كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 44
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design    كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design  Emptyالإثنين 29 أكتوبر 2012, 9:31 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Cold-Formed Steel Design
Fourth Edition
Wei-Wen Yu, Roger A. LaBoube
Missouri University of Science and Technology
(Formerly University of Missouri-Rolla)
Rolla, Missouri

كتاب Cold-Formed Steel Design  C_f_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Preface ix
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 General Remarks 1
1.2 Types of Cold-Formed Steel Sections and Their Applications 2
1.3 Standardized Metal Buildings and Industrialized Housing 8
1.4 Methods of Forming 12
1.5 Research and Design Specifications 17
1.6 General Design Considerations of Cold-Formed Steel Construction 20
1.7 Economic Design and Optimum Properties 26
CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS USED IN COLD-FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION 27
2.1 General Remarks 27
2.2 Yield Stress, Tensile Strength, and Stress–Strain Curve 33
2.3 Modulus of Elasticity, Tangent Modulus, and Shear Modulus 34
2.4 Ductility 34
2.5 Weldability 36
2.6 Fatigue Strength and Toughness 37
2.7 Influence of Cold Work on Mechanical Properties of Steel 37
2.8 Utilization of Cold Work of Forming 40
2.9 Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Steel 42
2.10 Testing of Full Sections and Flat Elements 43
2.11 Residual Stresses Due to Cold Forming 44
2.12 Effect of Strain Rate on Mechanical Properties 46
CHAPTER 3 STRENGTH OF THIN ELEMENTS AND DESIGN CRITERIA 47
3.1 General Remarks 47
3.2 Definitions of Terms 47
3.3 Design Basis 50
3.4 Serviceability 59
vvi CONTENTS
3.5 Structural Behavior of Compression Elements and Design Criteria 59
3.6 Perforated Elements and Members 91
3.7 Plate Buckling of Structural Shapes 95
3.8 Additional Information 95
CHAPTER 4 FLEXURAL MEMBERS 97
4.1 General Remarks 97
4.2 Bending Strength and Deflection 97
4.3 Design of Beam Webs 156
4.4 Bracing Requirements of Beams 182
4.5 Torsional Analysis of Beams and Combined Bending and
Torsional Loading 190
4.6 Additional Information on Beams 190
CHAPTER 5 COMPRESSION MEMBERS 191
5.1 General Remarks 191
5.2 Yielding 191
5.3 Flexural Column Buckling 192
5.4 Torsional Buckling and Flexural–Torsional Buckling 194
5.5 Effect of Local Buckling on Column Strength 200
5.6 Distortional Buckling Strength of Compression Members 201
5.7 Effect of Cold Work on Column Buckling 202
5.8 North American Design Formulas for Concentrically Loaded
Compression Members 203
5.9 Effective Length Factor K 207
5.10 Built-Up Compression Members 209
5.11 Bracing of Axially Loaded Compression Members 209
5.12 Design Examples 210
5.13 Compression Members Having One Flange Fastened to Decks or Panels 218
5.14 Wall Studs 220
5.15 Additional Information on Compression Members 221
CHAPTER 6 COMBINED AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 223
6.1 General Remarks 223
6.2 Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending 224
6.3 Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending (Beam–Columns) 225
6.4 North American Design Criteria 232
6.5 Design Examples 235
6.6 Second-Order Analysis 248
6.7 Additional Information on Beam–Columns 249
CHAPTER 7 CLOSED CYLINDRICAL TUBULAR MEMBERS 251
7.1 General Remarks 251
7.2 Types of Closed Cylindrical Tubes 251
7.3 Flexural Column Buckling 251
7.4 Local Buckling 252
7.5 North American Design Criteria 255
7.6 Design Examples 259CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER 8 CONNECTIONS 263
8.1 General Remarks 263
8.2 Types of Connectors 263
8.3 Welded Connections 263
8.4 Bolted Connections 281
8.5 Screw Connections 292
8.6 Other Fasteners 296
8.7 Rupture Failure of Connections 299
8.8 I- or Box-Shaped Compression Members Made by Connecting
Two C-Sections 299
8.9 I-Beams Made by Connecting Two C-Sections 301
8.10 Spacing of Connections in Compression Elements 304
CHAPTER 9 SHEAR DIAPHRAGMS AND ROOF STRUCTURES 307
9.1 General Remarks 307
9.2 Steel Shear Diaphragms 307
9.3 Structural Members Braced by Diaphragms 319
9.4 Shell Roof Structures 329
9.5 Metal Roof Systems 340
CHAPTER 10 CORRUGATED SHEETS 343
10.1 General Remarks 343
10.2 Applications 343
10.3 Sectional Properties and Design of Arc- and Tangent-Type
Corrugated Sheets 343
10.4 Sectional Properties and Design of Trapezoidal-Type Corrugated Sheets 348
CHAPTER 11 COMPOSITE DESIGN 349
11.1 General Remarks 349
11.2 Steel-Deck-Reinforced Composite Slabs 349
11.3 Composite Beams or Girders with Cold-Formed Steel Deck 350
CHAPTER 12 INTRODUCTION TO STAINLESS STEEL DESIGN 353
12.1 General Remarks 353
12.2 Differences between Specifications for Carbon Steels and Stainless Steels 355
CHAPTER 13 LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION 359
13.1 General Remarks 359
13.2 Framing Standards 359
13.3 Design Guides 367
CHAPTER 14 COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN 369
14.1 General Remarks 369
14.2 Computer Programs for Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structures 369viii CONTENTS
CHAPTER 15 DIRECT-STRENGTH METHOD 371
15.1 General Remarks 371
15.2 North American DSM Provisions 371
15.3 Commentary on Appendix 1 (DSM) 373
15.4 Direct-Strength Method Design Guide 376
15.5 Design Examples 376
APPENDIX A THICKNESS OF BASE METAL 381
APPENDIX B TORSION 383
B.1 Introduction 383
B.2 Shear Center 383
B.3 Torsional Stresses 384
B.4 Design Criteria for Combined Bending and Torsional Loading 393
APPENDIX C FORMULAS FOR COMPUTING CROSS-SECTIONAL PROPERTY βy 395
APPENDIX D DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 397
NOMENCLATURE 401
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 413
CONVERSION TABLE 415
REFERENCES 417
INDEX 48
INDEX
A
Abbreviations, 413
Acronyms, 413
AISI specification (S100):
allowable strength, 53
allowable strength design (ASD), 53
bolted connections, 281
bracing requirements for beams, 182
bracing requirements for columns, 209
closed cylindrical tubular members, 251
cold work of forming, 26, 37
combined axial load and bending, 223
compression members, 191
definitions of terms, 47, 397
design basis, 50
design strength, 55, 58
development of, 17
direct strength method, 371
effective design width, 62, 64, 75, 82, 92,
see also Effective design width
elements, 47, see also Effective design width
flexural members, 47
light-frame construction, 359
limit states design (LSD), 57
load and resistance factor design
(LRFD), 54
load factors, 51
loads, 53, 55, 58
materials, 27
nominal strength, 53, 56, 58
resistance factors, 51
roof systems, 340
safety factors, 51
screw connections, 293
second-order analysis, 248
special tests, 25
stiffeners:
bearing, 157
edge, 79, 82
intermediate, 86
shear, 158
tension members, 224
wall studs, 220, 321, 363
welded connections, 263
yield stress, 27, 33
Allowable loads:
bolted connections:
bearing, 283, 287
shear and tension in bolts, 288
spacing and edge distance, 282, 285
tension in connected part, 284, 286
thickness limitations, 285
closed cylindrical tubular members in
compression, 256
compression members, 191
screw connections:
shear, 293
tension, 294
tension members, 224
web design:
bearing stiffeners, 157
bending strength, 165
crippling strength, 168
shear strength, 159
welded connections:
arc seam welds, 269, 276
arc spot welds, 265, 272
fillet welds, 269, 276
flare groove welds, 270, 277
groove welds, 263, 272
thickness limitations, 271
483484 INDEX
Allowable moments:
closed cylindrical tubular members, 257
flexural members, 97
Allowable strength design (ASD), 53
Appendices, 381
Applications, 2, see also Cold-formed Sections
Arch, 3
Area factor, Qa, 200
Aspect ratio, 59, 61, 71, 72, 76, 79
B
Beam-columns, 225
amplification factor, 226
coefficient Cm, 227, 233
coefficient CTF, 230
critical moment, 230
design criteria, 232
design of, 235
flexural buckling, 225
flexural-torsional buckling, 227
interaction formulas, 225, 232
shapes:
doubly symmetric, 225, 235
singly symmetric, 227, 243
Beams, 97, see also Flexural members
Bending brake, see also Forming methods
Bending coefficient, Cb, 125, 129
Bending strength,
combined with shear strength, 166
combined with web crippling, 175
inelastic reserve strength, 114
initiation of yielding, 98
Bend radius-to-thickness ratio, 37, 39
Bolted connections, see also Connections
Bolts:
high-strength, 282, 288
unfinished, 282, 288
Box sections, 97, 134, 150
Bracing members, 182
Bracing requirements for beams:
Continuous bracing, 189
I-sections, 189
C-sections, single channels, 182
Z-sections, 188
Bracing requirements for columns, 209
Bridge forms, 343, 348
Buckling:
distortional, 140, 142, 201, 204, see also compression
and flexural members,
of beam-columns:
flexural, 225
torsional, and flexural-torsional, 227
of compression members:
flexural, 192, 203
flexural-torsional, 194, 204, 206
torsional, 194, 204
lateral-tosional:
of box sections, 134
doubly symmetric sections, 123, 128
of I-beams and channels, 123
point symmetric sections, 128
singly symmetric sections, 123, 128
unbraced compression flanges, 135
of Z-shaped sections, 128
local:
closed cylindrical tubes, 252, 255
effect of, on column strength, 200
stiffened compression elements, 59
unstiffened compression elements, 75
of webs:
bending, combined bending and shear, 165, 166
combined web crippling and bending, 175
crippling, 168
shear, 159
Buckling coefficients, 60, 61, 71, 72, 75, 79, 81, 83, 89,
91, 143, 205
Building codes, 53, 55, 58
Buildings, industrialized housing, 8, 359
modular systems, 8
panelized systems, 8
standardized buildings, 8, 359
C
Channels, see also Cold-formed sections
Cold-formed sections:
advantages of, 1
applications of, 2
depth of, 2, 5, 6
design considerations of, 20
development of, 1, 17, 359
framing members, 2, 359
method of forming, 12
shapes:
angles, 3, 14, 48, 191, 195, 197, 362, 384
box sections, 2, 47, 49, 68, 74, 134, 150, 153, 235
C-sections, see also Channels
channel sections, 2, 14, 25, 47, 49, 77, 78, 81, 85,
93, 102, 128, 133, 140, 145, 148, 160, 173, 179,
182, 191, 195, 197, 204, 216, 218, 243, 320, 324,
362, 373, 379, 384, 388, 395INDEX 485
closed cylindrical tubes, 2, 251
corrugated sheets, 6, 343
hat sections, 2, 48, 59, 67, 99, 107, 116, 168, 174,
195, 209, 362, 431
I-sections, 2, 47, 49, 99, 118, 123, 130, 150, 155,
172, 195, 211, 238
panels and decks, 5, 175, 343
T-sections, 2, 195
tubular sections, see also Box sections
Z-sections, 2, 14, 49, 128, 145, 148, 174, 188, 199,
384, see also Z-sections
thickness, 1, 3, 5, 22, 25, 28, 50, 381
types of, 2
Cold roll forming, 12
Cold work of forming:
effect on mechanical properties, 37
utilization of cold work, 40, 113, 202
Columns, 191, see also Compression members
Combined axial load and bending, 223, see also
Beam-columns
Combined compressive axial load and bending, 225
Combined web crippling and bending, 175
Compact sections, 40, 125, 191, 223
Composite design:
advantages, 349
composite beam with steel-deck-reinforced slab, 350
steel-deck-reinforced slab, 349
Compression elements:
edged stiffened, 82
multiple-stiffened, 48, 86
stiffened, 20, 47, 59, 82
subelement, 48, 86, 110
unstiffened, 20, 21, 47, 75
Compression members, 191
bracing requirements, 209
built-up sections, 209
design criteria, 203
design of, 19, 210
distortional buckling, 201, 204, 213, 372, 374, 379
doubly symmetric shapes, 2, 41, 47, 49, 191, 195, 203,
211, 379
effect of cold work, 202
effect of diaphragm-bracing, 319, 322
effect of local buckling, 200
effective length factor, 207
Euler formula, 192
flexural buckling, 191, 192
effect of local buckling, 200, 372
elastic buckling, 192, 203
inelastic buckling, 192, 203
flexural-tosional buckling, 191, 194, 195, 204, 372
nonsymmetric sections, 199, 204
one flange fastened to deck, 219
point symmetric sections, 199, 204
Q-factor, 200
singly symmetric shapes, 195, 204, 216
slenderness ratio, 192, 206
torsional buckling, 191, 194, 204
unified approach, 201,
wall studs:
attachments for, 220, 320, 363
non-load bearing, 363
yielding, 191
Computer-aided design, 369
Connections, 263
bolted, 281
design criteria, 283, 285
design of, 289
shear lag effect, 286
spacing and edge distance, 285
thickness limitations, 285
types of failure, 282
for I-beams, 301, 303
for I- or box-shaped compression members, 299
power-actuated fasteners, 298
press-joints, 298
riveted connections, 297
rosette-joints, 298
rupture failure, 284, 286
screw, 292
design criteria, 292
design of, 292
spacing of connections in compression
elements, 304
types of connections, 263
welded, 263
design criteria, 271
arc welds, 263
arc seam welds, 269, 276
arc spot welds (puddle welds), 264, 272
design of, 271
fillet welds, 263, 269, 276
flare groove welds, 263, 270, 277
groove welds, 263, 272
welding symbols, 265
projection welding, 279
resistance welds, 279
shear lag effect, 281
spot welding, 263, 266
Conversion table, 59, 415
Corners:
properties and dimensions, 24, 100
yeld stress, 37, 39
Corrosion protection, 22486 INDEX
Corrugated sheets:
applications, 343
arc- and tangent-type, 343
design of, 343, 348
section properties, 343
trapezoidal-type, 343, 348
Cross-sectional property βy, 395
Cylindrical tubular members (closed),
applications, 251
bending strength, 254, 257
column buckling, 251
design criteria, 255
design of, 255, 259
local buckling, 252
axial compression, 252
bending, 254
combined loading, 255
torsion, 255
transverse shear, 255
postbuckling behavior (snap through
buckling), 253
type of, 251
fabricated tubes, 251
manufactured tubes, 251
D
Decision table, 370
Decks, 5, 175, 349
Definitions of terms, 397
Deflection of flexural members, 120
Depth of sections, 3, 5, 6, 14
Design basis:
allowable strength design (ASD), 53
load and resistance factor design (LRFD), 54
limit states design (LSD), 57
Design formats:
for ASD method, 53
for LRFD method, 54
for LSD method, 58
Design manual, 19
Design specifications:
in foreign countries, 20
in the United States, 18, see also AISI design
specifications
Design strength, 54, 400
Direct strength method, 371
Distortional buckling, 140, 142, 201, 204, see also
Buckling
Doubly symmetric sections, 2, 49, 99, 123, 128, 130,
189, 191, 195, 204, 211, 223, 238, 379
Drainage structures, 343
Ductility, 28, 34
E
Economic design, 26, 120
Edge stiffeners, 79, 82, see also Stiffeners
Effective design width, 49, 61
beam webs, 71
due to shear lag (for both compression and tension
flanges), 150
elements with multiple intermediate stiffeners, 87
elements with single intermediate stiffener, 86
influence of:
impact loading, 70
initial imperfection, 68
stiffened elements under uniform compression, 59
stiffened elements with stress gradient, 70
uniformly compressed elements with an edge
stiffener, 82
uniformly compressed elements with circular holes, 92
unstiffened elements under uniform compression, 75
unstiffened elements with stress gradient, 79
Effective length, 207, see also Compression members
End bearing, 168, see also Flexural members, webs, web
crippling
Equivalent column, 135, see also Flexural members
F
Factored resistance, 58, 400
Flange curling, 155
Flat width, 48
Flat width-to-thickness ratio, 48
Flexural members, 97
allowable strength design (ASD), 53
bending strength, 97
economic design, 120
effect of cold work, 113
lateral-torsional buckling strength, 123
one-flange through-fastened to sheathing, 148
one-flange fastened to a standing roof system, 149
section strength, 98
bracing requirements, 182
built-up members, 301
combined bending and torsional loading, 190, 393
deflection of, 120
design criteria, 97, 114
design of, 99
distortional buckling, 140
equivalent column, 135INDEX 487
inelastic reserve capacity, 114
initiation of yielding, 98
limit states design (LSD), 57, 98
load and resistance factor design (LRFD), 54, 98
lateral-torsional buckling, 123
laterally unbraced compression flanges, 135
local buckling, 47, see also Buckling
multiple-stiffened flange, 48
shear center, 182, 383
shear lag, 150
stiffened flange, 47
torsional analysis, 190
types of cross-section:
box sections, 2, 67, 74, 134, 150, 153
C-sections (channels), 2, 25, 47, 49, 77, 78, 81,
85, 102, 128, 133, 140, 145, 148, 160, 173, 179,
182, 376
hat sections, 2, 48, 59, 67, 99, 107, 116, 168, 174
I-sections, 2, 49, 99, 118, 123, 130, 150, 155, 172
U-sections, 135
Z-shapes, 2, 14, 49, 128, 145, 148, 174, 188
unstiffened flange, 75
unusually short spans, 150
unusually wide flange, 155
webs:
bending, 165
combined bending and shear, 166
combined web crippling and bending, 175
effect of holes, 93, 165, 173
shear, 159
stiffeners, 157
web crippling, 168
Flexural-torsional buckling, 191, 194, 203, see also
compression members
Floor panels, 5, 349, see also Cold-formed sections,
shapes, panels and decks
Folded plate roof, see also Shell roof structures
Form factor, Q, 200, see also Compression members,
flexural buckling, local buckling
Forming methods:
bending brake, 12
cold roll forming, 12
press brake, 16
H
History:
cold-formed steel construction, 1
design specifications, 18
Housing, see also Light-frame construction
Hyperbolic paraboloid roof, 5, 7, 307, 333, see also Shell
roof structures
I
Impact loading, 53
Industrialized housing, 8
Inelastic reserve capacity of beams, 114, see also
Flexural members
Initial imperfection, 14, 63
Initiation of yielding, 98
Interaction formulas:
for bending and shear, 166
for compressive axial load and bending, 225
for closed cylindrical tubular members, 251
for shear and tension in bolts, 288
for shear and pull-over in screws, 295
for tensile axial load and bending, 224
for web crippling and bending, 175
I-sections, see also Cold-Formed sections
J
Joists, 2, 352
L
Large deflection theory, 62
Lateral-torsional buckling of beams, 123, see also
Buckling
Laterally unbraced compression flanges, 135
Length-to-width ratio of plate, 61, 71, 72, 76, 79
Light-frame construction, 359
Limit states design (LSD), 53
Limiting flat-width-to-thickness ratio:
stiffened compression elements, 50
unstiffened compression elements, 50
webs, 50
Linear method, 23
Load and resistance factor design (LRFD), 54
Load combinations, 53, 55, 58
Load factors, 51, 55, 58
Local buckling:
closed cylindrical tubular members, 252
compression members, 200
perforated elements, 91
stiffened compression elements, 47, 59
unstiffened compression elements, 47, 75
uniformly compressed elements with
stiffeners, 82
webs, 70488 INDEX
M
Materials, 27
Mechanical properties:
Bauschinger effect, 37
ductility, 27, 34
effect of strain rate, 46
effect of temperature, 42
elongation, 34
fatigue strength, 27, 37
influence of cold work, 37
modulus of elasticity, 27, 34
proportional limit, 34, 44
residual stress, 44
shear modulus, 27, 34
strain aging, 37
strain hardening, 37
stress-strain characteristics, 27, 33
tangent modulus, 27, 34
tensile strength, 27, 33
toughness, 27, 37
weldability, 27, 36
yield stress, 27, 28, 33
Metal buildings, pre-engineered, 8
Metal roof systems, 340
Modular systems, 8
Moment:
bending moment, 97
critical moment for distortional buckling, 140
critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling, 123
plastic, 114, 125
yield, 98, 114, 125
Moment of inertia:
of compression members, 192, 202
of flexural members, 100, 120, 123, 159, 371
of edge stiffeners, 83
of intermediate stiffeners, 88
of shear stiffeners, 158
Moment redistribution of continuous beams, 182
Moment-to-weight ratios, 120
Multiple-stiffened elements, 48, 86
N
Neutral axis, 98
Nomenclature, 401
Nominal load, 53, 55, 57
Nominal moments:
flexural members:
beams having one flange through-fastened to deck or
sheathing, 148
beam having one flange fastened to a standing seam
roof system, 149
distortional buckling strength, 140, 373
lateral-torsional buckling strength, 123, 373
section bending strength, 98
Nominal resistance, 58, 400
Nominal strength:
bolted connections:
bearing strength, 287
shear and tension in bolts, 288
shear lag effect, 286
tension in connected part, 286
closed cylindrical tubular members in compression, 256
compression members:
distortional buckling, 204, 372
flexural buckling, 192, 203, 372
flexural-torsional buckling, 194, 372
torsional buckling, 194, 372
flexural members:
web crippling, 168
web shear strength, 159
lateral-torsional buckling, 123, 128, 373
screw connections:
shear, 293
tension, 294
tension members, 224
welded connections:
arc seam welds, 263, 264, 269, 276
arc spot welds, 263, 264, 272
fillet welds, 263, 264, 269, 276
flare groove welds, 263, 264, 270, 277
groove welds, 264, 272
resistance welds, 279
Noncompact sections, 205
Nonsymmetric sections, 199, 204
North American Specification, 18, see also AISI
Specification (S100)
O
Optimum properties, 26
P
Panels, 5, 343
Perforated members, 91
Plastic design, 23, 114, 125
Plasticity reduction factor, 61, 355
Plate buckling:
long plate, 61, 161
rectangular plate, 60, 161
square plate, 60, 61INDEX 489
Point symmetric sections, 128, 199, 204
Poisson’s ratio, 60, 156, 160, 162, 168, 252, 253
Polar radius of gyration, 126, 129, 194, 200, 228
Postbuckling strength:
perforated elements, 91
stiffened compression elements, 20, 62
unstiffened compression elements, 20, 76
web element subjected bending, 71
Proportional limit, see also Mechanical properties
Purlins, 35, 148, 149, 182, 188, 362
R
Reduced modulus method, 192
References, 417
Reliability index, 56
Research:
foreign countries, 20
the United States, 17
Residential and commercial construction, see also
Light-frame construction
applications of, 359
design guides, 367
framing standards, 359, 361
prescriptive method, 366
Residual stress, 44
Resistance factor, 51, 54, 56, 58
Roof deck, 1, 5
Rupture:
shear, 272, 282, 285
tension, 284, 286
block shear, 299
S
Safety factor, 51, 53, 57, see also Flexural members,
Compression members, Closed cylindrical tubular
members, Connections, and Shear diaphragms
Screw connections, 292, see also Connections
St. Venant torsion constant, 123, 129, 194, 386
Section strength:
inelastic reserve capacity, 114
initiation of yielding, 98
beams having one flange fastened to deck, 148
beams having one flange fastened to standing seam
roof, 149
Sectional properties, 21, 23, 98, 100, 102, 107, 109
Serviceability, 59
Shear buckling:
perforated plates, 91
rectangular plates, 61, 160
Shear center, 182, 383
Shear diaphragms:
applications of, 307
deflection, 309, 316
design criteria, 315
design of, 314
research, 307
resistance factor, 316
safety factor, 316
shear strength, 308, 314
special consideration, 316
stiffness, 309
tests, 309
Shear lag:
effective width, 150
bolted connections, 286
welded connections, 281
Shear modulus, 34, see also Mechanical properties
Shear strength
combined with bending, 166
webs with holes, 165
webs without holes, 162
Shear yielding, 159
Shell roof structures, 329
folded plate roof, 329
advantages of, 329
analysis and design of, 330
deflection of, 332
research, 332
truss type, 333
types of, 329
Williot diagram, 332
hyperbolic paraboloid roof, 333
analysis and design, 335
applications of, 333
curvilinear grid frame type, 339
research, 339
types of, 335
Singly symmetric shapes, 2, 123, 129, 195, 204, see also
Channels
Slenderness ratio, maximum limit for compression
members, 206
Space frames, 2, 4
Specifications and recommendations:
American Institute of Steel Construction, 34, 37, 282,
350, 413
American Iron and Steel Institute, 413, see also AISI
specifications
American Society of Civil Engineers:
composite slabs, 350
stainless steel structural members, 354490 INDEX
Specifications and recommendations: (continued)
American Society for Testing and Materials, 27, 28,
381, 413
American Welding Society, 36, 263, 279, 413
Australian, 20
Austrian, 20
Brazilian, 20
British, 20
Canadian, 20, see also North American specification
Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute, 9, 14, 20, 413
Chinese, 20
Composite slab design, 20, 349
Czechoslovakian, 20
Dutch, 20
European Convention for Construction Steelwork, 20
Finnish, 20
French, 20
German, 20
Indian, 20
Italian, 20
Japanese, 20
Metal Building Manufacturers Association, 9, 14, 20
Metal Construction Association, 20, 314
Mexican, 20, see also North American specification
New Zealand, 20
North American Specification, 18, see also AISI
Specification (S100)
North American Standards for Cold-Formed Steel
Framing, 359
Rack Manufacturers Institute, 20, 413
Research Council on Structural Connections, 282
Romanian, 20
Russian, 20
South African, 20
Stainless steel design, 353
applications of, 353
design criteria, 353
stress-strain curves of stainless steels, 353
Standing seam roof system, 149
Steel Deck Institute, 27, 314, 349, 413
Steel Joist Institute, 20, 413
Steel Stud Manufacturers Association, 19, 20, 413
Swedish, 20
Specified load, 58, 400
Spring constant, 136, 137, 189
Standardized buildings, 8
Stiffened compression elements, see also Compression
elements
Stiffeners:
edge stiffeners, 79, 82
multiple-intermediate stiffeners, 87
single-intermediate stiffeners, 86
web stiffeners, 157
Stiffness, 120, see also Flexural members
Strength:
allowable strength, 53, 400
available strength, 400
design strength, 55, 400
nominal strength, 54, 56, 400
required strength, 53, 54, 400
Stress, definitions of, 399
Stress factor, Qs, 201
Stress-strain curves, 33, 39, 44
Structural economy, 86, 120
Subelement, see also Compression elements
Successive approximation, 99, 107, 327
T
Tangent modulus method, 192
Tension members, 224
combined tensile load and bending, 225
nominal tensile strength, 224
Tests:
confirmation, 397
flat elements, 43
full sections, 43
performance, 398
shear diaphragms, 309
special cases, 25
Thickness:
base metal, 50, 381
coating, 381
galvanized sheet, 381
uncoated sheets, 381
Tolerances, 14, 16
Torsion, 383
Torsional analysis of beams, see also Flexural members
Torsional buckling, 194
Torsional rigidity, 21, 134
Truss-panel system, 2, 9
Types of cold-formed sections, 2
U
Unstiffened compression elements, 21, 47, 75, 99, 118
Unsymmetric shapes, 199, 204
V
Virgin steel, 399
Virgin steel properties, 37, 399
Virtual hole method for C-section webs with holes, 93INDEX 491
W
Wall panels, 5, 6, 10, 11, see also Corrugated sheets;
Shear diaphragms
Wall studs, 220, 320, 363
Warping constant, 123, 194, 200, 385, 386
Warping rigidity, 194
Wavelength, 60, 61
distortional buckling, 141, 202, 374
local buckling, 60, 61
Web crippling, 168
webs with holes, 171, 173
web without holes, 168, 172
Weld connections, see also Connections
Weldability, 27, 36
Welds:
arc, 263
resistance, 279
Width-to-thickness ratio, see also Flat-width-to-thickness
ratio
Wind load:
load factor for the LRFD method, 55
load factor for the LSD method, 58
Y
Yield stress, 28, 33
reduced yield stress for multiple-web
configurations, 34
Z
Z-sections, 2, 14, 49, 128, 145, 148, 174, 188, 199, 384


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