كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 43
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1    كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1  Emptyالإثنين 29 أكتوبر 2012, 8:51 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Welding Handbook Ninth Edition
Volume 1
Welding Science and Technology
Prepared Under the Direction of the Welding Handbook Committee
Cynthia L. Jenney
Annette O’Brien
Editors

كتاب Welding Handbook - Volume 1  W_h_b_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
PREFACE . xi
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS xii
CONTRIBUTORS . xiii
CHAPTER 1-SURVEY OF JOINING, CUTTING, AND ALLIED PROCESSES . 1
Introduction 2
Joining Processes . 3
Cutting Processes . 42
Thermal Spraying 47
Conclusion 49
Bibliography 49
CHAPTER 2-PHYSICS OF WELDING AND CUTTING 51
Introduction 52
Fusion and Solid-State Welding . 52
Energy Sources for Welding . 57
Arc Characteristics 67
Metal Transfer . 73
Melting Rates 78
Physical Properties of Metals and Shielding Gases . 81
Conclusion 84
Bibliography 84
CHAPTER 3-HEAT FLOW IN WELDING . 87
Introduction 88
Heat Flow Fundamentals . 88
Quantitative Calculation of Heat Transfer in Fusion Welding . 95
Conduction of Heat during Fusion Welding 97
Convective Heat Transfer in the Weld Pool . 105
Relative Importance of Conduction and Convection . 108
Conclusion 111
Bibliography 112
CHAPTER 4-WELDING METALLURGY 115
Introduction 116
Physical Metallurgy . 116
Metallurgy of Welding . 130
Weldability of Commercial Alloys . 140
Corrosion in Weldments 149
The Brazed or Soldered Joint . 151
Corrosion in Brazed and Soldered Joints . 154
Conclusion 154
Bibliography 155
CHAPTER 5-DESIGN FOR WELDING . 157
Introduction 158
Properties of Metals 158
Weldment Design Program 166
Welded Design Considerations . 170viii
Design of Welded Joints .182
Selection of Weld Type .193
Sizing of Steel Welds .196
Tubular Connections 216
Aluminum Structures .226
Conclusion .236
Bibliography .237
CHAPTER 6-TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING WELDED JOINTS 239
Introduction .240
Testing for Strength 241
Hardness Tests .256
Bend Tests 260
Fracture Toughness Testing 261
Fatigue Testing .272
Corrosion Testing .277
Creep and Rupture Testing .280
Testing of Thermal Spray Applications .281
Weldability Testing .284
Conclusion .292
Bibliography .292
CHAPTER 7-RESIDUAL STRESS AND DISTORTION .297
Introduction .298
Fundamentals .298
Nature and Causes of Residual Stress .300
Effects of Residual Stress 308
Measurement of Residual Stress .313
Residual Stress Distribution Patterns 318
Effects of Specimen Size and Weight .322
Effects of Welding Sequence .325
Residual Stress in Welds Made with Different Welding Processes .326
Weld Distortion 328
Reducing or Controlling Residual Stress and Distortion .351
Conclusion .354
Bibliography .354
CHAPTER 8-SYMBOLS FOR JOINING AND INSPECTION .359
Introduction .360
Fundamentals .361
Welding Symbols 361
Welding Symbols for Specific Weld Types .373
Brazing Symbols .381
Soldering Symbols 382
Inspection Symbols .385
Conclusion .393
Bibliography .393
CHAPTER 9-WELDMENT TOOLING AND POSITIONING 395
Introduction .396
Fixtures 396ix
Positioners . 403
Conclusion 419
Bibliography 419
CHAPTER 10-MONITORING AND CONTROL OF WELDING AND JOINING PROCESSES 421
Introduction 422
Principles of Monitoring and Control 422
Sensing Devices . 423
Process Instrumentation 428
Process Monitoring Systems 429
Process Control Systems 429
Monitoring and Control Systems . 431
Conclusion 448
Bibliography 448
CHAPTER 11-MECHANIZED, AUTOMATED, AND ROBOTIC WELDING 451
Introduction 452
Mechanized Welding . 453
Automated Welding . 458
Robotic Welding 467
Planning for Automated and Robotic Welding 474
Conclusion 482
Bibliography 482
CHAPTER 12-ECONOMICS OF WELDING AND CUTTING . 483
Introduction 484
The Cost Estimate . 484
Economics of Welding . 485
Automated and Robotic Systems . 498
Economics of Resistance Spot Welding 510
Capital Investment in Welding Automation and Robotics . 514
Control of Welding Costs 517
Economics of Brazing and Soldering 523
Economics of Thermal Cutting 530
Conclusion 531
Bibliography 531
CHAPTER 13-WELD QUALITY 533
Introduction 534
Defining Weld Quality . 534
Overview of Weld Discontinuities 536
Discontinuities Associated with Fusion Welding 538
Discontinuities Associated with Resistance Welding 562
Discontinuities Associated with the Solid-State Welding Processes . 567
Discontinuities in Brazed and Soldered Joints 569
Significance of Weld Discontinuities 572
Conclusion 575
Bibliography 576x
CHAPTER 14-WELDING INSPECTION AND NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION .579
Introduction .580
Personnel Qualifications .581
The Inspection Plan 583
Nondestructive Examination 584
Metallographic Examination Methods .633
Inspection of Brazed and Soldered Joints 634
Conclusion .634
Bibliography .634
CHAPTER 15-QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION 637
Introduction .638
Welding and Brazing Procedure Specifications 640
Qualification of Welding and Brazing Procedures .655
Performance Qualification 668
Standardization of Qualification Requirements 678
Conclusion .679
Bibliography .679
CHAPTER 16-CODES AND OTHER STANDARDS .683
Introduction .684
Standards-Developing Organizations and Welding-Related Publications 685
Guidelines for Participating in International Standards Activities .708
Conclusion .708
CHAPTER 17-SAFE PRACTICES .711
Introduction .712
Safety Management 712
Protection of the Work Area 714
Personal Protective Equipment .719
Protection against Fumes and Gases .724
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases 733
Protection against Electromagnetic Radiation 738
Electrical Safety 738
Fire Prevention .741
Explosion Prevention 743
Process-Specific Safety Considerations 743
Safety in Robotic Operations .753
Conclusion .754
Bibliography .754
APPENDIX A-TERMS AND DEFINITIONS .759
APPENDIX B-METRIC PRACTICE GUIDE FOR THE WELDING INDUSTRY 849
INDEX OF MAJOR SUBJECTS:
Eighth Edition and Ninth Edition, Volume 1 .873
Types of Regulatory Documents .684
INDEX OF NINTH EDITION, Volume 1 .
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
AA. See Aluminum Association.
AAR. See Association of American Railroads.
AASHTO. See American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials.
ABS. See American Bureau of Shipping.
ACGIH. See American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists.
Acoustic emission testing 628
accumulation of data 629
acoustic sources, position of 629
applications 628
description 628
equipment 629
evaluation of data 629
limitations 630
monitoring during proof testing 629
monitoring during welding 629
monitoring time, postweld 629
procedures 629
standards for, ASTM and ASME 629
test results, recording of 630
Adaptive control, definition of 430
Adaptive control welding 452 467
Adherends 34
Adhesive bonding 34 752
advantages 34
description of 34
limitations of 34Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Adhesive bonding (Cont.)
safe practices 752
Aerospace Material Specifications 705
Air carbon arc cutting (CAC-A) 43 45
AISC. See American Institute of Steel Construction.
Allowable stress design (ASD) 196
Alloys 117
aluminum 143 230
cobalt 145
copper 144
magnesium 144
multiphase 118 228
nickel-based 144
precipitation-hardened 137
steels 142
titanium 145
transformation-hardening 138
Aluminum Association (AA) 226 708
Aluminum structures, design of 226
aluminum alloys, welded, tensile strength of 230
butt joints 228
concepts and methods 227
designing for welding 227
fatigue strength 234
fatigue stress ratio 235
fillet weld shear strength 233
fillet weld size, minimum 233
heat-affected zone, effect of 230
joint design 229
lap joints 228
mechanical properties 230
residual stresses in 235
service temperature, effect of 236Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Aluminum structures, design of (Cont.)
service temperature, loss of strength at 236
sniping 233
stress distribution 233
thermal treatments 233 236
T-joints 229
weld joint design 227
weld joint types 227
welding effects on strength 230
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) 203 685
publications 686
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) 685
publications 687
American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (ACGIH) 724 732
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) 203 685 687
American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 708
publications 687
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 687
international standards 668
U.S. national standards 687
American Petroleum Institute (API) 685 688
publications 688
American Railway Engineering and
Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) 203 685 688
publications 689
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 538 606 685 676 690
publications 691
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
International (ASME) 575 606 630 638 642
651 669 670 673 679
685 689 698Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Cont.)
publications 689
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) 538 581 676 690
publications 690
American Society for Quality (ASQ) 691
American Water Works Association (AWWA) 685 692
publications 692
American Welding Society (AWS) 692
filler metal specifications 694
publications 692
qualification and certification programs 638
qualification standards 695
reference publications 692
safety and health standards 695
standard definitions 692
standard symbols 692
structural welding codes 694
testing standards 695
thermal spraying standards 693
welding application standards 693
welding inspector qualification and certification
program 581 678
welding process standard 693
AMS. See Aerospace Material Specifications.
ANSI. See American National Standards Institute.
API. See American Petroleum Institute.
Arc blow 72
Arc characteristics 67
arc blow 71 72
arc plasma 67
arc radiation 69
anode fall space 70
anode spot 70Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Arc characteristics (Cont.)
cathode fall space 70
cathode spot 70
electrical features 70
Elenbass-Heller energy balance 69
impedance, arc 70
magnetic fields, influence of 71
thermal equilibrium 68
Arc efficiency 54 89
Arc spraying (ASP) 47 48
See also Thermal spraying.
Arc strike 544
Arc stud welding (SW) 16
advantages 17
capacitor discharge welding 17
description of 16
discontinuities associated with 537
equipment 16
ferrule composition 16
limitations 18
manual arc welding of studs 16
power sources for 17
skill requirements, operator 17
Arc voltage control, welding 432
Arc welding 3
See also Arc stud welding;
Electrogas welding; Flux cored arc welding; Gas
metal arc welding; Gas tungsten arc welding;
Shielded metal arc welding; Submerged arc
welding; and Plasma arc welding.
automated 461
cost definitions 500
deposition of heat in 95Index Terms Links
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Arc welding (Cont.)
description of 3
equations used to estimate direct costs of 499
energy absorption efficiency in 89
estimating the direct costs of 498
monitoring and control of 431
robotic systems 467
safe practices 720 745
procedure specifications 641
AREMA. See American Railway Engineering and
Maintenance-of-Way Association.
ASME. See American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASNT. See American Society for Nondestructive Testing.
ASQ. See American Society for Quality.
ASP. See Arc Spraying.
ASTM. See American Society Testing and Materials.
Association of American Railroads (AAR) 686
publications 656
Austenite decomposition products 122
bainite 124
cementite (iron carbide) 122
ferrite 122
isothermal transformation diagram 124
martensite 124
pearlite 123
transformation diagrams, continuous cooling 125
transformation diagrams, time-temperature 124
Automated and robotic systems, economics of 498
cycle-time estimation 501
formulas 501
general formulas, sequential welding centers 501 505
general formulas, simultaneous welding centers 503
machine chart, operators 502Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Automated and robotic systems, economics of (Cont.)
methodology used in 500
multiple operators, multiple machine system 502 504 506
multiple operators, multiple welding center system 507
multiple operators, single machine system 504 506
multiple welding centers 501 507
sequential welding centers 501 505
simultaneous welding centers 501 502
single operator, multiple welding center system 503 505 507
single operator, single machine system 502 505
welding center configurations 501
welding manufacturing systems, types of 498
Automated and robotic welding, planning for 474
atmospheric contamination 479
changeover time and inventories 480
environment 479
equipment location 479
ergonomics, safety, and health 479
facilities 477
fixturing 459 476
floor space 480
integration, automated or robotic system 480
investment 480
maintenance 479 480
manufacturing feasibility studies 476
motion operation 460
operator, training and education 476 479
personnel requirements 480
procedures and scheduling 475
process selection and WPS qualification 476
procurement scheduling 477
product design 475
production volume 475Index Terms Links
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Automated and robotic welding (Cont.)
quality control 477
selection of welding equipment 476
training requirements, recommended 479
weld development and testing program 476
welding standards 476
workpiece tolerances 461 475
Automated arc welding 461 475
See also Automated welding; Robotic arc
welding systems.
feeding devices 463
power sources 462
seam-tracking systems 462
system components 462
system controller 462
welding interface 462
welding schedules 462
welding torches 462
Automated welding 458
See also Automated arc welding; Robotic arc
welding systems.
advantages of 460
automated arc welding 461
conversion to 476
definition of 452
fundamentals 459
limitations 461
resistance welding automation 463
robotic arc welding 467
robotic resistance welding 473
robotic welding 467
Automation 458
application 459Index Terms Links
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Automation (Cont.)
definition of 458
fixturing and tooling 459 468
integration of 477
fundamentals of 474
justification for automatic equipment 459
manufacturing considerations 459
Automation, arc welding 461
See also Automation; Automated welding.
equipment 462
seam tracking systems 462
Automation, resistance welding 463
See also Automation; Automated welding.
ancillary equipment 466
applications 463
controls 465
description of 463
input/output communication 466
interface between components 466
microcomputer controls 465
monitoring devices 466
monitoring equipment 466
production rates 464
quality control 467
spot welding guns 465
spot welding machines 465
welding cycle 464 465
welding electrodes 465
welding system components 465
Automation, welding. See also Automated welding;
Automation; Automation, arc welding;
Automation, resistance welding.
fixturing 459Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Automation, welding (Cont.)
flexibility 475
process variables 480
production considerations 475
safety and health 479
safety standards for 479
Automotive welding standards 705
AWS. See American Welding Society.
AWWA. See American Water Works Association.
B
Backing left on 544
Bainite 124
Base metal 140 642
cracking of 550
Bend tests 260
description of 260
fixtures for 260
guided bend test 260
longitudinal bend tests 260
qualification by 260
test specimens for 260
transverse bend tests 261
Beryllium 149
Brazed and soldered joints, corrosion in 154
stress-corrosion cracking 154
stress-corrosion cracking, procedures to reduce 154
stresses, cold-forming 154
Braze welding (BW) 42
applications 42
description of 42
Brazed or soldered joint, the 151
advantages 151
alloys, brazing and soldering 153Index Terms Links
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Brazed or soldered joint, the (Cont.)
beryllium 153
brazing filler metals 151 153
cadmium-silver alloy solder 154
cadmium-zinc alloy solder 154
contaminants 152
disadvantages 151
intergranular penetration of 153
intermetallic compound formation 152 153
intrusion in 153
metallurgical considerations 151
molybdenum and tungsten, brazing of 153
niobium, brazing of 153
operations 151
process variations 152
properties of 152
soldering alloys 153
tantalum, brazing of 153 154
tin-copper-silver alloy solder 154
tin-lead alloy solder 154
tin-silver alloy solder 154
wetting of base metal 152
Brazing 37
See also Brazing symbols; Joining
Process(es); Soldering.
description of 37
Brazing and soldering 34
advantages 36
discontinuities associated with 569
similarities of 35
Brazing procedure specifications (BPS) 660
Brazing symbols 381
See also Welding symbols.Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Brazing symbols (Cont.)
brazed joints 381
letter designations for 381
Brinell hardness test 256
British Standards Institute (BSI) 575
Brittle failures 163
BSI. See British Standards Institute.
Buckling 173
Burn-through 544
BW. See Braze welding.
C
CAC-A. See Air carbon arc cutting.
Canadian Standards Association International (CSA) 581 695
publications 696
Capital investment, justification of 514
automated and robotic systems, advantages of 516
combined operations 516
cost benefit factors 514
cost forecast factors 514
deposition efficiency, improved 516
improved throughput 517
improvement factor, overall 516
installation costs 515
material handling 515
manufacturing, agile 516
manufacturing options 516
operation factors, improved 516
production volume estimates 514
safety 515
special requirements 514
weld joint design, efficient 516
workpiece accuracy 515
workpiece geometry 515Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Carbon arc welding (CAW) 537
Cascade soldering (CS) 41
CAW. See Carbon arc welding.
Center of gravity 405 411
CEN. See European Committee for Standardization.
CGA. See Compressed Gas Association.
Charpy V-notch impact test 263
Cobalt alloys 145
Codes. See Codes and Other Standards; Standards.
Codes and other standards 684
definition of terms 684
guidelines for participating in national standards 708
standards-developing organizations and
welding-related publications 685
supplementary reading list 709
types of regulatory documents 684
Cold welding (CW) 27 357
Cold working 121 619
Columbium 147
Compressed Gas Association (CGA) 696 733 735
publications 696
Compressed gas cylinders 733
See also Compressed gases, handling of.
cylinder safety device 737
filling cylinders and mixing gases 733
gas withdrawal 734
labeling 733
pressure-relief devices 734
securing 733
storage 733 734
storage precautions 733
usage 733
valve protection cap 734
valves, cylinder 734Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Compressed gases, safe handling of 733
See also Compressed gas cylinders.
flowmeter(s) 735
fuel gases 735
manifolds 734 735
oxygen 735
piping systems 735
regulators 735
storage and usage 733
regulator(s), pressure-reducing 735
regulator adaptors 735
Concavity 540 544
Conductance and convection, relative importance of 108
cooling rates 110
solidification structure, simple features of 110
variable penetration 109
Consumable guide electroslag welding (ESW-CG) 34 35
advantages 34
applications 34
description of 34
electrodes 34
Continuous cooling transformation diagrams 125
Convexity 540 544
Copper alloys 44
Corner joints 195
Corrosion fatigue 277
Corrosion properties 168
See also Corrosion resistance; Corrosion testing
of welded joints.
Corrosion resistance 166
Corrosion testing of welded joints 277
factors influencing 277
general corrosion 279Index Terms Links
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Corrosion testing of welded joints (Cont.)
preferential corrosion 277 279
salt spray testing 279
surface preparation 278
test methods 278
visual inspection of specimens 278 279
weight-loss test 279
Cost control, welding 517
consumable electrodes, advantages of 519
eliminating operations 520
field welding 521
joint design 517
manageable costs 517
manufacturing, guides for 521
mistake-proofing 518
overwelding 522
process selection 518
production planning, guidelines for 520
quality costs, hidden 521
quality factors 521
supporting activities 521
unforeseen costs 521
weldment design 517
welding procedures 492 521
Cost estimating, welding 485
deposited metal weights 486 492
deposition efficiency 492 549
deposition rate 492
gas 492
labor 495
miscellaneous workplace time, definition of 495
operator factor, the 495
standards preparation 497Index Terms Links
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Cost estimating, welding (Cont.)
typical variables used 485
welding procedure specification (WPS), use of 485
Cracking 544
base metal 549 550
causes and remedies 551
factors affecting 549
hydrogen-induced 550
in solid-state welds 568
measurement of residual stress by 318
resistance to 549
stress corrosion 313
under hostile conditions 313
weld metal 549
Cracks 544 600
base metal 549
causes and remedies 549 550
cold cracking 550
crater 546 547
delayed 550
face 546 547
heat-affected zone (HAZ) 546
hydrogen effects 550
in brazed and soldered joints 571
indications of 600
longitudinal 545 546 547
root 547 548
root surface 547 548
throat 547 548
toe 547 548
transverse 545 547 548
underbead 547 550
weld interface 547Index Terms Links
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Cracks (Cont.)
weld metal 547 548 549
Creep, definition of 165
Creep rate(s) 165
Creep-rupture of metals 165
Creep and rupture testing 280
Cryogenic cylinders and tanks 737
Cryogenic liquids 737
Cryogenic piping systems 735
CS. See Cascade soldering.
CSA. See Canadian Standards Association.
Cutting processes 42
See also Thermal cutting;
Oxyfuel gas cutting; Plasma arc cutting; Air
carbon arc cutting; Laser beam cutting; Water jet
cutting.
CW. See Cold welding.
Cyclic loading 164
D
DB. See Dip brazing.
Delamination 540 559
Depth of fusion, definition of 564
Design for welding 158
aluminum structures 226
bibliography 237
considerations 170
equations 171
introductory overview 158
major factors 167
objectives 158
selection of weld type 193
sizing of steel welds 196
supplementary reading list 237Index Terms Links
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Design for welding (Cont.)
tubular connections 216
welded joints 182
Destructive tests. See Inspection plan; Nondestructive
examination; Proof testing; Spot welds, tests of.
macroscopic examination 633
metallographic examination 633
microscopic examination 634
Detonation flame spraying (DFSP) 48
DFSP. See Detonation flame spraying.
DFW. See Diffusion welding.
Diffusion brazing 39
Diffusion welding (DFW) 25 57 65
description of 25
discontinuities associated with 537
energy sources 65
equipment 25
mechanisms for 65
Dip brazing (DB) 39
Dip soldering (DS) 41
Direct drive friction welding 24
Discontinuities, brazed and soldered joints 569
acceptance limits 569
base metal erosion 571
cracks 571
discontinuities, common 569
discontinuous fillets 571
flux entrapment 571
lack of fill 570
surface appearance, unsatisfactory 571
Discontinuities, fusion welds 538 599
arc craters 539
arc strike 539 544Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Discontinuities, fusion welds (Cont.)
backing left on 539 544
base metal 558
burn-through 539 544
causes and remedies 549
characteristics of 538
classification of 538
concavity 539 540 544
convexity 539 540 544
cracks 539 540 544 600
crater crack 540 546
definition of 539
delamination 540 559
design-related 539
discontinuity indications, relevant 607
dimensional discrepancies 559
distortion 559 560
face 546
flux inclusions 551
geometric factors 552
heat-affected-zone cracks 546 551
hydrogen, effect of 555
inclusions, slag and tungsten 540 550 559
incomplete joint penetration 540 553 600 624
incomplete fusion 539 540 552 600 624
incorrect joint preparation 559
lamellar tear 539 559
laminar discontinuities 627
laminations 558
laps and seams 559
location and occurrence of 539
longitudinal 546
melt-through 539 544Index Terms Links
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Discontinuities, fusion welds (Cont.)
metallurgical 538
overlap 539 554
overview of 536
oxide film 539 555
oxide inclusions 552
porosity 539 540 555 599
porosity, aligned 539 540 555
porosity, causes of 555
porosity, cluster 539 540 555
porosity, elongated 539 540 555
porosity, piping 539 540 555
porosity, scattered 539 540 555
procedure and process related 538
root 548
root surface 548
slag, entrapped 552
slag inclusions 552
spatter 539 556
surface irregularities 556
terms, definition of 580
throat 548
toe 548
transverse 548
tungsten inclusions 550
underbead 546
undercut 540 557 600
underfill 540 558 661
weld joint mismatch 539 560
weld joint properties, inadequate 561
weld metal 548 551
weld profile 560
weld reinforcement, excessive 550
weld size, incorrect 560Index Terms Links
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Discontinuities, resistance welds 562
common 562
depth of fusion 564
discontinuities, internal 565
ductility, incorrect 564
expulsion 566
incomplete joint penetration 564
incorrect strength 564
sheet separation, excessive 566
surface appearance, undesirable 562
weld quality indicators 562
weld quality, maintaining consistent 566
weld size, incorrect 563
welding procedure specifications (WPS), factors
addressed 566
Discontinuities, solid state welds 567
cracking 568
decarbonization 569
fibrous metallurgical structures 569
flat spots 569
oxidation, intergranular 568
solid state weld discontinuities, common 567
upset, insufficient 567
void, inclusions, in welds 569
weld joint mismatch 567
Dissimilar metal welds 166
Distortion, control of 299 351
assembly procedure 352
correction of 353
design factors 352
elastic prestraining 353
mechanical straightening 354
preheating 353
thermal methods 351Index Terms Links
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Distortion, steel vs. aluminum 350
longitudinal bending 347
angular change, fillet welds 350
transverse shrinkage, butt joints 350
longitudinal distortion 350
Distortion, weld 298 328
angular change and distortion, relationship of 340
angular change, butt joints 337
angular change, fillet weld 339
angular distortion, aluminum vs. steel fillet welds 343
angular distortion, butt joints 343 353
angular distortion, fillet welds 339
angular distortion, minimization of 337
bending distortion, induced longitudinal shrinkage 343
bibliography 354
buckling distortion 347
butt joint, longitudinal shrinkage 337
butt joints 337
butt joints, transverse shrinkage in 328
fillet welds 336 339
fillet welds, transverse shrinkage in 336
fundamental dimensional changes 328
joint restraint 330
longitudinal shrinkage 337
multipass welding 332
residual stress, reduction of 300
supplementary reading list 356
transverse shrinkage 328 350
wavy 339
Distortion in butt joints 328
longitudinal shrinkage 337
longitudinal shrinkage, estimation of 337
procedure variables, effect on shrinkage 333Index Terms Links
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Distortion in butt joints (Cont.)
restraint, effect on transverse shrinkage 330
rotational distortion 330
transverse shrinkage 328
transverse shrinkage, effect of heat input on 336
transverse shrinkage, factors affecting 329
DOD. See U.S. Department of Defense.
DOE. See U.S. Department of Energy.
DOT. See U.S. Department of Transportation.
DS. See dip soldering.
E
EBW. See Electron beam welding.
Economics of brazing and soldering 524
assembly and fixturing 526
brazing costs, estimating and controlling 525
chemical compositions 525 526
cost control, steps in establishing solder 526
joint clearances 525 526
joint design 525
labor costs, soldering 526
material costs, soldering 526
precleaning and surface preparation 526
service requirements 526
soldering costs, estimating and controlling 526
type of joint 525
variables affecting costs, typical 525
Economics of resistance spot welding (RSW) 510
air cost, estimating 513
consumables costs, welding machine 512
cooling water costs, estimation of 513
cost model 510
cycle time, definition of 571
electrode replacement costs, calculation of 513Index Terms Links
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Economics of resistance spot welding (RSW) (Cont.)
manufacturing costs, factors involved in 510
overhead ratio 510
power costs, estimating 513
spot welding machine cycle time, estimating 511
total spot welding time calculation 514
total wear costs 513
Economics of thermal cutting 530
capital costs 530
controlling costs 530
cutting processes 530
estimating costs 530
implementing plan 530
Economics of welding 485
bill of materials 486
estimating direct costs 498
estimating labor hours 496
filler metal deposition rate 492
labor costs, direct 485 495
manufacturing costs 485
materials estimates 486
operator factor 496
overhead, factory 498
standards development 497
supplemental requirements for consumables 492
Economics of welding and cutting 484
bibliography 531
capital investment, automation and robotics 514
control of welding costs 517
cost estimate, the 484
estimating cycle time 501
general overview 484
supplementary reading list 531Index Terms Links
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Eddy current examination 625
advantages 627
applications 626
coils 626
coils, electromagnetic properties of 626
coils, impedance 626
cracks, effect of 625 626
depth of penetration 627
description 625
eddy currents, properties of 626
limitations 627
skin effects 626
theory 625
Edison Welding Institute (EWI) 679
Effective throat 195 201
EGW. See Electrogas welding.
Electric resistance welding 21
See also Upset welding.
Electrical conductivity 166
Electrical safety 738
electric shock 738 741
equipment, modification and maintenance 738
equipment selection 739
grounding, work lead vs. grounding lead 739
operations, safe 740
modification procedures, equipment 741
multiple arc operations 741
sources of electric shock 738
special precautions, pacemaker wearers 741
training program 738
welding operations 739 740
Electrogas welding (EGW) 13
applications 14Index Terms Links
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Electrogas welding (EGW) (Cont.)
deposition rates 14
description of 13
electrodes 13
equipment 13
Electromagnetic examination 624
See also Eddy current examination.
advantages 627
calibration standards 625
eddy current examination 625
description 624
limitations 627
procedures 624
quality standards 625
theory of 624
variables, metallurgical 624
variables, physical 624
Electron beam welding (EBW) 29
absorption efficiency in 93
advantages 30
description of 29
discontinuities associated with 537
efficiency 31 93
equipment 29
limitations 30
monitoring and control systems 442
process variations 30
safe practices 747 33
Electroslag welding (ESW) 33
advantages 33
applications 33
consumable guide method 34
deposition rates 33Index Terms Links
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Electroslag welding (ESW) (Cont.)
description of 33
discontinuities associated with 537
electrodes for 33
equipment 33
Elevated-temperature tests 280
See also Creep testing; Creep-rupture testing.
creep data 280
creep-rupture phenomena 280
creep-rupture properties 280
creep-rupture testing 280
defining creep-rupture properties 280
Larson-Miller parameter 281
metallurgical reactions during creep tests 280
parameters for creep-rupture testing 281
preparation of test specimens 280
primary creep 280
stages of creep 280
stress-rupture curves 280
test machines 280
test methods 280
test specimens 280
time-temperature phenomenon 280
types of tests 280
Energy input 53
Energy sources for welding 57
arc welding, for 58
chemical sources 60
electrical sources 57
electroslag welding, for 60
mechanical sources 63
oxyfuel gas welding, for 60
resistance welding, for 58
thermite welding 61Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
ERW. See Electric resistance welding.
ESW. See Electroslag welding.
ESW-CG. See Consumable guide electroslag welding.
European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 697 700
Explosion welding (EXW) 26
description of 27
discontinuities associated with 537
energy sources, mechanical 64
safe practices 749
EWI. See Edison Welding Institute (EWI).
Excessive sheet separation, definition of 566
EXW. See Explosion welding.
F
Fatigue failure 162
Fatigue fractures 203
Fatigue life 162
Fatigue strength of aluminum structures 234
Fatigue testing 272
corrosion fatigue 277
cover plates, effect of 274
crack growth rate 272 273 277
definition of 272
fatigue crack 272
fatigue life 272
fatigue variables 273
fundamentals 272
Paris law 273
progressive failure 272
rate of crack growth 274
specimen geometry, effect of 275
stress range, effect of 273 277
surface conditions, effect of 275
surface discontinuities, effect of 275Index Terms Links
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Fatigue testing (Cont.)
test methods 276
weld reinforcement, effect of 275
weld soundness, effect of 275
welded versus rolled beams, fatigue life of 273
FCAW. See Flux cored arc welding.
Federal standards 699
Filler metal specifications 705
Fillet weld(s) 191
Fillet weld(s), skewed 191
Fillet weld applications 191
Fillet welds, single 191
Fillet weld size 191
Fillet weld strength 191
Fillet welds, double 191
Fire prevention and protection 741
Fire prevention, clothing 730
Fitness for service 575
fracture mechanics, linear elastic 575
published standards 575
Fixtures 396 476
applications 399
arrangement, three-piece 403
arrangement, two-piece 402
applications 401
basic design requirements 397
benefits 396
clamping and holding systems 398
clamping device factors 396
definition of 396
design and manufacture 396
design, electrical 397
design requirements 397Index Terms Links
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Fixtures (Cont.)
holding fixtures 401
precision 401
production 397
purposes 396
robotic welding 401
safety considerations 397
seam welding 400
standard components for 397
tacking 399 400
tooling, modular 398
Flame spraying (FLSP) 47
See also Thermal spraying.
Flash welding (FW) 20 537
applications 20
description of 20
Fluorescent penetrant testing. See Liquid penetrant
examination.
Flux cored arc welding (FCAW) 13
applications 13
deposition efficiency 13
deposition rates 13
description of 13
discontinuities associated with 537
electrode extension 13
electrodes 13
electrode flux 13
equipment 13
gas-shielded (FCAW-G) 13
metal transfer 78
self-shielded (FCAW-S) 13
Focused heat sources 62
electron beam welding, for 63
laser beam welding, for 62Index Terms Links
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Forge welding (FOW) 22 537
Forming of parts 167
FOW. See Forge welding.
Fracture mechanics 164 262 572 574
Fracture mechanics evaluation of discontinuities 575
fitness for service 575
published standard 575
Fracture toughness 163 261
Fracture toughness testing 261
See also Fracture toughness tests, plainstrain; Charpy V-notch impact test.
ASTM specifications for 263 266
Charpy-V-notch tests 263
crack arrest tests 263
crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) 267
definition of 261
drop-weight-nil-ductility temperature 263 268
ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) 263
dynamic tear tests 266 270
elastic-plastic fracture mechanic (EPFM) toughness 267 268
fracture toughness tests 266
fundamentals 262
linear-elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) 266
special problems 270
test methods for 262 263
test sequence 266
test specimens 268
Fracture toughness tests, plain-strain 266
definition of 261
special problems 270
specimen dimensions 263 266
temperature effects 265
test method 266Index Terms Links
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Friction welding (FRW) 22
direct drive 24
discontinuities associated with 537
energy sources, mechanical 23 63
equipment 23
inertia 24
monitoring and control of 445
process variations 24
safe practices 749
stir welding 24
stud welding 24
FRW. See Friction welding.
Fumes and gases 724
See also Safe practices; Ventilation.
arc voltage (length), effects of 726
arc welding 725
brazing and soldering 750
consumables, effects of 727
electron beam welding (EBW) 748
exposure factors 724
fume removal equipment, gun-mounted 279
gases generated 725
gases in confined spaces 730
generation rate factors 726
laser beam operations 749
low-allowable-limit materials 731
metal transfer effects 726
overexposure to 724
oxyfuel gas processes 727
protection against 724
resistance welding (RW) 727
respiratory protective equipment 724
shielding gas(es), effects of 724Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Fumes and gases (Cont.)
sources of 725
sources, arc welding 725
sources of, metal transfer mode 726
thermal spraying 752
ventilation 724 727
water table 728
welding current, effects of 726
welding process, effects of 727
Furnace brazing, applications 37
Fusion welding 52
discontinuities associated with 538
Fusion welds 52
FW. See Flash welding.
G
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) 10
buried arc 13
deposition rate 12
description of 10
discontinuities associated with 537
equipment 10
electrode extension 10
electrodes for 10
globular transfer 11
melting rates 79
metal transfer modes 11
pulsed spray 12
short circuiting transfer 11
shielding gases 10
spray transfer 11
Gas standards, welding 697
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) 8
arc efficiency 90Index Terms Links
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Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) (Cont.)
description of 8
disadvantages 9
discontinuities associated with 537
electrodes 9
equipment 9
power sources 9
shielding gases 8
skill requirements 10
welding current, polarity of 9
GMAW. See Gas metal arc welding.
Groove-fillet weld combustion 194
Groove welds 189
complete joint penetration 190
partial joint penetration 190
GTAW. See Gas tungsten arc welding.
H
Hafnium 146
Hardenability 128
Hardness testing 256
ASTM test methods for 256 257
Brinell hardness test (HB) 256 257
conversion among scales 257
description of 256
Knoop hardness indenter 257
microhardness tests 256 257
portable Brinell test equipment 257
Rockwell hardness test (HR) 257
Vickers indenter 257
HAZ. See Heat-affected zone.
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) 135
cracking 549
description of 130 135Index Terms Links
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Heat-affected zone (HAZ) (Cont.)
evaluation of 285
hardenable alloys 138
precipitation hardening alloys 137
strength and toughness of 136
transformation of 136
Heat, conduction of, during fusion welding 97
cooling curves, weld metal 102
cooling rates 99
cooling rates, critical 101
heat-affected-zone width 105
heat conduction equations 98
peak temperature 102
preheat temperature in 102
solidification rate 205
Heat flow 88
See also Heat transfer.
arc efficiency 90 91
arc welding, absorption efficiency 89
bibliography 112
Bremsstrahlung absorption, calculation of 94
energy absorption 89
fundamentals 88
general overview 88
heat input 84
laser and electron beam welding, absorption
efficiency 93
weld pool 107
Heat transfer 88
See also Heat flow.
arc welding, heat deposition in 95 96
boundary conditions 95 96
buoyancy 78 107Index Terms Links
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Heat transfer (Cont.)
convective heat transfer 95
convective heat transfer, weld pool 105
driving forces 106
electromagnetic forces 107
emerging applications of 111
fundamentals 88
governing equations 95
heat deposition 96
Marangoni force 106
quantitative calculation of 95 111
thermal cycle 88
weld pool, convective heat transfer in 88 107
High-frequency upset welding (UW-HF) 21
See also Electric resistance welding.
description of 21
electrodes 21
induction coil 22
High-frequency welding, safe practices 747
Highway bridge specifications 686
High-power-density processes 28
I
IB. See Induction brazing.
IEC. See International Electrotechnical Commission.
IIW. See International Institute for Welding.
Inclusions 550
causes and remedies 551
flux 551
indications of 599
oxide 552
slag 552
tungsten 550
Incomplete fusion 539 540 552 600
Incomplete joint penetration 539 540 553 600 624Index Terms Links
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Inertia friction welding 24
Induction brazing (IB) 37
Induction soldering (IS) 41
Induction welding (IW) 537
Infrared brazing 39
Inspection 580
activities, inspection 582 587
definition of 580
plan 583 584
terms, quality assurance 580
Inspection, brazed and soldered joint 634
Inspection plan, the 583
sampling methods 583
selection of a plan 584
statistical sampling 583
Inspection symbols 385
all-around-symbol examination 391
area of examination 389
arrow significance 388
elements of 385
extent of examination 389
field examination 391
length, section 389
letter designations, NDE 388
location, NDE symbol 389
number of examinations 389
radiation, direction of 391
reference line 388
specification and codes 391
supplementary symbols 391
symbols, combination 393
tail 388
INS. See iron soldering.
Insufficient upset 567Index Terms Links
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International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 700
International Institute for Welding 697 700 708
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 581 700
publications 701
IQI. See Radiography, image quality indicators.
Iron soldering (INS) 41
IS. See induction soldering.
ISO. See International Organization for
Standardization.
IW. See induction welding.
J
Jigs. See Fixtures.
Joining process(es) 2
See also Individual processes.
overview of 2
selection of 3
K
Keyhole weld 29
L
Lamellar tear(s) 547 559
Lamellar tearing 169 195 539
See also Lamellar tear.
Laminations 540 558 618
Laser beam cutting (LBC) 45
See also Laser beam
welding (LBW).
advantages 46
applications 45
drilling 46
equipment 46
hazards 748
safe practices 748Index Terms Links
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Laser beam welding (LBW) 32
See also Laser beam cutting (LBC).
description of 32
equipment 32
hazards 748
monitoring and control of 441
physics of 32
safe practices 32 748
LBC. See Laser beam cutting.
LBW. See Laser beam welding.
LEFM. See Linear-elastic fracture mechanics.
Lever law 120
Line, treating a weld as 209
Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) 173 196 201 211
Low temperature(s), effects of 164
Liquid penetrant examination 619
applications 619
cracks, surface 624
developers 621
developers, aqueous 621 623
developers, dry powder 623
developers, nonaqueous 623
drying after cleaning 621
drying of workpiece 623
emulsifiers 620
equipment 620
examination of parts 624
indications, developing 623
interpretation of indications 624
materials, required 620
methods 619
penetrant, application of 621
penetrant, removal of excess 621Index Terms Links
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Liquid penetrant examination (Cont.)
penetrant types 619 620
precleaning 621
postcleaning 624
procedures 621
procedures, ASTM standards for 621
M
Machine welding. See Mechanized welding.
Magnesium alloys 144
Magnetic fields, influence on arcs 71
See also Arc characteristics.
arc blow 71
arc deflection 71
eddy current, effect on 73
Fleming's left-hand rule 71
Lorentz force 71
magnetic flux 71
magnetic materials, effect on 73
Magnetic particle examination 609
applications 611
banding 619
cold working 619
cracks, subsurface 618
cracks, surface 618
demagnetization 618
dry method 616
examination procedures 615
general process overview 609
incomplete fusion 618
incomplete joint penetration 618
indications, nonrelevant 618
indications, relevant discontinuity 618
laminations 618Index Terms Links
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Magnetic particle examination (Cont.)
limitations 611
magnetic characteristics 619
magnetic field orientation 612
magnetization, circular 612
magnetization, indirect 615
magnetization, localized 612
magnetization, longitudinal 612
magnetization, prod 612
magnetization, residual 617 619
magnetizing current amount 616
magnetizing current types 615
porosity 618
recording results 617
seams 618
selection, inspection and methods 616
sequencing operations 616
slag inclusions 618
surface condition effects 619
undercut 618
wet method 616 617
yoke method 615
Manual welding 452
Material safety data sheet, sample 715
Marine welding standards 694
Martensite 124
Mechanical properties 159
See also Properties of metals; Corrosion properties.
crack growth 162
creep 165
creep rupture 165
ductile-to-brittle transition 164
ductility 162Index Terms Links
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Mechanical properties (Cont.)
elastic limit 160
elevated-temperature properties 165
endurance limit 162
fatigue life 162
fatigue limit 162
fatigue strength 162
fatigue stress range 203
fracture safe analysis 163
fracture toughness 164
low temperature 164
modulus of elasticity 160
notch-bar impact-test(s) 164
plastic deformation 163
stress-strain diagram 161
tensile strength 161
toughness testing 164
ultimate tensile strength (UTS) 161
yield strength 161
Young's modulus 160
See also Modulus of elasticity.
Mechanized, automated, and robotic welding 451
See also Automated welding; Mechanized
welding; Robotic welding.
automated welding 458
bibliography 482
general description 452
mechanized welding 453
planning for 467
robotic welding 467
Mechanized welding 453
See also Automated welding; Robotic welding.
definition of 452Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Mechanized welding (Cont.)
general description 453
feeding mechanisms 454
power source 454
specialized welding machines 457
system components 454
travel devices 454
variables, controlled 453
welding carriages 454
welding head manipulators 457
welding positioners 457
Melting rates 78
See also Metal transfer.
cold cathode 79
definition 78
general control variables 79
gas metal arc welding 79
resistance heating, contribution to 79
shielded metal arc welding 81
submerged arc welding 81
thermionic compounds, effect on 79
welding current, effect on 79
Melt-through 544
See also Burn-through.
Metallurgy, physical 116
age hardening 130
allotropic transformation 119
alloys 117
austenite 122
austenite decomposition 124 127
austenite grain size 128
austenite to ferrite, transformation of 123
austenization by welding process, steel 126Index Terms Links
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Metallurgy, physical (Cont.)
bainite 124
cold working 121
constitution diagram 119
continuous cooling transformation diagrams 125
copper-nickel alloy system 119 120
cementite 123
critical temperatures 119
crystal lattice 116
crystalline structure of metals 116
decomposition products of austenite 122
deformation of metals, effects of 121
delta ferrite 122
delta ferrite to austenite, transformation of 123
equilibrium diagram 119
eutectic point 121
grain boundaries 227
grain structure, other changes in 129
hardenability 128
heat-affected zone (HAZ) 119 126
heat treatment of metals, effects of 121
interstitial alloying 117
interstitial solid solution 117
iron, alpha 122
iron and steel, phase transformations 122
iron-carbon system 122
isothermal transformation diagrams 124 127
lattice structure, body-centered-cubic 116
lattice structure, face-centered-cubic 116
lattice structure, hexagonal-close packed 116
liquidus 119
martensite 124
martensite transformation 125Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Metallurgy, physical (Cont.)
martensite start temperature (Ms) 128
martensite, tempering of 128
metallography 128
mechanical properties, alloy 119
microstructure, alloy 119
microstructure, deformed metal 121
multiphase alloys 118
pearlite 123
phase diagrams 119
phase diagrams, application of Lever Law to 120
phase diagrams, two component systems 119
phase transformations 119
phase transformations, iron and steel 122
precipitation hardening 130
quenched and tempered steels 129
recovery 121
recrystallization 121
silver-copper system 120
solidus 119
solutes 117
solvents 117
strain hardening 121
structure of metals 116
substitutional solid-solution alloy 117 121
tempered martensite 128
tempering, effects of 129
time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams 124
transformation of austenite, factors affecting 127
Metallurgy of welding 141
weld interface diffusion 126
Metallographic examination 633
macroscopic examination 633
microscopic examination 634Index Terms Links
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Metal transfer 73
See also melting rate.
active gases, effect on 76
argon, effect of polarity in 74
electrode negative 75
electrode positive 74
flux cored arc 78
gas metal arc 75
globular 73
other gases, effect of 76
physics of 74
pinch effect 74
pulsed current transfer 76
rotary arc 75
shielding gases, effect on 76
short circuiting 76
spray 73 74
spray, axial 74
submerged arc 77
transition current 74
Methods. See Standards.
MIG welding. See Flux cored arc welding; Gas metal
arc welding.
Military specifications 699
Mine Safety and Health Association (MSHA). See U.S.
Mine Safety and Health Administration.
Modulus of elasticity 160
Molybdenum 148
Moment of inertia 172
Monitoring and control, principles of 422 423
distributing input variables 423
manipulated input variables 422
process response variables 423Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Monitoring and control, process control systems 429
closed-loop control 430
definition, controller 429
definition, process control 429
open-loop control 429
Monitoring and control, process instrumentation 427
data displays 429
data recorders and loggers 429
Monitoring and control, process monitoring systems 427
Monitoring and control, sensing devices 423
acoustic pick-up transducer 427
capacitive sensors 427
definition of 423
design of 425
electric potentiometer 427
camera, thermal imaging 425
characteristics 424
electric current 426
electric potential 427
encoders 427
current shunt resistor 426
differential transformers, variable 427
flow meters, differential pressure 426
flow meters, mechanical 426
flow rate 426
force measurements 425
Hall-effect current sensor 426
inductive sensors 427
load cells 425 426
optical displacement sensors 427
optical pyrometers 425
photon detectors 425
physical properties sensed 424Index Terms Links
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.
Monitoring and control, sensing devices (Cont.)
potentiometers, linear and rotary 427
pressure sensors, diaphragm type 425
pressure sensors, displacement 425
pressure sensors, piezoelectric type 426
process voltage 427
radiation sensors 427
resistive-temperature device (RTD) 425
synchros and resolvers 427
temperature measurement 424
thermistors 425
thermocouples 425
time measurement 424
toroid (Ragowski) coil 426
ultrasonic ranging sensors 427
units of measure 424
Monitoring and control, welding and joining processes 422
bibliography 448
general overview of 422
monitoring and control systems 431
principles of 422
process control systems 429
process monitoring systems 429
sensing devices 423
supplementary reading list 448
Monitoring and control systems, arc welding 431
See also Monitoring and control systems, brazing
processes; Electron beam welding; Friction
welding; Laser beam welding; resistance
welding.
arc elements, spectrographic analysis of 437
arc length and voltage control 432 436
basic process variables, control of 432Index Terms Links
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Monitoring and control systems, arc welding (Cont.)
fill control, adaptive 434
joint finding 433
joint tracking 433
joint tracking, mechanical probe 433 435
joint tracking, through-arc-sensing 433
monitoring systems 431
other sensing devices 434
thermal cycle and cooling rate control 436
touch sensing 433
weld geometry, control of 436
Monitoring and control systems, brazing processes 447
See also Monitoring and control systems,
arc welding; Electron beam welding; Friction
welding; Laser beam welding; Resistance welding.
atmosphere control in 448
general description 447
time-temperature control in 447
vacuum control in 448
Monitoring and control systems, electron beam welding 442
See also Monitoring and control systems: Arc
welding; Brazing processes; Friction welding;
Laser beam welding; resistance welding.
beam deflection patterns 443
beam diagnostics devices 443
computer numeric control (CNC) 442
control systems for 442
graphs, beam density profile 443
monitoring systems for 442
power supplies, high-frequency (switch-mode style) 445
seam tracking, real time 443
secondary electron emission sensing (SEES) 445
tracking and misalignment, correction for 445Index Terms Links
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Monitoring and control systems, electron
beam welding (Cont.)
typical diagnostic systems 443
Monitoring and control systems, friction welding 445
See also Monitoring and control
systems, arc welding; Electron beam welding;
Laser beam welding; Resistance welding.
process description 445
process monitors for 445
sensors, displacement 446
sensors used for 446
variables monitored 447
Monitoring and control systems, laser
beam welding 441
See also Monitoring and control
systems, arc welding; Brazing processes;
Friction welding; Electron beam welding;
Resistance welding.
beam-material interaction 441
beam mode monitoring 441
focus position control 441
general description 441
joint finding 442
joint tracking 442
penetration control 442
thermal control 442
Monitoring and control systems,
resistance welding 437
See also Monitoring and control
systems, arc welding; Friction welding; Electron
beam welding; Laser beam welding.
electrode cooling, monitoring 440
electrode displacement, monitoring and measurement 440Index Terms Links
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Monitoring and control systems,
resistance welding (Cont.)
electrode force 439
impedance meters, commercially available 438
projection welding (PW) 439
resistance measurement, bridge-type 438
resistance to current flow 439
secondary loop current 437
secondary loop current, control of 438
secondary loop, resistance and impedance sensors 438
sensors, welding electrode 439
sensors, digital welding electrode 439
sensors, variable 437 439
sensors, welding force 439
voltage measurement 438
weld controllers, closed-loop 438
welding current 437
welding force, measurement of 440
MSHA. See U.S. Mine Safety and Health
Administration.
N
National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Inspectors (NBBPVI) 638 703
publications 703
National Electric Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 708 739
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 703 739 745 698
publications 704
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) 723
NBBPVI. See National Board of Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Inspectors.
NRC. See Nuclear Regulatory Commission.Index Terms Links
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NEMA. See National Electric Manufacturers
Association.
NFPA. See National Fire Protection Association.
Nickel alloys 144
Niobium 147
See also Columbium.
NIOSH. See National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health.
Nondestructive examination 584
See also Inspection symbols; Proof testing.
definition of 584
acoustic emission testing 586
electromagnetic examination 586 624
general description 584
liquid penetrant examination 586 619
magnetic particle examination 586 609
metallographic examination 284
methods 584
proof testing 630
radiographic examination 586 589
ultrasonic examination 586 602
visual examination 586 584
Nondestructive inspection. See Nondestructive
examination.
Nondestructive testing. See Nondestructive
examination.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 676 698
O
OAW. See Oxyacetylene welding.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 712 729
General Industry Standards 712
Hazard Communication Standard 713
management support 713Index Terms Links
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Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) (Cont.)
Occupational Safety and Health Act 712 714
regulations, fumes and gases 724
requirements, personal protective equipment 719
training, safety program 714
OFW. See Oxyfuel gas welding.
OHW. See Oxyhydrogen welding.
OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.
Other welding and joining processes 28
adhesive bonding 34
description of 28
electron beam welding (EBW) 29
electroslag welding (ESW) 33
laser beam welding (LBW) 32
Outgassing 31
Overlap 539 540 554
Overwelding 522
Oxide film 539 555
Oxyacetylene welding (OAW) 61 537
Oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC) 43
See also Oxyfuel gas
welding (OFW).
applications 44
description of 43
safe practices 720
skill requirements 44
torches 44
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) 27
See also Oxyfuel gas
cutting (OFC).
acetylene combustion 28Index Terms Links
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Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) (Cont.)
applications 27
description of 28
equipment 28
flame temperatures 28
fuel gases 28 736
safe practices 720 736
types of flame 28
welding procedure specifications 651 654
Oxygen-enriched atmospheres 732
Oxyhydrogen welding (OHW) 537
P
Part preparation 167
PAC. See Plasma arc cutting.
PAW. See Plasma arc welding.
Pearlite 123
Percussion welding (PEW) 537
Performance qualification 668
brazing positions for 667
limitation of variables 669
qualification requirements 669
Performance qualification, nondestructive examination
(NDE) personnel 676
acceptance criteria 678
operator qualification, Level 1 676
operator qualification, Level 2 678
operator qualification, Level 3 678
welding inspectors 678
welding inspectors, AWS certified 678
Performance qualification, brazing and
brazing operator 673
acceptance criteria 673
performance qualification test record 675Index Terms Links
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Performance qualification, brazing and
brazing operator (Cont.)
qualification by specimen test 673
qualification by visual examination 673
qualification variables 673
standards, brazing 673
Performance qualification, thermal spray operators 675


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