كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications - صفحة 2
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.



 
الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications

اذهب الى الأسفل 
انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 43
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 12 أكتوبر 2012, 10:03 pm

تذكير بمساهمة فاتح الموضوع :

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications
Hongyan Zhang , Jacek Senkara  

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 R_w_f_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter 1 Welding Metallurgy 1
Chapter 2 Electrothermal Processes of Welding 19
Chapter 3 Weld Discontinuities 58
Chapter 4 Mechanical Testing 107
Chapter 5 Resistance Welding Process Monitoring and Control 146
Chapter 6 Weld Quality and Inspection 196
Chapter 7 Expulsion in Resistance Spot Welding 229
Chapter 8 Influence of Mechanical Characteristics of Welding Machines 287
Chapter 9 Numerical Simulation in Resistance Spot Welding 339
Chapter 10 Statistical Design, Analysis, and Inference in Resistance
Welding Research
Index
Index
A
AA5754 alloys, surface cracking and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys, surface cracking and, 79–81
ABAQUS, 337, 343, 358
Acoustic emission (AE), 146, 157
Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC), 159–161
AE (acoustic emission), 146, 157
Air cylinders, 312–320
equations for, 313–316
Alcan electrodes case study, 364–367
Algorithms;
see also Equations
constant-current, 180
constant-power control, 176
constant-power density, 177, 180
coupled/uncoupled algorithms case study and, 360–362
recursive least squares, 160
Aluminum welds, structures of, 12
Analysis
experiments with categorical responses and, 402
experiments with continuous response and, 376–381
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 392–399
ANC (adaptive noise cancellation), 159–161
Angular misalignment of domed electrodes case study, 364–367
ANSYS, 337, 343
Artificial neural networks, 182–189
A-scans, 211
Austenite grain growth, 9
Axisymmetric models, 346
B
Bend test, 110
Binary responses, 402
Blocking, 376
Boundary conditions, 341, 344, 345
Box plots, 377
B-scans, see Ultrasonic B-scans
Bulk resistance, 20, 24Burn-through holes, 66
Button diameter, 192, 194
Button size analysis, 397–399
C
Carbon steels, continuous cooling of, 8
Categorical responses, experiments with, 401–411
CCT diagrams, see Continuous-cooling transformation diagrams
Chisel tests
instrumented, 108, 111
shop-floor, 208
Codes effects, 378
Cold cracking, 14
Cold welds, 72, 217
identifying, 218–222
Computer simulation experiments, 411–421
Consistency, 194
Constant current, 53
power density and, 176–182
Constant-current algorithm, 180
Constant-power control algorithm, 176
Constant-power density, 176–182
Constant-power density algorithm, 177, 180
Contact area
equations for, 325, 349
simulations and, 347–351
Contact electrical conductance, 350
Contact properties simulations, 347–351
Contact resistance, 21–24
electrode life and, 41, 46
simulations and, 347
total resistance and, 24
Continuous-cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams, 5, 8, 353
Continuous response, experiments with, 373–400
Control, see Process monitoring and control
Cooling rates, 354
Corrosion-resistant coatings, contact resistance and, 22
Coupled/uncoupled algorithms case study, 360–362
Coupon size, tensile-shear strength dependence on, 389
Coupon width, cracking suppression and, 96
Crack angles, 84
Cracking, 14–16, 67–69
AA5754 alloys and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys and, 79–81
mechanisms of, 88–96
suppressing, 96–102
Critical specimen width, 120–123
Cross arrays, 375
Cross-tension tests, 112
Current equations, 54, 56, 149, 175
Current profiles, 53–59, 352
Index 428 Current range, 394–397
Current shunting, 26
cracking suppression and, 98–102
Cycles to failure, equation for, 128
D
Damping ratio estimates, 295–300
Data acquisition, 145–147
Data analysis, 371
Data collection, 371
Data presentation, fatigue tests and, 128
Decision making, 372, 381–390
categorical responses and, 402
expulsion and, 411
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 399–400
Deduction, 369
Designs
robust parameter, 375
second-order, 375
Destructive evaluations, 207–210
Discontinuities, 61–104
classification of, 61–73
cracking and, 79–102
Discretization, 334
Distortion, 69
Drop impact tests, 129, 130
Ductility, 105
Dummy variables, 379, 385
Dynamic force analysis, 306–309
Dynamic resistance, 146, 151
simulations and, 347
Dynamic tests, 123–140
E
Edge welds, 62
Electrical characteristics, 20–26
Electric analysis, formulating, 344
Electric current, 146, 147, 150, 287–290
equations for, 54, 56, 149, 175
Electric current profiles, 53–59, 352
Electric potential, equations for, 344, 346
Electric process
equations for, 340
formulating, 340
Electric-thermal process, steps in formulating, 339
Electric voltage, 145, 147, 287–290
equation for, 149
Electrode alignment, 323–327
effect of machine stiffness on, 294
Electrode axial misalignment case study, 362–364
Electrode displacement, 28, 146, 151–154, 287–290
Index 429 machine friction, effect on, 302
machine stiffness, effect on, 292
Electrode force, 38, 146, 154–157, 287–290, 327
changes in, 327
equations for, 239, 295, 298
expulsion and, 237–241
machine friction, effect on, 302
machine stiffness, effect on, 290
Electrode geometry
case study of, 360
cracking suppression and, 96
Electrode life, 41–51
Electrode touching behavior, effect of machine stiffness on, 292
Electrothermal processes, 19–60
electrical characteristics and, 20–26
thermal characteristics and, 27–29
Energy consumed by welded specimens, equation for, 134
Environmental effects, fatigue tests and, 127
Equalizing guns, 286
Equations, 369;
see also Algorithms
computer simulation statistical model, 413
contact area, 325, 349
contact electrical conductance, 350
critical specimen width, 120, 122
current, 54, 56, 149, 175
current range, 394–397
cycles to failure, 128
dynamic force analysis, 306
electric potential, 344, 346
electric process, 340
electrode force, 38, 239, 295, 298
energy consumed by welded specimens, 134
estimation error over measured nugget size, 186
expulsion probability, 254, 265
failure mode probability, 118
Faraday’s law, 150
four-node elements, 343
gas bubbles, 76, 77
heat for heating solids or liquids, 34
heat generation, 19, 54, 341
heat transfer, 341, 345
Laplace, 340, 344
latent heat, 342
law of thermal similarity (LOTS), 30
linear effects, 393
liquid nugget, pressures in, 241–250
loading, 128
logistics model, 252, 402
Mallow’s C
p criterion, 379
mass of HAZ, 34
maximum displacement, 419
Index 430 maximum energy, 419
maximum load, 418
model selection (sample equation), 383
multiple regression models, 377
normalization for neural networks, 185
nugget diameter, 388
orthogonal coding system, 404, 410
pneumatic cylinders, 313–316
polynomial terms, 404, 405, 408
power density, 177
quadratic cost function, 185
quadratic effects, 393
regression function, 393
second-order model, 389
sheet stack-up heat input, 37
temperature distributions, 346
tensile-shear strength, 201
thermal expansion, 311
thermal stresses, 93
thickness, 386
undercooling, 358
virtual work, 342
voltage, 149
voltage drop, 350
weight update, 185
weldment temperature, 38
weldment total heat, 34–36
weld quality, 201–203, 204, 207
weld strength, 414, 415
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz law, 350
Estimation error over measured nugget size, equation for, 186
Eutectics, 2
Evaluations of weld quality, 191–226
Experiments
with categorical responses, 401–411
computer simulation, 411–421
with continuous response, 373–400
results of, combining, 385–387
Expulsion, 53, 61, 65, 193, 227–281
detecting, 144, 165–167, 233
predicting/preventing, 235–256
probability of
discussion about, 266–279
equations for, 254, 265
process of, 233
sample study of, 403–411
severity of, 144
welding machine stiffness and, 293
External discontinuities, 61–70
F
Index 431 Factorial designs, 374
Factors, 373
screening, 381
Failure modes, 105, 122
equation for probability of, 118
tensile-shear tests and, 116–118
Faraday’s law, 150
Fatigue strength, 105
Fatigue tests, 124–129
Faults
identifying, 164
preweld, 167–173
FDM (finite difference method), 334–336
FEM, see Finite element method
Fiber-optic displacement sensors, 152–154
Finite difference method (FDM), 334–336
Finite element method (FEM), 119, 120, 334–336, 338
three-dimensional, 339
two-dimensional, 344–346
Finite element simulations, 333–368
examples of, 360–367
methods of, 336–339
Follow-up stage of welding cycle, 311–320
Force-balance model of expulsion, 235, 237–250, 255
examples of using, 256–263
Formulation, FDM/FEM and, 336
Four-node elements, equation for, 343
Friction in welding machines, influence on weld quality, 300–305
G
Gain scheduling, 179, 180
Galvanized coatings, 351
Gas bubbles, 74–78
equations for, 76, 77
Geometry, FDM/FEM and, 335
Geometry comparison model of expulsion, 235, 236, 255
Graphs, 376
H
Half-normal plots, 377
Half-sine current profile, 53–55
HAZs (heat-affected zones)
cracking in, 72
mass of, 34
microstructure evolution in, 354
transformations in, 9
Heat balance, 29–41
modified heat balance theory and, 33–38
Heat for heating solids or liquids, equation for, 34
Heat generation
in electric circuit, 19
Index 432 equations for, 19, 54, 341
in time period, 54
Heat transfer process
equations for, 341, 345
formulating, 341
Hold time, 320–323
Holes, 66
Hot cracking, 14, 16, 82
intergranular characteristics and, 88
I
Impact energy, 106
Impact tester (new), 132–140
Impact tests, 129–140
Indentation, 64
Induction, 370
Inference, 372, 381–390
categorical responses and, 402
computer simulation experiment and, 417–421
expulsion and, 411
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 399–100
Inspections, 191–226
Instrumented tests, 111–141
Insufficiently spaced welds, 62
Interaction plots, 376
Intercritical region, 10
Interfacial fractured welds, 74
Internal discontinuities, 70–73
L
Laplace equation, 340, 344
Latent heat, 342
Latin hypercube method, 415
Law of thermal similarity (LOTS), 30
Linear effects, equation for, 393
Liquation cracking, 14, 15, 82, 83–87
Liquid metal embrittlement (LME), 68
Liquid nuggets
pressures in, 233, 237, 241–250
components of, 242–248
equations for, 241–250
examples of, 256–260
solidification of, 1–4
Liquid pressure, cracking and, 95
LME cracking, 68
Loading, equation for, 128
Loading conditions, fatigue life and, 125
Loading modes, 129
Loading selection, fatigue tests and, 128
Lobe diagrams, 51–59, 174–176
Location-dispersion modeling for variance reduction, 380
Index 433 Logistics model, equations for, 252
Logistics regression model, 402
LOTS (law of thermal similarity), 30
LVDT displacement sensors, 152
M
Main effect plots, 376
Mallow’s C
p criterion, 379
Mass of HAZ, 34
Material properties
fatigue tests and, 126
workpieces and, 327–330
Mechanical characteristics
typical welding machines and, 284–290
of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 283–331
Mechanical properties, microstructure simulations and, 353–359
Mechanical testing, 105–142
instrumented tests and, 111–141
in production environment, 108–111
Melting simulations, 342
Metallographic cross-sectioning examinations, internal discontinuities and, 70
Metallographic tests, 208
Metallurgical effect of cracking, 88–90
Microsegregation, 2
Microstructures
effect of machine friction on, 303
simulating, 353–359
Mislocated welds, 62
Modeling
experiments with categorical responses and, 402
experiments with continuous response and, 376–381
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 392–394
Model selection
sample equation for, 383
techniques for, 379
Modified heat balance theory, 33–38
Monitoring, see Process monitoring and control
Moving mass of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 287, 305–310
Multiple regression models, 377–380
N
Nondestructive evaluations, 211–224
Normalization for neural networks, equation for, 185
Normal plots, 377
Nucleation, 5
Nugget diameter, 192
equation for, 388
Numerical simulations, 333–368
examples of, 360–367
methods of, 336–339
Index 434 O
Orthogonal arrays (OAs), 374
Overlapped welds, 62
P
Peak load, 105
tensile-shear tests and, 115
Pedestal welders, 286
Peel tests
instrumented, 108, 111
shop-floor, 208
Pendulum impact testers, 129
Phase diagrams, 5
Phase transformations
in resistance spot welding, 4–13
in steels, 6–8
Pinch guns, 286
Pneumatic cylinders, 312–320
equations for, 313–316
Pneumatic pressure fluctuation, 157–159
Porosity, 65, 70, 73
Power density, equation for, 177
Preweld fault condition, determining, 167–173
Process control, 144
Process fault diagnosis, 144
Process monitoring and control, 143–190
objectives of, 143
Production environment, mechanical testing and, 108–111
Pseudodata, using, 406
Q
Quadratic cost function, equation for, 185
Quadratic effects, equation for, 393
Quality control, see Process monitoring and control
R
Recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, 160
Regression function, equation for, 393
Residual analysis, 380
Residual stresses, 126
Resistance Welder Manufacturers’ Association (RWMA), 29
Responses, 373
Response surface exploration, 387
RLS (recursive least squares) algorithm, 160
RMS (root mean square), simulations and, 352
Robust parameter designs, 375
Rocker-type gun, 285
Roller tests, 108, 111
Root mean square (RMS), simulations and, 352
RSW (resistance spot welding), 1
Runs, 373
S
Scatter plots, 377
Second-order designs, 375
Second-order model, equation for, 389
Separation, 64
Shear impact loading tests, 130
Shear impact tests, 129, 130
Shear tests, 111
Sheet stack-up heat input, 37
Shop floor tests, 108–111
Shrinkage, 78
Shunting, 26
cracking suppression and, 98–102
Signal collection, 147–159, 287–290
welding processes and, 161–173
Single arrays, 375
Sinusoidal current profile, 56
Solidification, 1–4, 357
cracking and, 14, 71, 82
shrinkage and, 78
simulations and, 342
Specimens
critical width of, 120–123
fatigue tests and, 127
mechanical testing and, 106–108
width of, cracking suppression and, 96
Spot welds, computer simulation experiment and, 414
Squeeze time, 320–323
Standards organizations
critical specimen widths and, 122
lobe diagrams and, 174
specimen size recommendations and, 107
weld quality and, 191, 194
Static resistance, simulations and, 347
Static tests, 111–123
Statistical design, 369, 374–376
parts of, 370
Statistical modeling, 371
examples of using, 263–279
expulsion and, 235, 250–256
Statistics, 370
Steels, transformations in, 6–8
Steel welds
structures of, 10–13
transformations in HAZs of, 9
Stiffness
damping ratio estimates and, 295–300
of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 290–300
Straight-acting guns, 285
Index 436 Strain rate, 139
Strength
machine stiffness, effect on, 294–300
as relates to weld attributes, 196–207, 222–224
Stress
residual, 126
tensile, 79, 93–95
thermal, 91–95, 93
Stress concentration, 125, 129
Subcritical region, 10
Supercritical region, 10
Suppressing cracking, 96–102
Surface cracking, 67–69
AA5754 alloys and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys and, 79–81
T
Temperature distributions, equations for, 346
Tensile-shear strength
dependence on coupon size, 389
equations for, 201
machine friction, effect on, 304
Tensile-shear tests, 111, 114–123
Tensile stress, 79, 93–95
Tension impact loading tests, 129, 130–132
Tension-shear tests, 111, 114–123
Tension tests, 111, 112–114
Testing, see Mechanical testing
Thermal analysis, formulating, 345
Thermal characteristics, 27–29
Thermal expansion, 311
Thermal similarity, law of (LOTS), 30
Thermal stress
cracking and, 91–95
equations for, 93
Thermomechanical analysis, formulating, 342
Thermomechanical effects of cracking, 90
Thickness, equation for, 386
Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams, 5, 7, 353
Tip voltage, see Electric voltage
Torsional shear tests, 141
Torsion tests, 140
Total resistance, 24–26
Transformations, in HAZs of steel welds, 9
Treatment comparisons, 382
TTT diagrams, see Time-temperature transformation diagrams
Twist tests, 140
Two-stage sliding-level experiments, 390–400
U
Ultrasonic A-scans, 211
Index 437 Ultrasonic B-scans, 212–218
identifying cold welds and, 218–222
weld attributes as relates to strength and, 222
Ultrasonic imaging, internal discontinuities and, 70
Undercooling, equation for, 358
U-tension tests, 112
V
Variance reduction, 380, 388–390
Voids, 70, 73–79
Voltage drop, equation for, 350
W
Washer clamping, cracking suppression and, 98
Weight update, 185
Weld attributes, dependency on welding parameters, 387
Weld diameter, 106
Weld discontinuities, see discontinuities
Weld formation, effect of machine stiffness on, 293
Welding abnormalities, identifying influential factors in, 381
Welding machines
friction in, influence on weld quality, 300–305
mechanical characteristics of, influence on weld quality, 283–331
moving mass of, influence on weld quality, 287, 305–310
stiffness in, influence on weld quality, 290–300
Welding metallurgy, 1–17
Welding processes, signal collection and, 161–173
Welding schedules
comparing, 382–384
developing, 29, 36
predicting, 39–41
Welding sequences, cracking suppression and, 97
Welding tests, comparing, 382–384
Weld lobe diagrams, 392
Weldment temperature, 38
Weldment total heat, 34–36
Weld nugget width, 106
Weld performance, 193
Weld quality, 191–226
attributes of, 191–194
computer simulation experiment and, 414
equations for, 201–203, 204, 207
expulsion, influence on, 228–233
requirements of, 194–196
weld attributes as relates to strength, 196–207, 222–224
welding machine mechanical characteristics, influence on, 283–331
Weld size, 143, 194
Whiskers, 65, 67
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz law, 350
Workpiece stack-up time, 323–327
Index 438 X
X-ray imaging, internal discontinuities and, 70
Z
Zinc coatings, 351


 كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين


عدد المساهمات : 2041
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 12 أكتوبر 2012, 10:03 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications
Hongyan Zhang , Jacek Senkara  

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 R_w_f_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter 1 Welding Metallurgy 1
Chapter 2 Electrothermal Processes of Welding 19
Chapter 3 Weld Discontinuities 58
Chapter 4 Mechanical Testing 107
Chapter 5 Resistance Welding Process Monitoring and Control 146
Chapter 6 Weld Quality and Inspection 196
Chapter 7 Expulsion in Resistance Spot Welding 229
Chapter 8 Influence of Mechanical Characteristics of Welding Machines 287
Chapter 9 Numerical Simulation in Resistance Spot Welding 339
Chapter 10 Statistical Design, Analysis, and Inference in Resistance
Welding Research
Index
Index
A
AA5754 alloys, surface cracking and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys, surface cracking and, 79–81
ABAQUS, 337, 343, 358
Acoustic emission (AE), 146, 157
Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC), 159–161
AE (acoustic emission), 146, 157
Air cylinders, 312–320
equations for, 313–316
Alcan electrodes case study, 364–367
Algorithms;
see also Equations
constant-current, 180
constant-power control, 176
constant-power density, 177, 180
coupled/uncoupled algorithms case study and, 360–362
recursive least squares, 160
Aluminum welds, structures of, 12
Analysis
experiments with categorical responses and, 402
experiments with continuous response and, 376–381
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 392–399
ANC (adaptive noise cancellation), 159–161
Angular misalignment of domed electrodes case study, 364–367
ANSYS, 337, 343
Artificial neural networks, 182–189
A-scans, 211
Austenite grain growth, 9
Axisymmetric models, 346
B
Bend test, 110
Binary responses, 402
Blocking, 376
Boundary conditions, 341, 344, 345
Box plots, 377
B-scans, see Ultrasonic B-scans
Bulk resistance, 20, 24Burn-through holes, 66
Button diameter, 192, 194
Button size analysis, 397–399
C
Carbon steels, continuous cooling of, 8
Categorical responses, experiments with, 401–411
CCT diagrams, see Continuous-cooling transformation diagrams
Chisel tests
instrumented, 108, 111
shop-floor, 208
Codes effects, 378
Cold cracking, 14
Cold welds, 72, 217
identifying, 218–222
Computer simulation experiments, 411–421
Consistency, 194
Constant current, 53
power density and, 176–182
Constant-current algorithm, 180
Constant-power control algorithm, 176
Constant-power density, 176–182
Constant-power density algorithm, 177, 180
Contact area
equations for, 325, 349
simulations and, 347–351
Contact electrical conductance, 350
Contact properties simulations, 347–351
Contact resistance, 21–24
electrode life and, 41, 46
simulations and, 347
total resistance and, 24
Continuous-cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams, 5, 8, 353
Continuous response, experiments with, 373–400
Control, see Process monitoring and control
Cooling rates, 354
Corrosion-resistant coatings, contact resistance and, 22
Coupled/uncoupled algorithms case study, 360–362
Coupon size, tensile-shear strength dependence on, 389
Coupon width, cracking suppression and, 96
Crack angles, 84
Cracking, 14–16, 67–69
AA5754 alloys and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys and, 79–81
mechanisms of, 88–96
suppressing, 96–102
Critical specimen width, 120–123
Cross arrays, 375
Cross-tension tests, 112
Current equations, 54, 56, 149, 175
Current profiles, 53–59, 352
Index 428 Current range, 394–397
Current shunting, 26
cracking suppression and, 98–102
Cycles to failure, equation for, 128
D
Damping ratio estimates, 295–300
Data acquisition, 145–147
Data analysis, 371
Data collection, 371
Data presentation, fatigue tests and, 128
Decision making, 372, 381–390
categorical responses and, 402
expulsion and, 411
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 399–400
Deduction, 369
Designs
robust parameter, 375
second-order, 375
Destructive evaluations, 207–210
Discontinuities, 61–104
classification of, 61–73
cracking and, 79–102
Discretization, 334
Distortion, 69
Drop impact tests, 129, 130
Ductility, 105
Dummy variables, 379, 385
Dynamic force analysis, 306–309
Dynamic resistance, 146, 151
simulations and, 347
Dynamic tests, 123–140
E
Edge welds, 62
Electrical characteristics, 20–26
Electric analysis, formulating, 344
Electric current, 146, 147, 150, 287–290
equations for, 54, 56, 149, 175
Electric current profiles, 53–59, 352
Electric potential, equations for, 344, 346
Electric process
equations for, 340
formulating, 340
Electric-thermal process, steps in formulating, 339
Electric voltage, 145, 147, 287–290
equation for, 149
Electrode alignment, 323–327
effect of machine stiffness on, 294
Electrode axial misalignment case study, 362–364
Electrode displacement, 28, 146, 151–154, 287–290
Index 429 machine friction, effect on, 302
machine stiffness, effect on, 292
Electrode force, 38, 146, 154–157, 287–290, 327
changes in, 327
equations for, 239, 295, 298
expulsion and, 237–241
machine friction, effect on, 302
machine stiffness, effect on, 290
Electrode geometry
case study of, 360
cracking suppression and, 96
Electrode life, 41–51
Electrode touching behavior, effect of machine stiffness on, 292
Electrothermal processes, 19–60
electrical characteristics and, 20–26
thermal characteristics and, 27–29
Energy consumed by welded specimens, equation for, 134
Environmental effects, fatigue tests and, 127
Equalizing guns, 286
Equations, 369;
see also Algorithms
computer simulation statistical model, 413
contact area, 325, 349
contact electrical conductance, 350
critical specimen width, 120, 122
current, 54, 56, 149, 175
current range, 394–397
cycles to failure, 128
dynamic force analysis, 306
electric potential, 344, 346
electric process, 340
electrode force, 38, 239, 295, 298
energy consumed by welded specimens, 134
estimation error over measured nugget size, 186
expulsion probability, 254, 265
failure mode probability, 118
Faraday’s law, 150
four-node elements, 343
gas bubbles, 76, 77
heat for heating solids or liquids, 34
heat generation, 19, 54, 341
heat transfer, 341, 345
Laplace, 340, 344
latent heat, 342
law of thermal similarity (LOTS), 30
linear effects, 393
liquid nugget, pressures in, 241–250
loading, 128
logistics model, 252, 402
Mallow’s C
p criterion, 379
mass of HAZ, 34
maximum displacement, 419
Index 430 maximum energy, 419
maximum load, 418
model selection (sample equation), 383
multiple regression models, 377
normalization for neural networks, 185
nugget diameter, 388
orthogonal coding system, 404, 410
pneumatic cylinders, 313–316
polynomial terms, 404, 405, 408
power density, 177
quadratic cost function, 185
quadratic effects, 393
regression function, 393
second-order model, 389
sheet stack-up heat input, 37
temperature distributions, 346
tensile-shear strength, 201
thermal expansion, 311
thermal stresses, 93
thickness, 386
undercooling, 358
virtual work, 342
voltage, 149
voltage drop, 350
weight update, 185
weldment temperature, 38
weldment total heat, 34–36
weld quality, 201–203, 204, 207
weld strength, 414, 415
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz law, 350
Estimation error over measured nugget size, equation for, 186
Eutectics, 2
Evaluations of weld quality, 191–226
Experiments
with categorical responses, 401–411
computer simulation, 411–421
with continuous response, 373–400
results of, combining, 385–387
Expulsion, 53, 61, 65, 193, 227–281
detecting, 144, 165–167, 233
predicting/preventing, 235–256
probability of
discussion about, 266–279
equations for, 254, 265
process of, 233
sample study of, 403–411
severity of, 144
welding machine stiffness and, 293
External discontinuities, 61–70
F
Index 431 Factorial designs, 374
Factors, 373
screening, 381
Failure modes, 105, 122
equation for probability of, 118
tensile-shear tests and, 116–118
Faraday’s law, 150
Fatigue strength, 105
Fatigue tests, 124–129
Faults
identifying, 164
preweld, 167–173
FDM (finite difference method), 334–336
FEM, see Finite element method
Fiber-optic displacement sensors, 152–154
Finite difference method (FDM), 334–336
Finite element method (FEM), 119, 120, 334–336, 338
three-dimensional, 339
two-dimensional, 344–346
Finite element simulations, 333–368
examples of, 360–367
methods of, 336–339
Follow-up stage of welding cycle, 311–320
Force-balance model of expulsion, 235, 237–250, 255
examples of using, 256–263
Formulation, FDM/FEM and, 336
Four-node elements, equation for, 343
Friction in welding machines, influence on weld quality, 300–305
G
Gain scheduling, 179, 180
Galvanized coatings, 351
Gas bubbles, 74–78
equations for, 76, 77
Geometry, FDM/FEM and, 335
Geometry comparison model of expulsion, 235, 236, 255
Graphs, 376
H
Half-normal plots, 377
Half-sine current profile, 53–55
HAZs (heat-affected zones)
cracking in, 72
mass of, 34
microstructure evolution in, 354
transformations in, 9
Heat balance, 29–41
modified heat balance theory and, 33–38
Heat for heating solids or liquids, equation for, 34
Heat generation
in electric circuit, 19
Index 432 equations for, 19, 54, 341
in time period, 54
Heat transfer process
equations for, 341, 345
formulating, 341
Hold time, 320–323
Holes, 66
Hot cracking, 14, 16, 82
intergranular characteristics and, 88
I
Impact energy, 106
Impact tester (new), 132–140
Impact tests, 129–140
Indentation, 64
Induction, 370
Inference, 372, 381–390
categorical responses and, 402
computer simulation experiment and, 417–421
expulsion and, 411
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 399–100
Inspections, 191–226
Instrumented tests, 111–141
Insufficiently spaced welds, 62
Interaction plots, 376
Intercritical region, 10
Interfacial fractured welds, 74
Internal discontinuities, 70–73
L
Laplace equation, 340, 344
Latent heat, 342
Latin hypercube method, 415
Law of thermal similarity (LOTS), 30
Linear effects, equation for, 393
Liquation cracking, 14, 15, 82, 83–87
Liquid metal embrittlement (LME), 68
Liquid nuggets
pressures in, 233, 237, 241–250
components of, 242–248
equations for, 241–250
examples of, 256–260
solidification of, 1–4
Liquid pressure, cracking and, 95
LME cracking, 68
Loading, equation for, 128
Loading conditions, fatigue life and, 125
Loading modes, 129
Loading selection, fatigue tests and, 128
Lobe diagrams, 51–59, 174–176
Location-dispersion modeling for variance reduction, 380
Index 433 Logistics model, equations for, 252
Logistics regression model, 402
LOTS (law of thermal similarity), 30
LVDT displacement sensors, 152
M
Main effect plots, 376
Mallow’s C
p criterion, 379
Mass of HAZ, 34
Material properties
fatigue tests and, 126
workpieces and, 327–330
Mechanical characteristics
typical welding machines and, 284–290
of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 283–331
Mechanical properties, microstructure simulations and, 353–359
Mechanical testing, 105–142
instrumented tests and, 111–141
in production environment, 108–111
Melting simulations, 342
Metallographic cross-sectioning examinations, internal discontinuities and, 70
Metallographic tests, 208
Metallurgical effect of cracking, 88–90
Microsegregation, 2
Microstructures
effect of machine friction on, 303
simulating, 353–359
Mislocated welds, 62
Modeling
experiments with categorical responses and, 402
experiments with continuous response and, 376–381
two-stage sliding-level experiments and, 392–394
Model selection
sample equation for, 383
techniques for, 379
Modified heat balance theory, 33–38
Monitoring, see Process monitoring and control
Moving mass of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 287, 305–310
Multiple regression models, 377–380
N
Nondestructive evaluations, 211–224
Normalization for neural networks, equation for, 185
Normal plots, 377
Nucleation, 5
Nugget diameter, 192
equation for, 388
Numerical simulations, 333–368
examples of, 360–367
methods of, 336–339
Index 434 O
Orthogonal arrays (OAs), 374
Overlapped welds, 62
P
Peak load, 105
tensile-shear tests and, 115
Pedestal welders, 286
Peel tests
instrumented, 108, 111
shop-floor, 208
Pendulum impact testers, 129
Phase diagrams, 5
Phase transformations
in resistance spot welding, 4–13
in steels, 6–8
Pinch guns, 286
Pneumatic cylinders, 312–320
equations for, 313–316
Pneumatic pressure fluctuation, 157–159
Porosity, 65, 70, 73
Power density, equation for, 177
Preweld fault condition, determining, 167–173
Process control, 144
Process fault diagnosis, 144
Process monitoring and control, 143–190
objectives of, 143
Production environment, mechanical testing and, 108–111
Pseudodata, using, 406
Q
Quadratic cost function, equation for, 185
Quadratic effects, equation for, 393
Quality control, see Process monitoring and control
R
Recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, 160
Regression function, equation for, 393
Residual analysis, 380
Residual stresses, 126
Resistance Welder Manufacturers’ Association (RWMA), 29
Responses, 373
Response surface exploration, 387
RLS (recursive least squares) algorithm, 160
RMS (root mean square), simulations and, 352
Robust parameter designs, 375
Rocker-type gun, 285
Roller tests, 108, 111
Root mean square (RMS), simulations and, 352
RSW (resistance spot welding), 1
Runs, 373
S
Scatter plots, 377
Second-order designs, 375
Second-order model, equation for, 389
Separation, 64
Shear impact loading tests, 130
Shear impact tests, 129, 130
Shear tests, 111
Sheet stack-up heat input, 37
Shop floor tests, 108–111
Shrinkage, 78
Shunting, 26
cracking suppression and, 98–102
Signal collection, 147–159, 287–290
welding processes and, 161–173
Single arrays, 375
Sinusoidal current profile, 56
Solidification, 1–4, 357
cracking and, 14, 71, 82
shrinkage and, 78
simulations and, 342
Specimens
critical width of, 120–123
fatigue tests and, 127
mechanical testing and, 106–108
width of, cracking suppression and, 96
Spot welds, computer simulation experiment and, 414
Squeeze time, 320–323
Standards organizations
critical specimen widths and, 122
lobe diagrams and, 174
specimen size recommendations and, 107
weld quality and, 191, 194
Static resistance, simulations and, 347
Static tests, 111–123
Statistical design, 369, 374–376
parts of, 370
Statistical modeling, 371
examples of using, 263–279
expulsion and, 235, 250–256
Statistics, 370
Steels, transformations in, 6–8
Steel welds
structures of, 10–13
transformations in HAZs of, 9
Stiffness
damping ratio estimates and, 295–300
of welding machines, influence on weld quality, 290–300
Straight-acting guns, 285
Index 436 Strain rate, 139
Strength
machine stiffness, effect on, 294–300
as relates to weld attributes, 196–207, 222–224
Stress
residual, 126
tensile, 79, 93–95
thermal, 91–95, 93
Stress concentration, 125, 129
Subcritical region, 10
Supercritical region, 10
Suppressing cracking, 96–102
Surface cracking, 67–69
AA5754 alloys and, 81–102
AA6111 alloys and, 79–81
T
Temperature distributions, equations for, 346
Tensile-shear strength
dependence on coupon size, 389
equations for, 201
machine friction, effect on, 304
Tensile-shear tests, 111, 114–123
Tensile stress, 79, 93–95
Tension impact loading tests, 129, 130–132
Tension-shear tests, 111, 114–123
Tension tests, 111, 112–114
Testing, see Mechanical testing
Thermal analysis, formulating, 345
Thermal characteristics, 27–29
Thermal expansion, 311
Thermal similarity, law of (LOTS), 30
Thermal stress
cracking and, 91–95
equations for, 93
Thermomechanical analysis, formulating, 342
Thermomechanical effects of cracking, 90
Thickness, equation for, 386
Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams, 5, 7, 353
Tip voltage, see Electric voltage
Torsional shear tests, 141
Torsion tests, 140
Total resistance, 24–26
Transformations, in HAZs of steel welds, 9
Treatment comparisons, 382
TTT diagrams, see Time-temperature transformation diagrams
Twist tests, 140
Two-stage sliding-level experiments, 390–400
U
Ultrasonic A-scans, 211
Index 437 Ultrasonic B-scans, 212–218
identifying cold welds and, 218–222
weld attributes as relates to strength and, 222
Ultrasonic imaging, internal discontinuities and, 70
Undercooling, equation for, 358
U-tension tests, 112
V
Variance reduction, 380, 388–390
Voids, 70, 73–79
Voltage drop, equation for, 350
W
Washer clamping, cracking suppression and, 98
Weight update, 185
Weld attributes, dependency on welding parameters, 387
Weld diameter, 106
Weld discontinuities, see discontinuities
Weld formation, effect of machine stiffness on, 293
Welding abnormalities, identifying influential factors in, 381
Welding machines
friction in, influence on weld quality, 300–305
mechanical characteristics of, influence on weld quality, 283–331
moving mass of, influence on weld quality, 287, 305–310
stiffness in, influence on weld quality, 290–300
Welding metallurgy, 1–17
Welding processes, signal collection and, 161–173
Welding schedules
comparing, 382–384
developing, 29, 36
predicting, 39–41
Welding sequences, cracking suppression and, 97
Welding tests, comparing, 382–384
Weld lobe diagrams, 392
Weldment temperature, 38
Weldment total heat, 34–36
Weld nugget width, 106
Weld performance, 193
Weld quality, 191–226
attributes of, 191–194
computer simulation experiment and, 414
equations for, 201–203, 204, 207
expulsion, influence on, 228–233
requirements of, 194–196
weld attributes as relates to strength, 196–207, 222–224
welding machine mechanical characteristics, influence on, 283–331
Weld size, 143, 194
Whiskers, 65, 67
Wiedemann-Franz-Lorentz law, 350
Workpiece stack-up time, 323–327
Index 438 X
X-ray imaging, internal discontinuities and, 70
Z
Zinc coatings, 351


 كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Eng.Starnight715
مهندس فعال جدا
مهندس فعال جدا


عدد المساهمات : 394
تاريخ التسجيل : 07/10/2012

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 12 أكتوبر 2012, 10:06 pm

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 939360

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 16792
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 12 أكتوبر 2012, 11:14 pm

جزاك الله خيراً
لكن أتمنى وضع الكتاب على رابط أخر لانه لا يحمل عندى من هذا السيرفر

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين


عدد المساهمات : 2041
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 13 أكتوبر 2012, 10:17 am

تم تعديل الرابط

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 16792
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 13 أكتوبر 2012, 10:41 am

@rambomenaa كتب:
تم تعديل الرابط


جزاك الله خيراً وبارك الله فيك وجعله فى ميزان حسناتك

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 16792
التقييم : 29430
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 02 نوفمبر 2013, 1:50 am

تم إضافة رابط جديد

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ماهر88
مهندس فعال
مهندس فعال
ماهر88

عدد المساهمات : 160
التقييم : 165
تاريخ التسجيل : 18/02/2013
العمر : 43
الدولة : العراق
العمل : تدريسي
الجامعة : البصره

كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications    كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 23 نوفمبر 2013, 11:37 pm

شكرا مع كل التقدير وجزاك الله خير

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب Resistance Welding - Fundamentals and Applications
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 3 من اصل 2انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
انتقل الى: