556, 566
Measurement range, 142, 146, 244, 401,
432, 438
Mechanical deformation, 137
Mechanical shakers, 522
Mechanical stress, 17, 113, 138, 140
Medical marvels, 5, 6
Medical radiography, 338, 345
Melting point indicators, 410, 411
Mercury in solids and solutions, 449
Meson particles, 345INDEX 677
Micro-electromechanical systems
(MEMS), 3, 5, 144,
Microcircuits, 578
Midstage flow, 188
Millirems per hour (mR/h), 327
Miniature fiber optic spectrometer,
633–636
Mixing of solutions, 409
Modal analysis, 526, 527, 537, 562
Mode conversion, 475, 478, 493, 495, 496,
626, 629
Modes of vibration, 477, 497, 522–524
Moderator, 303, 310
Modulation transfer function (MTF),
322
Mohr’s circle, 525, 526
Moisture gauging, 397
Molybdenum processing, 408
Monitoring structures, 41
Multi-change paints, 412
Multilayer ultrasonic thickness gauge,
470, 471
Multiple flow, 188
Nanobots, 4
Nanosurf confocal microscopy, 145
Nanotechnology, 3, 4
Narrow-band optical pyrometers, 423,
424
National voluntary laboratory
accreditation program (NLAP), 417
Natural background radiation, 348, 349
Natural focus, 482
Near field distances, 483
Near IR, 421, 444
Negative stiffness mechanism (NSM),
537–540
Neutral particles, 345
Neutron activation analysis (NAA), 304,
307, 309, 316, 317
Neutron cross section, 301, 303
Neutron energy, 303, 311–315
Neutron imaging, 312, 321–324
Neutron level gauges, 320
Neutron porosity logging, 319
Neutron reflections, 314
Neutrons, 301–317, 320, 321, 326, 327,
338–341
Noise, 3, 10, 16, 18–20
Noise analysis, 525
Noise vibration harshness (NVH), 159
Nominal frequency (F), 458
Non-agreement states, 337
Noncontacting, 3, 136, 142, 162, 422, 458,
460, 463, 489, 545, 626
Noncontacting pitch-catch mode, 463,
464
Noncontacting transducers (NCU),
460–463
Noncontacting ultrasonic testing,
458–466
Nonlinear mechanical system, 536
Nonrelevant indications, 71, 88, 263, 274,
297, 299
Nuclear applications, 582–584
Nuclear bomb fallout, 349
Nuclear fission, 326, 340
Nuclear reactor, 9, 41, 208, 303, 316, 321,
326, 340, 343, 346, 622
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC),
52, 128, 308, 309, 325, 330, 331, 335,
337, 338, 349, 352
Numerical aperture (NA), 604
Nyquist frequency plot, 557, 559
Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL), 316
Objective lens, 142, 144, 146, 578, 580,
594, 605, 611
Occupational dose limit, 349
Ocean optics photometers, 629–638
Operating deflection shape (ODS), 527
Optical inspection, 168
Optical pyrometers, 423–427
Optimum magnification (fluoroscopy),
377
Orbit plots, 559
Order analysis, 527, 528
Order frequency, 527
Order tracking, 527
Paint brush transducer, 488, 512
Pair production, 347
Pancake probe, 327, 329
Paper mill process, 434
Particle radiation, 303, 343
Particle vibration, 474, 476, 477, 490
Pass and fail testing, 531, 536
Peak frequency (PF), 458678 INDEX
Pellets, 313, 340, 410
Penetrameter, 289, 315, 370, 372–374,
378, 491
Penetrant materials, 224, 236–238
Penetrant testing, 221–224, 232, 239, 244,
245, 262, 648, 657
Percent transmittance (%T), 636
Permeability, 72, 73, 76, 79, 84, 88–90, 96,
108, 110, 125, 126, 249, 251, 253, 262,
264, 275, 305
Personnel monitoring, 310, 325, 337, 338,
649, 651
PCI bus, 10, 11, 34, 39, 42–49, 444
Phase-stepping, 162
Photoelectric effect, 346
Photofluorescent, 365
Photographic density, 315, 366, 367
Photons, 133, 341–346, 354, 355, 402, 408,
421, 428, 436, 436, 634
Piezoelectric sensor, 21, 23, 34
Pipe and vessel inspections, 626–629
Pipe weld inspection, 575
Planck’s law, 423
Pocket dosimeter, 310, 326, 327, 330, 352
Polychromic inks, 415
Portable accelerators, 359
Portable noise and vibration analyzer,
560–562
Portable ultrasonic flaw detector, 507,
509
Position-sensing device (PSD), 149
Post emulsification, 226, 229
Predictive maintenance (PdM), 429–431,
521, 528, 550, 556, 562, 657
Pressure change leak testing, 183, 202,
205
Pressurization stress, 645
Preventive and predictive maintenance
program (PPM), 429, 431, 550
Primary reaction control system
(PRCS), 6, 7
Probalancer Analyzer 2020, 570–572
Probability of detection (POD), 577
Probe manipulator, 489, 502–504
Process Control, 1, 9, 10, 41, 101, 285,
291, 294, 393, 410, 439, 440, 455, 630
Profilometry, 134, 135, 142, 147, 646, 658
Projection microscopes, 593–600
Propellar balancing kit, 571
Proportional counter, 310, 313, 397
Pulse dampening, 499
Pulse generation, 475, 476
Pulse-echo method, 55, 465, 467, 469,
473, 490, 510
Pulse repetition rate, 463, 466, 467–469,
499, 513
Pulse width (PW), 458, 467, 485, 500
Pulsed 3D ESPI system, 563–566
Pulser, 50, 360, 463, 464, 466–468
Pulser/receiver, 468–470
Pumps, 4, 6, 10, 16, 186, 187, 195, 196,
216, 218, 239, 289, 402, 521, 524, 550,
577, 583
PXI bus, 10, 11
Pyrometers, 10, 422–427
Quality estimation, 391
Radiation area, 325, 332, 335
Radiation dose, 9, 310, 311, 326, 327,
331–336, 349, 350, 353, 354, 356
Radiation exposure calculator, 370
Radiation safety officer, 198, 311, 330,
336
Radiation shielding, 347, 378
Radiation survey, 310, 325, 327, 331, 335,
336, 337, 346, 649, 651
Radio frequency (RF), 475, 484, 500
Radiographic camera, 332, 335, 336
Radiographic contrast, 314, 315, 371
Radiographic sensitivity, 314, 370–372
Radiographic shadow formation, 363
Radioisotope, 198, 339, 340, 345, 358,
361, 366
Rare earth element/s, 301, 303
Rayleigh waves, 36, 122, 476, 493
Real-time holography, 137, 140
Refinery alloy comments, 453
Reflection and refraction, 478–481
Reflectivity, 421, 422, 427, 428
Region of interest (ROI), 387, 391, 441,
557
Relative shaft vibration, 541
Relay lenses, 578
Remote-controlled cold-light source,
599
Remote pulsers and preamplifiers,
467–470INDEX 679
Remote magnetic pipe crawlers, 575
Remote visual inspection, 611–626
Repeatability, 143, 387, 418, 420, 432, 471
Research and development, 25, 39, 434,
470
Resistance temperature devices (RTDs),
204, 417–420, 428
Resistance temperature elements
(RTEs), 420
Resolving power, 219, 428, 485, 604
Resonance testing, 497
Resonant frequency, 21, 473, 475, 485,
497, 498, 521–524, 526, 536
Restricted area, 331, 332, 335
Retentivity, 87, 264, 274, 275, 278, 279
Reverse flow, 186, 187
Reverse fluorescent, 227
Rigid borescope, 580, 584, 585
Ring light adapter, 605
Robotic crawler units, 623–626
Robotic inspection, 164, 168
Roentgen, William, 338, 347
Rolling element bearing failures, 547
Rotating equipment analysis, 527
Rotor track and balance measurements,
570
Rule base/specific algorithm method,
392
Scanning laser profilometry, 147–149
Self-adhesive strips and indicators, 411
Scintillation detector, 355, 402
Scintillation screen, 385, 389
Search unit construction, 484–489
Seebeck effect, 416, 451, 452
Selective envelope detection (SED), 550,
553
Semiautomatic defect recognition
(SADR), 392
Sensor coupling, 21, 23, 26, 47
Shear waves, 57, 122, 123, 476, 478, 487,
490–495, 514, 515, 629
Shearography, 132, 161–168, 644, 645, 658
Shearography camera, 164, 644
Shielding, 80, 88, 289, 317, 332–335,
345–348, 378, 426, 583
Shock pulse generator, 499, 510
Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), 79, 80, 84,
88, 111, 162, 460, 461, 643
SilverHawk, 5
Single color change paints, 412
Small-angle neutron scattering
instrument (ANS), 316
SnakeEye diagnostic tool, 587, 588
Snell’s law, 480
Sniffer, 184, 192, 193, 195, 212–214, 219
Sound concentrator, 182
Sound level meter (SLM), 525
Source locking mechanism, 336
Source strength, 341, 342, 366, 369
Sources of vibration, 524
Space elevator, 60,000-mile-high, 11, 12
Spatial resolution, 156, 177, 324, 384, 385,
436, 440, 443
Speckle interferogram, 161
Spectral range, 432, 443, 447, 631, 632
Spectrometer efficiency curve, 631, 632
Spectrometer tube, 185–188, 197, 214,
216–218
Spectrum analyzer, 76, 111, 499, 525, 556,
557, 561
Speed and phase signal processing, 574
Speed change, 540
Spherical aberration, 607
SpyGlass lens, 439, 440
Squirter unit, 489, 495, 497, 513
Stability and Decay, 341
Standard radiographic technique, 361
Standard reference blocks, 514, 515
Statue of Liberty, 584
Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 422
Stefan-Boltzmann law, 423
Stereomicroscopes, 594–598
Stereomacroscopes, 594, 595, 599
Sterling-cycle cooling engine, 435, 438
Stiffening, 540, 541
Stiffness, 524, 527–529, 537, 539
Strain gauges, 119, 155, 525, 543
Stress analysis, 120, 525, 529
Stress/strain analysis, 565
Structural integrity, 39, 40, 50, 53, 54, 124,
208
Surface waves, 36, 57, 457, 476, 477,
492–494, 497, 519
Superimposed image comparison, 598
Survey instrument/s, 327, 331, 342, 354,
649
Survey reports, 331, 651680 INDEX
Tachometer inputs, 574
Target rods, 340
TEC’s Aviation Products, 567–574
Technique charts, 261, 368–370
Temperature measurement, 207, 409,
410, 420, 424, 426, 427, 438, 442, 654
Temperature sensors with readouts,
416–420
TV camera, 131, 356, 583
TV holography, 136
Tele-zoom viewing, 616
Tenth-value layer (TVL), 348
Testing equipment (UT), 498–518
Test methods (UT), 489–498
TN alloy pro, 357–359
Thermal imager and visible light camera,
440, 441, 442
Thermal imaging, 432, 434–436, 442
Thermal neutron/s, 301, 303, 303,
310–314, 316, 317, 321–324
Thermal radiation, 407, 408, 421–423,
425, 427–429, 439
Thermal stress, 113, 138, 139, 547, 645
Thermal video imaging, 433
Thermochromic flex ink, 415
Thermochromic liquid crystal indicators,
413
Thermocouple sensors, 416, 417
Thermoelectric alloy sorting, 450–456
Thermoluminescent dosimeter, 326,
352–354
Thorium reduction, 408
3D confocal microscopy, 146
3D deformation vector, 564
3D ESPI, 154, 157, 158, 159, 171
3D profiler, 149
Through transmission, 467, 469, 490, 494,
495, 497, 518
Time domain transducers, 457
Time of flight, 457, 458, 463, 473, 627
Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), 519,
576, 626, 627, 658
Tool-head camera, 618
Tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR),
582
Total borescope magnification, 580
Transducers (TOFD), 576
Track-etch neutron imaging method, 312
Tracking analysis, 554
Trained operators, 575
Transducer beam spread, 481
Transfer functions, 528
Translation device, 464
Transmissivity, 421, 422, 427
Trend analysis, 560
Tribology, 147
TRIGA reactor, 307, 308, 323
Tristimulus method, 636
Twin engine propellar balancing, 570
Ultran focused transducer, 463
Ultrasonic analyzer, 510, 511
Ultrasonic leak detector, 180, 183
Ultrasonic noise generator, 182
Ultrasonic wave generation, 476, 477
UV-A, 233, 234, 243, 244
Ultraviolet, 152, 222, 224, 378, 578, 637
Uncooled IR linear array, 442
Underwater periscope, 583
Universal format lens (UFL), 600
Unsharpness, 314, 324, 361, 363, 366, 371,
377
Vacuum stress, 645
Vacuum system, 179, 185–188, 190, 191,
194, 196, 197, 216–218, 220
Valves, 16, 41, 179, 180, 183, 190, 196, 200,
208, 217–220, 577, 587, 589
Variable attenuator, 136, 499, 510
Variables affecting results, 517–519
Velocity, 555, 556
Velocity sensors, 545
VDI Guidance 2056, 541–543
Vibration balancing machines, 555
Vibration damping, 532–534
Vibration excitation, 155, 162, 166, 645
Vibration isolation platform, 537–540
Vibration isolation theory, 537–540
Vibration survey and analysis, 568
Vibrational modes, 137, 141
Vibrotest 60 Version 4, 550–555
Viper 4040, 572–574
Visible dye penetrant processes, 227–229
Visual appearance, 576
Visual testing, 244, 519, 576, 577, 656, 658
Wall thickness measurement, 472
Wall thinning, 472, 577INDEX 681
Wall periscopes, 583
Ward Center, 307–309
Water washable, 221, 224, 226–229, 237,
238
Waterfall analysis, 527
Waterfall plots, 527, 528
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), 3
Wear-resistance thermocouples, 418
Welding defects, 398–400
Wet developer, 225, 229, 230, 238
Wheel unit (UT), 489, 495, 497, 513
White light interferometry, 135
Wireless technology, 1
Working distance, 146, 147, 156, 158, 566,
594, 599, 601, 604, 605, 608, 611
Working tools, 592
X-ray fluorescence, 356, 358
X-ray generator, 345, 356
Yellow cake, 340
Young’s modulus (stress/strain), 472
Zero-order Bessel function, 140  


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