كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
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 كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
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عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 43
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology    كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology  Emptyالإثنين 29 أكتوبر 2012, 10:11 am

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Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
Edited by
George. Toten
Union Carbide Corporation
Tarrytown,New York  

كتاب Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology  H_b_o_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface 111
...
Contributors xi

HARDWARE
1. Basic Hydraulic Pump and Circuit Design 1

Richard K. Tessmann, Hans M. Melie$ and Roland J. Bishop, Jr:
2. Bearing Selection and Lubrication 65

Faruk Pavlovich
3. Fluid Cleanliness and Filtration 147

Richard K. Tessmann and I. T Hong
4. Physical Properties and Their Determination 195

George E. Totten, Glenn M. Webster; and F: D. Yeaple
FLUID PROPERTIESAND TESTING
5. Fluid Viscosity and Viscosity Classification 305

Bernard G. Kinker
6. Lubrication Fundamentals 339

Lavern D. Wedeven and Kenneth C Ludema
viiviii Contents
7. Fire-Resistance Testing Procedures of Hydraulic Fluids 393
Glenn M. Webster and George E. Totten
8. Ecological Compatibility 427
Gaty H. Kling, Dwayne E. Tharp, George E. Totten, and
Glenn M. Webster
9. Seals and Seal Compatibility 469
Ronald E. Zielinski
10. Bench and Pump Testing of Hydraulic Fluids 523
Lin Xie, Roland J. Bishop, J K , and George E. Totten
11. Vibrational Analysis for Fluid Power Systems 577
Hugh R. Martin
12. Failure Analysis 601
Steven Lemberger and George E. Totten
FLUIDS
13. Water Hydraulics 675
Kari i? Koskinen and Matti J. Vilenius
14. Mineral-Oil Hydraulic Fluids 711
Paul McHugh, William D. Stofey, and George E. Totten
15. Lubricant Additives for Mineral-Oil-Based Hydraulic Fluids 795
Stephen H. Roby, Elaine S. Yamaguchi, and P. R. Ryason
16. Polyalphaolefins and Other Synthetic Hydrocarbon Fluids 825
Ronald L. Shubkin, Lois J. Gschwender; and Car1 E. Snyder; J K
17. Emulsions 847
Yinghua Sun and George E. Totten
18. Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluids 917
George E. Totten and Yinghua Sun
19. Polyol Ester Fluids 983
Robert A. Gere and Thoinas V Hazelton
20. Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluids 1025
W D. Phillips
21. Vegetable-Based Hydraulic Oils 1095
Lou A. ?: Honary
22. Electro-rheological Fluids 1153
Christian Wolfl-Jesse
23. Standards for Hydraulic Fluid Testing 1185
Paul MichaelContents ix

Appendixes
1. Temperature Conversion Table 1209

2. SI Unit Conversions 1213

3. Commonly Used Pressure Conversions; Fraction Notation 1215

4. Volume and Weight Equivalents 1216

5. Head and Pressure Equivalents 1217

6. Flow Equivalents 1218

7. Viscosity Conversion Charts 1219

8. Number of U.S. Gallons in Round and Rectangular Tanks 1222

9. Water Vapor Pressure Chart 1225

10. Physical Properties of Ethylene, Diethylene, and
Propylene Glycol 1226

11. Common Wear Problems Related to Lubricants and
Hydraulic Fluids 1242

Index
Index

Abrasion wear:
mechanism, 621
ploughing, 620
3-body wear, 150
2-body wear, 621
Accelerometers, 591
Accumulators, 47
AC Fine Test Dust, 153
Acoustical analysis (see Vibrational
analysis)
Acoustic impedance, 578
Actuators, 46
Additives:
additive analysis, 768
additive response, 762
air-release agents, 818
antifoams, 817
antiwear, 762, 764, 806
ashless fluid technology, 766
base-oil effects, 761
boundary lubrication, 762
demulsifiers, 819
[Additives]
detergents, 805
dispersants, 803

extreme pressure, 762, 809
friction modifiers, 762, 764, 819
function and chemical type, 763(T),
800
interaction, 803
oxidation inhibitors, 8I 1
pour point depressants, 816
rust inhibitors, 739, 814
rust preventatives, 739, 814
viscosity index (VI) improvers, 814
ZDDP additives, 765, 809
Adhesion, 367
Adhesion wear:
mechanism, 625
microwelding, 622
polishing, 628
six laws of, 626
smearing, 624
tempering colors, 624
12471240
Adsorption isotherms, 807
Air entrainment:
bubbly oil viscometer, 243
dissolved air, 221
entrained air, 227
free air, 227
hydraulic problems, 221, 608
in-line analysis, 25 1
system sources, 221
tests, 243
TUV method, 246
Waring blender test, 246
Air release:
air dissolution, 237
drag coefficients, 235
Hadamard-Rybcznski model, 232
pressure, effect on, 238
Reynolds number, 234
specifications, 252
Stokes model, 235
viscosity, effect on, 238
Aliasing, 565
Aniline point, 715
Antifoam, 817
mechanism, 231
Antioxidants
Antiwear additive, 798, 806, 997
Aquatic toxicity, 442
Ashless fluid technology, 766
Asperities, 92, 342, 364, 365, 373
Bankroft rule, 863
Bearing number, 948
Beer’s Law, 768
Bench tests:
Aachen sliding wear, 532
Cameron-Plint, 532
cyclic contact stress, 529
FZG gear, 531
Gamma-Falex, 527
Leeds testing machine, 532
Mizuhara and Tsuya
recommendations, 542
modified Amsler disk, 535
pin-on-V-block, 527
pump test correlations, 525
sequential 4-ball, 526
Shell 4-ball, 525, 768, 769
Index
[Bench tests]
SRV test, 528
Timken test, 528
Unisteel rolling fatigue, 533
Bifurcation, 375
Bingham fluid, 321, 1157
Biodegradability specifications, 450,
455
Biodegradable fluids, 430
Biodegradation:
aquatic biodegradability, 441
aquatic toxicity, 442
CEC-L-33-A-94, 440
hazard evaluation, 450
inherent biodegradation, 437
Modified Sturm, 440

OECD tests, 438
primary biodegradation, 431
ready biodegradation, 431
soil biodegradability and toxicity,
445
standard tests, 437
test strategies, 438
ultimate biodegradation, 431
Boundary lubrication, 366, 376, 796
Brinelling, 659
Bubbly oil, 243
Bulk modulus, 60, 252
adiabatic, 253
effect of fluid aeration, 261
effect of oil type, 267
Hayward equation, 26 1
isothermal bulk modulus, 257
measurement, 266
prediction, 264
secant bulk modulus, 255
tangent bulk modulus, 260
variation with pressure and
temperature, 260
Cavitation:
bubble-collapse mechanism, 280
cavitation pressure, 277
erosion rates, 284
flow losses, 272
gaseous, 268, 689
in pumps and orifices, 275
in spool and poppet valves, 277Index 1249
[Cavitation]
jet, 278
material effects, 281
test methods, 285
vaprous, 268, 689
vibrational analysis, 597
Cavitation numbers, 269, 271, 689
Cavitation wear:
fluid viscosity at onset, 608
Hobb’s correlation, 631
Chemical adsorption, 367
Chemical boundary lubrication, 376
Cincinnati Milicron Thermal Stability
Test, 755, 1188
Clearances, component, 96 1
Cloud point, 322
Coefficient of friction, 331, 374, 797
Cole chart, 156
Colloidal particles, 850, 861
Combined radius of curvature, 370
Combustion inhibitors, 998
Compressibility (see also Bulk
modulus):
adiabatic, 253
isoentropic (mineral oil), 255
fire-resistant fluids, 259(T)
Conjunction zone, 355
Contacts classification:
conformal, 341
geometry, 341, 538
line contact, 371
lubricated, 342
nonconformal, 341
point contact, 370
scale, 341
Contact-stress fatigue wear:
causes, 647
failure modes, 650
fatigue life, 650
Contact stress fields, 342
Contact surface fatigue:
bearing life rating, 82
Contaminant control, 798
Contaminant tolerance, 180
Contamination, 24, 611
particulate:
AC Fine Test Dust, 153
automatic particle counting, 162
[Contamination]
dynamic sampling, 160
fluid sampling, 157
gravimetric analysis, 164
ingression, 149
IS0 Solid Contaminant Code,
164
particle distribution, 156
particulate lock, 151

required cleanliness level, 160
shape factor, 152
sources, 148, 150
static sampling, 160
turbulent-flow sampling, 160
Copper strip tarnish test, 743
Corn oil, 1117
Corrosion:
causes, 634
corrosion and rust testing, 740
electrochemical methodology, 938
galvanic corrosion, 635, 637, 1193
prevention, 636
pump tests for, 936
static tests, 937
turbine oil rust test, 937
“200-hour’’ accelerated test, 939
Corrosion wear:
causes, 632
electrochemical attack, 632
electrochemical erosion, 638
Critical micelle concentration, 853
CV factor, 45
Cylinder lunge, 60
Cylinders, 46
Darcy’s equation, 31, 610
DC resistivity, 294
Decibels, 579
Density, 287
Design, 18
Displacement, 20
Dissolved oxygen effects, 768
Ecolabeling, 428
Efficiency:
mechanical, 7, 27
overall, 7, 27
volumetric, 7, 271250
Einstein equation, 858
Elasticity modulus, 76
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, 796
conjunction zone, 355
minimum film thickness, 75
Elastomer:
compounding, 472
properties, 487
Elastomeric seals, 469, 472, 476
Electrical conductivity, 288
Electrical current wear, 665
Electrochemical erosion, 638
Electrorheological fluids:
actuator design, 1174, 1176, 1179
aging stability, 1170
calculation of ERF flow behavior,
1159
ERF flow resistor design, 1164
ERF properties, 1161
ERF structure, 1161
Flow rate, 1166
fluid fundamentals, 1154
fluid requirements, 1160
hardware design, 1175
influencing flow mode, 1165
material compatibility, 1171

operational modes, 1157
power supply, 1177
rheological basics, 1155
sedimentation stability, 1172
system pressure, 1170
temperature effects, 1168
test bench, 1175
time response behavior, 1178
viscosity-pressure behavior, 1163
wear interaction, 1172
Ellipse parameter, 77
Emulsions:
base oil viscosity, effect of, 870
biological stability, 888
cavitation, 91 1
classification, 848
coalescence and emulsion type, 863
conversion procedures, 908
corrosion, 879
ease of formation, 862
emulsification, 851, 856
emulsion inversion, 864
emulsion stability, 864
Index
[Emulsions]
emulsion stability test, 869, 888
emulsion theory, 858
emulsion thermal stability, 876
emulsion turbidity, 861
fatigue failure, 899
fire resistance, 893
fluid maintenance, 885
fluid properties and pump design,
900
foaming and air entrainment, 878
formulation, 850
lubrication properties, 894
material compatibility, 880
oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion, 854
oxidative stability, 878
particle size on viscosity, effect of,
86 1
phase diagram characterization, 857
preparation, 865
pressure-viscosity, effect of, 899
pump derating, 908
pump selection, 910
seal compatibility, 883
shear rate, effect of, 870
strainers, filters and screens, 885
system preparation for conversion,
910
viscosity-pressure coefficients, 875
viscosity-temperature behavior, 873
water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion, 854
water quality, effect of, 867, 869
Entraining velocity, 386
Environmental impact, 427
Equivalent length, 52
Erosion wear, 628
Extreme pressure additive, 798, 997
Failure analysis, 665
Fanning’s equation, 610
Fatigue, 383
spalling, 383
pitting, 383
Fatigue life testing:
Amsler two-disk machine, 955
bearing test rig, 953
Danner contact fatigue test rig,
953
4-ball test, 955Index 1251
[Fatigue life testing]
piston pump testing, 953
Unisteel test, 953, 955
Ferrography, 970
Film thickness, 75, 358, 896
Filterability, 738, 815, 1190
Filters:
depth-type, I66
performance factors, 190
surface-type, 166
Filter test systems:
drawdown, 167
filtration ratio, (aand p), 171
flow and impulse effects, 173
multipass, 167, 168
pressure-drop, 170
single-pass, 167
Filtration performance, 167
p-ratio, 188
component contaminant tolerance,
180
dual flow, 175
filtration and cleanliness guidelines,
25
full flow, 175
off-line, filtration, 179
partial flow, 175
Fire:
ignition sources, 395
influencing factors, 395
mechanisms, 394
Flammability testing:
autoignition temperature, 399
ceramic wick test, 406
cone calorimeter, 405
flame propagation, 408
fluid volatility, 397
gunfire resistance, 403
heating time, 405
heat of combustion, 404
high-pressure spray, 415
hot channel ignition, 411
hot manifold, 410
hot surface ignition, 410
Houghton hot surface ignition, 410
linear flame propagation, 408
low-pressure spray, 413
molten metal, 410
open-cup flash point, 398
[Flammability testing]
oxygen index, 398
pipe cleaner wick test, 407
pool fires, 404
rapid compression, 40 I
shock-tube ignition, 403
soaked-cube flammability, 408
spray flammability parameter, 4 15
spray ignition, 413
stabilized heat release, 4 19
Flash temperature, 375
Flow:
control, 33
dividers, 38
equations, 26
loss due to cavitation, 272
slip, 26
Fluid aeration, 212, 221, 243
Fluid classification, 396
Fluid cleanliness, 158
Fluidity, 308
Fluid oxidation testing procedures,
752, 1152
Fluid sampling, 157
Flushing fluid, 782
Flushing procedure, 782
Foaming, 60
ASTM D-892, 242
hydraulic problems, 22 1
stability, 229
tests, 238
Formic acid formation, 933, 935
4-AAP test, 931
Fretting corrosion, 664
Friction, 356, 374, 378
Friction modifier, 798
Fuel Injector Stability Test, 929
Galling, 383
Galvanic couple, 635 (see also
Corrosion wear)
Gas solubility:
Beerbower solubility parameter, 214
Bunsen coefficient, 219
Henry’s Law, 213
Hildebrand and Scott solubility
parameter, 220
Ostwald coefficient, 2141252
Glycol, 920
Gow-Joule effect, 506
Hanning window, 587
Head (NPSH), 610
Hertzian contact, 75, 352
HLB, 852, 855
Horsepower, 6
Hydraulic circuit:
closed-loop, 22
components, 47
half closed-loop, 23
open-loop, 2 1
supercharge, 22
Hydraulic failures, fluid causes:
cavitation, 608
contamination, 6 1 1
fluid oxidation, 613
foaming and aeration, 606
improper viscosity, 61 6
overpressurization, 616
troubleshooting, 6 17(T)
Hydraulic principles:
efficiency, 7
energy, 2
horsepower, 6
power, 2
pressure, 5

torque, 5

work, 2

Hydrodynamic bearings, 903
Hydrodynamic films, 344
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 349, 796
Hydrodynamic pressure, 348
Hydrodynamic squeeze film, 347
Hydrogen embrittlement, 120
Hydrostatic bearing, 901
Inlet:
friction head, 31
net positive suction head, 27
In-line analysis, 157
IS0 Solid Contaminant Code, 164
Karl Fischer analysis, 964
Kurt Orbahn method, 929
Index
Lambda ratio, 389, 650, 654, 659,
899, 948
Leakage flow, 684
Load-life (L,J relationship, 8 1, 900,
951, 953
Lubricant factor, 950
Lubricant flow number, 654
Lubricant purity factor, 83
Lundberg and Palmgren, 126
Material parameter, 76
Mechanical seals, 5 14
Mechanodegradation (see Shear
degradation)
Meshing frequency, 592
Micelle, 849
Microbial control, 891
Micro-diesel effect, 238, 745
Micro-EHD lubrication, 362
Microphones, 591
Microscuffing, 383
Mineral oil hydraulic fluid
classification:
by additives, 724
by IS0/6743/4, 726
by oil type, 724
by viscosity, 726
Mineral oil hydraulic fluids:
additives, 759
air entrainment, 732
ASTM Rust-Preventing
Characteristics Test, 741
chemical corrosion, 740
Cincinnati Milicron Test, 755, 1188
common pump performance tests,
772
compressibility and bulk modulus,
729
Copper Strip Tarnish Test, 743
corrosion and rust testing, 740,
1190
corrosion properties, 738
demulsibility, 736, 1192
density, 733
dielectric strength, 735
dissolved oxygen on wear, effect of,
768
electrical conductivity, 735Index 1253
[Mineral oil hydraulic fluids]
estimation of cavitation potential,
729
filterability, 738, 1190
fluid cleanliness, 781
fluid maintenance, 775, 1197
fluid performance tests, 774
fluid replacement, 782
fluid wear classification tests, 77 1
foaming, 730
foaming and air entrainment, 745,
1194
galvanic corrosion, 1193
gas solubility, 730
heat capacity, 734
Hot Panel Coking Test, 753
infrared spectroscopy, 755
low temperature properties, 178(T)
lubrication performance, 768
maximum inlet viscosity, 728
neutralization number, 750
oil oxidation:
effect of water and catalysts,
744(T)
mechanisms, 747, 1187
oxidation stability, 743, 1189
pour point, 733
recycling and reclamation, 784
Rotary bomb oxidation test
(RBOT), 752
seal compatibility, 735
shear stability, 1195
thermal conductivity, 734
thermal expansion, 734
Turbine Oil Stability Test (TOST),
752, 1186
vapor phase rust, 1193
Vickers V-104 vane pump test,
770
viscosity, 727
viscosity index, 728
viscosity-pressure behavior, 728

Mineral oils:
calculation of composition from
physical properties, 712
effect of composition on properties,
718(T)
[Mineral oils]
Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy, 723
gel permeation chromatography, 723
nomenclature, 721
nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy, 722
oil composition, 7 11, 1129
oil refining processes, 717
thin-layer chromatography, 723
Mixed film lubrication, 116, 378
Moody diagram, 31
Motors, 10
Natural frequency, 54, 57, 287
n-d-m Method, 7 14
Near-surface region, 345
Nitrosamine formation, 930
Optical interferrometry, 359
Overpressurization, 618
Oxidation, 613
Palm oil, 1112
Particles, 149, 151, 156
Performance characteristics, 2, 4
Performance maps, 387, 537
Petroleum wax structure, 723
Phenol content, 931
Phosphate esters:
additive solvency, 1081
air release, 1048
aluminum bearing materials, use of,
1043
boiling point, 1051
bulk modulus, 1050
compatibility, 1072
demulsification, Z050
disposal, 1081
ecotoxicity, 1078
electrical properties, 1053
fatigue life, 1043
fire resistance, 1034
fluid maintenance, 1083
foaming, 1050
FZG test results, 1043
historical development, 1026
hydrolytic stability, 10661254
[Phosphate esters]
low temperature viscosity
properties, 1044
lubricating properties, 1039
manufacture, 1030
mixed alkylaryl phosphates, 1033
oxidative stability, 1063
pour points, 1047
radiation stability, 1069
refractive index, 1057
rusting and corrosion, 1070
shear stability, 1055
solubility data, 1057
specifications, 1087(T)
specific gravity, 1056
structure/property effects, 1027
system design, 1082
thermal properties, 1052
thermal stability, 1058
toxicity, 1077
trialkyl phosphates, 1031
triaryl phosphates, 1031
vapor pressure, 1051
viscosity-pressure effects, 1047
viscosity properties, I044
Pipes, hoses, and fittings:
equivalent length values, 52

friction losses, 31
installation, 25
pressure losses, 52, 960
sizing, 49, 974
Piping inspection and repair, 972
Pitting, 383
Poisson ratio, 76, 370
Polymer chemistry, 469
Polyol esters:
antifoams, 998
antioxidants, 994
antiwear additives, 997
biodegradability and toxicity, 1013
chemistry, 984
combustion inhibitors, 998
conversion procedures, 1014
corrosion inhibitors, 996
demulsifiers, 998
dispersants, 999
ester composition, 988(T)
extreme pressure additives, 997
Index
[Polyol esters]
filter media, 1008
fire resistance, 1010
fluid maintenance, 1016
lubrication properties, 1001
manufacturing process, 989
material compatibility, 1005
oxidation and thermal stability, 1008
physical and chemical properties,
999
polyol ester basestocks, 986
pour point depressants, 999
reclamation, 1021
shear stability, 993
use temperature range, 1010
viscosity index improvers, 992
Pour point, 322
Power law fluids, 199
Pressure, 5
Pressure-viscosity coefficient,
effective, 946
Protective film, 375
Pumpability, 197
Pump derating, 908
Pump failure modes, 543, 606
Pump lubrication, 564, 602
Pumps and motors:
displacement, 20
efficiency, 7
failure, causes, 606
fluid viscosity limits, 196
gear pumps-external, 11
gear pumps-internal, 11
head pressure estimation, 32
inlet condition, 27
lubrication, 602
performance parameters, 4
piston:
axial, 15
bent-axis, 15, 18
pressure-compensated, 17
radial, 15, 18
variable displacement, I7
positive displacement, 3

proof and burst pressure, 26
sizing and selection, 21
vane pumps-balanced, 10
vane pumps-unbalanced, 1 I
Index 1255
Pump tests:
Bosch cycled-pressure vane pump,
545
Denison HFO pump test, 555
Denison T5D-042 vane pump, 555
evaluation of pump lubrication, 564
fluid-specific properties, importance
of, 544
gear pump testing, 563
Komatsu HPV35 + 35 piston
pump, 559
Manton Gaulin Model 500 piston
pump, 561
MP-1 vane pump, 545
Rexroth A4VSO piston pump, 557
Sundstrand Water Stability Test
Procedure, 557
Universal hydraulic pump test
stand, 565
Vickers AA65560-1SC-4 piston
pump, 557
Vickers low-volume vane pump,
549
Vickers PV3-075- 15 piston pump,
563
Vickers 35VQ25 vane pump, 552
Vickers 20VQ5 vane pump, 550
Vickers V-104 vane pump, 545
V-104 test reproducibility problems,
548
PV-factor. 287
Raleigh equation, 861
Rapeseed oil, 1113
Rating life-L,", 81
Recycling and reclamation, 784
Refractive index, 964
Relative working life, 78
Relativity permitivity, 295
Reserve alkalinity, 968
Reservoir:
air bubble removal, 223, 226
air entrainment, 222
design, 53, 222
pressurization, 224
venting, 227
Response time, 54
Reynolds equation, 349, 896
Reynolds number, 50, 681
Rho-C values, 729
Rolling element bearings:
abrasive wear, 90
adhesive wear, 92
alternative lubricant effects, 120
bedding positions, 66
coatings, 111
corrosive wear, 94
dynamic equivalent load, 82
dynamic load rating, 81
fatigue wear, 88
fretting corrosion, 95
lubrication, 113
lubrication effectiveness, 78
material selection, 104
minimum oil film thickness, 75
raceway curvature, 101
selection, 74, 78
size, 78
static load rating, 78
true brinelling, 134
types, 67
water contamination, 120
wear, design effects, 97
Root-cause analysis, 669
Rotary bomb oxidation test (RBOT),
1063
Rust and oxidation (R&O) oils,
800
Rusting, 738
Safflower oil, 11 17
Scuffing, 382
galling, 383
microscuffing, 383
Seal compatibility:
compatibility testing, 482, 489
empirical prediction methods, 480
fluidelastomer selection guidelines,
484
physical property testing, 487
Seal compatibility index, 735
Seal compatibility testing, 482, 489,
883
Seal life, 5 111256
Seal materials:
ethylene propylene diene (EPDM),
478
fluorocarbon, 479
nitrile materials, 476
urethane, 479
Seals-failure analysis, 513
Seal-system design, 507
Seal technology:
compounding, 472
molding, 473
peroxide cure, 474
sulfur cure, 474
vulcanizing, 472
Seal types, 495
Shape factors, 152
Shear degradation:
pump rotational speed, effect on, 210
stability tests, 208, 210, 1195
viscosity, effect on, 209
Shear stability, 326, 815
Shear stability index, 328, 994
Shennon’s theorem, 585
Sherman equation, 86 1
Signal analysis, 580
Slide-to-roll ratio, 390
Sliding velocity, 379, 387
Snuffer fluids, 847
Soil biodegradability, 445
Sommerfield number, 906
Soybean oil, 1017
Spalling, 383
Spray flammability parameter, 415
Standards, 1201
Steady-state pipe flow, 681
Stribeck curve, 118, 524, 536
Stuffing boxes, 494
Subsurface region, 345
Surface energy, 367, 807
Surface films, 344
Surface roughness, 389, 950
Surfactants, 851
Symbols, 47
Synthetic hydrocarbons:
alkyl aromatic fluids, 834
development history, 826
MIL-H-5606 fluid, 826
Polyalphaolefins, 827
Silahydrocarbon fluids, 837
Index
Tempering colors, 624
Testing standards, 1185
Thermal conductivity, 287
Thermal correction factor, 77
Thickening mechanism, 319
Thixotropic, 1156
TOST test, 1063, 1186
Tribochemical action, 376
Tribocouples, 808
Tribological aspect numbers, 538
Tribology, systematic, 340
Triglyceride, 1097
Turbine oil rust test, 938
Ultrasonic shear test, 929
Valves:
check, 41
counterbalance, 40
CV factor, 45

directional control, 43
flow, 45
needle, 33
flow calculation, 35
pressure reducing, 40
pressure relief, 39
Vapor pressure, 210
Vegetable oils:
biodegradability, 1140
chemistry, 1097
classification, 1096
compatibility, 1135
compressibility, 1140
corn oil, 1117
fatty acid composition, 1100, 1106,
1118
film thickness, 1137
genetic modification, 1104
heat of combustion, 1134
hydraulic oil base stock, 1124
hydrogenation, 1102
melting point, 1134
nomenclature, 1143
oxidative stability, 1105, 1112, 1128
palm oil, 1112
rapeseed oil, 1113
safflower oil, 1117
solubility, 1134Index 1257
[Vegetable oils]
sound velocity, 1 139
soybean oil, 1107
soybean oil processing, 1108
sunflower oil, 1115
unsaturation, 1098
viscosity, 1128
viscosity index, 1128
viscosity-pressure coefficient, 1 139
Velocity parameter, 76
Vibrational analysis:
basic definitions, 578
digital processing, 583
Vegetable oils:
filters, 589
Fourier signal analysis, 580
sensors, 590
waveform sampling, 584
Viscosity:
absolute, 306
Bingham fluid, 321
Carreau model, 201
chain entanglement, 3 19
classification, 332, 726
Couette flow, 306
free-volume, relationship to, 3 18
kinematic viscosity, 308
molecular basis of, 3 15
Newtonian, 198, 307
Newton’s Law, 305
Non-Newtonian, 199, 321
Poiseulle equation, 308
Poiseulle flow, 306
polymer thickening, 3 19
power-law fluids, 198
pseudoplastic, 324
pump viscosity limits, 196
Viscosity Index, 309
Viscosity-pressure relationship:
Appeldoorn equation, 207
ASTM slope, 204
barus equation, 204, 312
factors affecting, 314
prediction, 207(T)
Roeland’s equation, 3 13
So and Klaus correlation, 205
variation with mineral oil
composition, 80, 203
[Viscosity-pressure relationship]
viscosity-pressure coefficient, 3 12,
353
Winer a*, 204
Winer aOT, 204
Wu and Klaus correlation, 206
Viscosity-temperature relationship:
Andrade equation, 201
Eyring and Ewe11 equation, 201
mineral oil, 79
temperature-viscosity coefficient,
202
Vogel equation, 202
Walther equation, 202, 309
Viscous flow, 346
Viscous friction, 379
von Mises equation, 373
Water:
chemical properties, 681
physical properties, 676
sea water, 675
tap water, 675
Water-glycol:
additive precipitation, 967
biodegradability and toxicity, 449
compressibility -pressure
relationship, 925(T)
corrosion tests, 936
density, 923
film-forming properties, 944
fire resistance, 976
fluid classification, 918
fluid composition, 918

fluid maintenance, 956
foaming and air release, 930
formic acid content, 933
hydrolubes, 917
Karl Fisher analysis, 964
material compatibility, 940
nitrosamone formation, 930
oxidation mechanism, 932
oxidative stability, 931
performance testing, 943
pH, 969
phenol content, 931
pressure-viscosity coefficients,
9441258 Index
[Water-glycol]
pump derating, 955
reserve alkalinity, 968, 1201
rolling contact fatigue, 946
shear stability, 928
specific heat, 925(T)
system conversion, 972
thermal conductivity, 925(T)
“200-hour” accelerated test, 939
vapor pressure, 923
viscosity, 923, 928
water content:
effects, 927
by refractive index, 962
by viscosity, 962
[Water-glycol]
water quality, 964
Water hardness, 964
Water hydraulics:
actuators, 697
pumps, 690
valves, 693
Water quality standards, 681
Waveform processing, 584
Wear:
mild wear, 382
polishing, 382
Wear coefficients, 629
Work function, 488


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ابو عبد الرحمن
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار
ابو عبد الرحمن

عدد المساهمات : 25
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/12/2013
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الدولة : مصر
العمل : مهندس
الجامعة : المنصورة

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