كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
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إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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-Warning-

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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
rambomenaa
كبير مهندسين
كبير مهندسين
rambomenaa

عدد المساهمات : 2041
التقييم : 3379
تاريخ التسجيل : 21/01/2012
العمر : 43
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير الصيانة بشركة تصنيع ورق
الجامعة : حلوان

كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines    كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines  Emptyالأربعاء 10 أكتوبر 2012, 4:15 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines
Fourth Edition
Paul Dempsey  

كتاب Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines  T_s_a_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword xi
1 Rudolf Diesel 1
2 Diesel basics 9
Compression ratio 9
Induction 12
Ignition and combustion 13
Two- and four-stroke-cycle 15
Power and torque 18
Fuel efficiency 18
Weight 19
Durability 19
Conventional fuels 20
3 Engine installation 23
Trucks and other motor vehicles 23
Stationary engines 26
Marine engines 30
4 Basic troubleshooting 39
Malfunctions 40
Tests 42
Air inlet system 50
Glow plugs 53
Exhaust backpressure 54
Engine mechanical 54
For more information about this title, click here5 Mechanical fuel systems 61
Air blast 61
Early common-rail 61
Jerk pump system 62
Inline pumps 63
Distributor pumps 67
Delivery valves 74
Injectors 76
Timers 79
Diaphragm controls 81
Centrifugal governors 81
Pneumatic governors 85
Unit injection 87
Low-pressure system 90
Fuel filters and water separators 92
6 Electronic management systems 95
Background 95
Analog versus digital 100
Bosch CAN bus 101
On-board computer 102
Tools 107
Troubleshooting 108
Caterpillar EMS 111
Ford (International) 7.3L DI power stroke 124
Detroit Diesel 129
7 Cylinder heads and valves 139
Combustion chamber types 140
Valve configuration 144
Before you begin 147
8 Engine mechanics 177
Scope of work 177
Diagnosis 179
Rigging 179
Special considerations 181
Cleaning 188
Teardown 189
Lubrication system 189
Filters 195
Block casting 204
Pistons 217
Connecting rods 226
viii ContentsCrankshafts 233
Camshafts and related parts 237
Harmonic balancers 239
Crankshaft bearings 239
Assembly—major components 241
9 Air systems 255
Air cleaners 255
Construction 255
Turbochargers 258
Applications 261
Construction 262
Variable geometry turbine 271
10 Electrical fundamentals 273
Electrons 273
Circuits 274
Electrical measurements 277
Ohm’s law 278
Direct and alternating current 280
Magnetism 283
Electromagnets 284
Voltage sources 285
Generator principles 285
dc motors 289
Storage batteries 292
Switches 294
Solid-state components 299
11 Starting and generating systems 301
Starting aids 302
Wiring 303
Starter circuits 304
Solenoids 318
Starter drives 321
Charging systems 322
Voltage regulation 331
Solid-state regulators 332
Batteries 332
12 Cooling systems 339
Air cooling 339
Liquid cooling 341
Contents ix13 Greener diesels 359
Brazil 359
U.S. and Europe 361
DIY FAME 363
Straight vegetable oil 363
Dual-fuel engines 365
Conventional fuel 366
Index 373
Index
1-D fuel grades, 20–21
2-D fuel grades, 20–21
7.3L DI Power Stroke engines, 124–129
120-grit BRM Flex-Hone, 242
3406E Cat engine management systems, 111
A
AC lift pump, 79
active trouble codes, 123
actuators, 39, 52, 104–105, 106, 110, 113
Adem 2000, 101
adiabatic expansion, 3
adjustment screws, 49–50, 151
afterburn periods, 12, 13
aftercoolers, 119, 255–256, 264–265, 341, 353
aftercoolers, turbocharger, 264–265
A-hr (ampere-hour) capacity, 333
air
blast, 61
charge temperature, 109
compression, 3, 12
cooling, 339–340
effects on injector pumps, 47
filters, 50–52, 55–56, 111, 120, 125,
134, 255–256, 257
flow, 339–340, 346
in fuel circuit, Power Stroke engines, 128
inlet system, 40, 50–53, 265
intrusion, 109
leaks, 47–48
in lube oil, Power Stroke engines,
127–128
pumps, 13
resistance, 24
systems, 255–272. See also turbochargers
air cleaners, 255
construction, 255–259
overview, 255
trips, 13
air blast injection, 61
air-cooled turbochargers, 262–263
aircraft, turbocharging, 260
air/fuel ratio controllers, 27
Alfa Romeo, 96
alignment
marine engine-mount, 30–32, 34–36
stationary engine, 27–32
alloy pistons, 218
alternating current, 280–283
alternating current generators, 286–287
alternators, 286–288, 324–327
altitude, effect on hp compensator, 23, 49
aluminum heads, 139, 164–165, 170–171
aluminum-based bearings, 239
American Bosch, 64
American Lung Association, 367
American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity,
21
American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM), 20–21
ammonia dosing, 368–369
amperage constant, 278–280
amperage drops, JIS AV wires, 307
ampere-hour (A-hr) capacity, 333
amperes, 277–278
analog electronic management systems,
99, 100–101
angles, valve seat, 167–168
angular misalignment, 28, 30–31
antifreeze, 344, 361
API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity,
21
armature, starter, 313–317
aromatic content,
assembly, 241–253
balancing, 249–251
cylinder, 174–175
glaze breaking, 242–243
laying crank, 243–245
oil seals, 251–253
overview, 241–242
piston and rod installation, 245–248
plastic gauge wire, 248–249
asthma, 367
ASTM (American Society for Testing
Materials), 20–21
atmospheric pressure sensors, 113
atoms, 273–274
Audi V-6, 95
Austin, 5
automobile engines, 5, 23–25
B
B2 fuel, 361–363
backpressure, exhaust, 54
balance shaft configurations, 184–185
balancing, engine, 249–251
batteries, 332–338
charging, 336
in charging systems, 322
hookups, 337–338
maintenance, 335
overview, 332
ratings, 333
storage, 292–294
tests, 333–335
bearing tool, camshafts, 237–238
bearings
boss diameter, 252
crankshaft, 239–241
crush, 239–240
failure of, 240–241
play measurements, 268
starter, 317–318
testing, 353
wear on, 229–230
belts
drives, 184
Gilmer, 154
grinders, 161
tension of, 353
toothed, 184
bench test, charging systems, 324–330
bending moments, 25
Benz, 96
bimetallic switch operation, 296
biodiesel, 361, 362–367
blanchard grinders, 161–162
bleed ports, 356
bleeding, 44–45, 71
injector pump fuel system, 44–45, 66
blind runs, crankshaft oiling circuit, 234
block casting, 204–216
boring, 207–211
deck flatness, 204
Detroit diesel reboring, 211–212
honing, 212–213
liner height, 206–207
overview, 204
piston height, 205
piston rings, 213–214
ring wear, 214–216
bmep, 14
BMW, 95, 257
boiling point, water, 352
bolts, 27–28, 32, 155–156, 187
boost pressure, 121–122, 266
bore integrity test, 224, 226
bore runout, 28–31
bores, 207–211, 213, 242
Bosch
aftertreatment systems, 370
CAN bus, 101–102
c-r systems, 95
first inline pump, 62–66, 78,
95, 96–98, 99, 100, 103, 106,
131, 359
pump barrels, 64
Series PE pumps, 63–64
-type centrifugal governors, 84
VE distributor pumps, 68–71
VGT, 271–272
Bosch, Robert, 4, 5
brackets, lift, 179
brake mean effective pressure, 18
Brazil, 359–361
breakout boxes, 122
breathers, 204, 267–268
brush holder insulation, testing of, 313
brush hones, 242
brushes
alternator, 325, 328
starter, 312–313
Busch, Adolphus, 4
bushings, 151, 317–318
C
C-10 Caterpillar engines, 112, 114
C-12 Caterpillar engines, 112, 114
C-15 Caterpillar engines, 112
cable sizes, 337
camshaft position sensors, 48–49, 55, 102,
103, 111, 126, 128–129
camshaft-driven gear-type pumps, 199–200
374 Indexcamshafts
lubrication of, 191
mechanics, 237–238
overhead, 154–155
overhead valves, 144
position sensors, 113
cancer, lung, 367
CANs (controller area networks),
100, 101–102
cap screws, torque limits, 187–188
capacitors, 298–299
capacity test, battery, 334–335
caps, relation to connecting rods, 227
CARB (California Air Resources Board),
369–370
carbon monoxide (CO2), 366
carbonization, 364
Carnot cycles, 2–3
Carnot, N.L.S, 2
cast match marks, 228
casting, head, 159–160
catalytic converter, 53, 57
Caterpillar, 16, 17, 28, 95, 99, 101, 106–107,
111, 112–121, 122, 128, 139, 341, 350,
368. See also hydraulic/electronic unit
injector (HEUI)
3126B truck engines, 118–119
3176 truck engine, 19
electronic management system, 111–123
electronic unit injector, 113–117
overview, 111–113
industrial engine ratings, 26
stationary engine mounts, 27–28
-supplied height gauges, 115
CAV, 64
CA-45C starters, 312
distributor pumps, 67–68
governors, 84
injectors, 77
pump, metering action in, 65–66
starters, 313–314
cavitation erosion, 346–347, 349
cells, battery, 292, 294–295
central processing units (CPUs), 102
centrifugal governors, 73–75, 81–84
cetane number (CN), 19, 20, 21, 43
charge, battery, 334–336
charging distributors, 338
charging systems, 322–330
bench testing, 324–330
initial tests, 323–324
overview, 322
chatter, injector, 79
chemical cleaners, 158
chrome compression rings, 214
Chrysler-Nissan lift pump, 78
CI (compression ignition) engines, 9, 12,
14–15, 18
circuit protective devices, 297–298
circuits. See also starter circuits
coolant, 345
crankshaft oiling, 234
Detroit Diesel fueling, 88
electrical, 274–277
fuel, air in, Power Stroke engines, 128
fuel-return, 43
ground circuit tests, 310–311
high-pressure, 43, 48–50, 116–117
low-pressure, 43, 45–48, 116
shorted, 280, 300
cleaners, radiator, 348
cleaning
cooling systems, 347–349
cylinder heads and valves, 157–159
engine, 188–189
clearance
insufficient, 216
piston-to-bore, 226
volume, 9
clogged filters, 195–196
clogged oil, 191
clone engines, 20
clutch, overrunning, 321–322
CN (cetane number), 21
CO
2 (carbon monoxide), 366
CO
2 emissions, 366
codes. See also trouble codes
active trouble, 123
DDEC flash and PID, 134–136
fault, 107
ring orientation, 221
coking, 364
cold cranking performance rating, 333
cold, effect on engine starts, 301
cold starts, 13
color change in shaft, 237
color coding, wiring, 304–305
colors, exhaust, 40–41
combustion, 13–14
combustion chambers, 140–144
common-rail systems, 61–62, 95–96
early, 61–62
modern, 95–96
commutators, 288, 314–315
compass deflections, 284
compression
adiabatic, 3
air, 3, 12
engines, 3–6
gauges, 55–56
Index 375compression Continued
leak sites for, 58
loss of, 55, 56–59
ratio, 9–12
rings, 214
tests, 148
in two- and four-cycle engines, 15–16
compression ignition (CI) engines, 9, 12,
14–15, 18
compressors, 12, 268
computers, electronic management system,
102–106
condensors, 298–299
conductors, 274
connecting rods, 226–233
construction, 226–228
overview, 226–233
service of, 228–233
constant pressure engines, 3, 13–14
constant pressure expansion, 12–13
constant volume expansion, 12
constant-current charging, 336
constant-voltage charges, 336
constant-volume engines, 3, 13–14
construction
connecting rod, 226–228
crankshaft, 233
pistons, 217–219
turbocharger, 262–271
aftercoolers, 264–265
inspection, 268–269
maintenance, 265–268
overhaul, 269–271
overview, 262–271
wastegate, 262–264
continuity checks, armatures, 316
controller area networks (CANs), 101–102
conventional fuel, 20–21, 366–371
cooking oil, 363
coolant, 51, 53–55, 139, 340, 341–347,
348, 349, 351–353, 360
circuits, 345
engine overheating, 346
flow, 339–342
leaks, 55, 347
in liquid cooling systems, 343–345
temperature sensors, 113
coolers, EGR, 138
cooling, oil, 191, 194
cooling systems, 339–358
air cooling, 139, 145, 255–256, 339–340
failure of, 167
liquid cooling, 145, 341–358
accessories, 357–358
cavitation erosion, 349
cleaning, 347–349
coolant, 343–345
fans, 352–354
hoses, 357
overcooling, 349–350
overheating, 346–347
overview, 341–343
pressure caps, 351–352
radiators, 350–351
thermostats, 354–355
water pumps, 355–357
overview, 139, 339
cooling-water injection points, 37
copper-lead bearings, 239
corrosion, 347
counterbore misalignment, 211
CPUs (central processing units), 101–102
cracks
crankshaft, 235
cylinder, 161–164
crank, laying, 243–245
crankcase
oil, 13, 117
pressure testers, 58–59
-scavenged engines, 17
ventilation, 203–204, 265–268
cranking malfunctions, 40–41
cranking-power tests, 333
crankshafts
balancing, 184–186
bearings, 239–241
loads, 235
mechanics, 233–237
oiling circuits, 234
position sensors, 113
revolutions and engine cycles, 15–17
straightness, 235
viscosity bounds, 40
crimp-on terminal lugs, 307–308
cross-flow scavenging, 16–17
crosshatch pattern, honing, 212–213, 242
crosshead pistons, 219–220
cruising speed, 23
crush height, 239–240
Cummings ISB engine, 19–20
Cummins ISB common-rail locomotive kit,
16, 17, 96
current intensity, 278
cylinders, 139–175
bore gauges, 208–209
bore liners, 206–207
combustion chamber types, 140–144
compression gauges, 56, 147
finishes, 216
heads
376 Indexcastings, 148
holding fixtures, 156–157
torque sequences, 174
leak-down tests, 57, 148
liner removal tools, 210–211
liners, 349
loss of compression, 40
misfiring, 109
overview, 139
repairs, 147–175
assembly, 174–175
cleaning, 157–159
crack detection, 161–163
crack repairs, 163–164
diagnosis, 147–149
disassembly, 149–150
head bolts, 155–156
head casting, 159–160
head resurfacing, 160–161
lifting, 156
overhead camshafts, 154–155
overview, 147
pressure testing, 164
pushrods, 152
rocker assemblies, 150–152
seat replacement, 169–170
springs, 170–172
straightening, 164–165
top clearance, 172–174
valve guides, 165–167
valve lifters, 152–154
valve service, 167–169
valves, 156–157
temperatures, 167
valve configuration, 144–147
wear, 207–209
D
Daimler, 62
DDEC. See Detroit Diesel Electronic
Control (DDEC)
decking, 204
deductive approach to invention, 3
Deere 6076 block assembly, 178
Deere 6076H, 105
degreasing, 158
delay periods, 13
Delcotron shorting tabs, 324
delivery valves, 70–71, 74–76
Delphi, 98
Delta-P sensors, 138
density, fuel, 21
depth gauges, 169
depth micrometers, 169
detonation, 10, 12–13, 219–220
Detroit Diesel
air-operated VGT actuators, 272
articulated piston, 219–220
dual valve actuating mechanism, 150
EMS, 14, 95, 99, 101, 130–134, 342, 346
engine gear trains, 183
fueling circuits, 88
liner arrangements, 211–212
reboring, 211–212
rod assembly, 229
Series 60 valves, 150
slipper-type connecting rods, 227
turbochargers, 53
two-cycle engines, 15–16
unit injectors, 89
two-cycle, 45, 77–78
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control (DDEC),
129–138
electronic unit injectors, 129–132
flash and PID codes, 134–136
no start, 132–133
overview, 129
VGT and EGR, 133, 136–138
Deutz, 139
DI (direct injection), 62, 71, 121, 140–141, 143
DI (direct injection) chambers, 140–141
diagnostic trouble codes (DTC), 49–50,
105–106, 110, 112, 118, 119–120,
125–127, 130, 133
caterpillar HEUI, 123
DDEC flash, 134–136
DDEC PID, 134–136
diagnosis of EMS engines, 39
ECM diagnostic capability, 107
dial indicators
adapters, 72–73
engine-mount alignment, 27–29
piston deck height, 172–174
shaft play, 268–269
trueness of crankshaft, 235
diaphragm controls, 73, 81
diaphragm switches, 296–297
diaphragm-controlled wastegates, 263–264
diaphragm-type lift pumps, 90, 92
Die Enstehung des Dieselmotors, 6
dielectric, 298
diesel detonation, 13
diesel engines, 9–21
compression ratio, 9–12
conventional fuels, 20–21
durability, 19–20
fuel efficiency, 18–19
ignition and combustion, 13–14
induction, 12–13
overview, 9
Index 377diesel engines Continued
power and torque, 18
two- and four-stroke-cycle, 15–18
weight, 19
diesel fuel. See fuel
diesel particulate filter (DPF), 371
Diesel, Rudolf, 1–7, 13–14, 363
constant-pressure engine, 13
digital electronic management systems,
100–101
digital voltage, 99–100
diodes, 299–300, 325–327, 329–330
direct current
generators, 288–289
motors, 289–292
overview, 280–283
direct injection (DI) chambers, 140–141
dirty threads, 160
disassembly, cylinder, 149–150
distributor pumps, 62–63, 67–74
Bosch VE, 68–71
description, 65–66
injector pump service, 71–74
jerk pump systems, 63
Lucas/CAV, 65, 67–68
overview, 67
distributors, charging, 338
distributor-type systems, 69
DIY fuel, 363
doping, semiconductors, 299
downflow radiators, 349
DPF (diesel particulate filter), 371
drawdown ratings, 350–351
dribble test, 82
“Drive-by-wire” throttle controls, 106
driveline alignment, 28–30
driveline configurations, marine engine, 33
driveline efficiency, 24
driveline efficiency formula, 2
driveline loss formula, 2
drives, starter, 321–322
dry liners, 206, 210
dual-fuel engines, 365–366, 368
durability, engine, 19–20
duty cycle, 26
dyes, penetrant, 163
dynamic timing, 73
Dynastart systems, 290–291
E
earthing, electrical, 276–277
ECMs (electronic control modules),
100–101, 102–106
Adem 2000, 101
Motorola, 101
ECUs (engine control units), 102–106, 134
Edison, Thomas A., 3
effective value, 282
efficiency, diesel engine, 5–6
EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), 52, 110,
133, 136–138
Elastomer tubing couplings, 258
electrical, 273–300
circuits, 274–277
DC motors, 289–292
direct and alternating current, 280–283
electrical measurements, 277–278
electromagnets, 284–285
electrons, 273–274
generator principles, 285–289
magnetism, 283–284
Ohm’s law, 278–280
overview, 273
solid-state components, 299–300
storage batteries, 292–294
switches, 294–299
voltage sources, 285
electricity, solenoids, 97
electrolysis, 277, 347
electromagnets, 284–285
electronic control modules (ECMs), 102–106
electronic engine management systems
(EMS), 39–40
electronic injectors, 141
electronic management systems, 95–138.
See also hydraulic/electronic unit injector (HEUI)
analog versus digital, 100–101
Bosch CAN bus, 101–102
Caterpillar, 111–123
electronic unit injector, 113–117
overview, 111–113
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control,
129–138
electronic unit injectors, 129–132
flash and PID codes, 134–136
no start, 132–133
overview, 129
VGT and EGR, 133, 136–138
history, 95–100
on-board computer, 102–106
overview, 95
Power Stroke engines, 124–129
tools, 107–108
troubleshooting, 108–110
electronic unit injectors (EUIs), 113–117,
129–132
electrons, 273–275
Eliminator, Extreme Biodiesel, 363
Elsbett, Ludvid, 364, 367
378 Indexemissions, exhaust, 366–367
EMS (electronic engine management
systems), 39–40, 48–54, 95, 111, 257
end clearance, 200
energy cell (Lanova), 143
energy cell, IDI chambers, 143–144
engine control units (ECUs), 102–106
engine malfunctions, 54–59
engine mechanics, 177–253
assembly of major components, 241–253
balancing, 249–251
glaze breaking, 242–243
laying crank, 243–245
oil seals, 251–253
overview, 241–242
piston and rod installation, 245–248
plastic gauge wire, 248–249
block casting, 204–216
boring, 207–211
deck flatness, 204
Detroit Diesel reboring, 211–212
honing, 212–213
liner height, 206–207
overview, 204
piston height, 205
piston rings, 213–214
camshafts and related parts, 237–238
cleaning, 188–189
connecting rods, 226–233
construction, 226–228
overview, 226–233
servicing, 228–233
crankshaft bearings, 239–241
crankshafts, 233–237
diagnosis, 179
fasteners, 186–188
filters, 195–204
crankcase ventilation, 203–204
lube oil, 197
oil pressure monitoring devices,
202–203
oil pumps, 198–202
overview, 195–197
harmonic balancers, 239
lubrication system, 189–194
overview, 177–179
pistons, 217–226
construction, 217–219
failure modes, 219–221
overview, 217
servicing, 221–226
rigging, 179–181
special considerations, 181–188
teardown, 189
engine ratings, 26
engine stands, 181
engine-mounting jigs, 34, 36
engine-room layout, marine engines, 33
engine-speed sensors, 104–105
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
131, 369–372
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
emissions standards, 20–21
ERG (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), 50–51,
54, 99, 102, 104, 111, 130–131, 133–134
erratic idle, Power Stroke engines, 127
ethylene glycol, 345, 361
EUIs (electronic unit injectors), 113–117,
129–132
EURO emission standards, 98, 368, 370–371
Eutectic alloys, pistons, 218
exhaust
backpressure, 53, 54, 105
emissions, 368
EPA emissions standards, 367
EURO emissions regulations, 366
leaks, 347
restrictions, 40, 110, 346
smoke, 40, 48–55, 63, 104
smoke color and diagnosis of
malfunctions, 41–42
systems, 35–37, 268
in two- and four-cycle engines, 15–16
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), 52, 110,
133, 136–138
expansion
adiabatic, 3
tanks, 343
in two- and four-cycle engines, 15–16
external regulators, 331–332
Extreme Biodiesel, 363
eyebolts, 179–181
F
face runout, 28, 30–31
failure modes, piston, 219–221
FAME (fatty acid methyl ester), 361,
362–367
fan belt, 56, 349–350
fans, 56, 349–351, 352–354
Faraday, Michael, 285
fasteners, 152, 186–188
fatigue crack patterns, crankshaft, 236
fatigue failure, 167
fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), 361
fault codes, 107
feeler gauges, 199, 245
Fiat, 95
Fichtel & Sachs, 14
field coils, 317
Index 379fillet profiles, 236
filters, 195–204
air, 50–52, 257
changes in, 197
clogging of, 267
crankcase ventilation, 203–204
fuel, 92–93
locations, 46
lube oil, 197
oil pressure monitoring devices, 202–203
oil pumps, 198–202
overview, 195–197
restrictions, 50–51
fins, 351
firing speed, 301
fixed-speed fans, 353
flash codes, Detroit Diesel Electronic
Control, 134–136
flash memory, 101, 103
flash point, fuel, 20–21
flaw testing, crankshaft, 235–236
floating bushings, 262
flow restriction tests, 45
flux, magnetism, 283
Ford 2.3L engines
filters, 195–196
lubrication system, 191, 192–193
pistons, 217–218
toothed belts, 184
turbochargers, 154, 263–264
Ford 7.3L DI Power Stroke engines,
95, 111, 115–117, 121–130
forged pistons, 218–219
forward biasing, 300
four-cycle operating principle, 13–14
four-pole alternators, 286, 288
four-stroke-cycle engines, 15–18
frequency, alternator, 288
front mounts, 24
fuel
contamination, 109
conventional, 20–21
detonation, 12–13
efficiency, 15–16, 18–19, 260
experimentation with, 3
filters, 79–80, 92–93, 109
galleries, 130–131
grades, 20–21
greener diesel, 359–371
Brazil, 359–361
conventional fuel, 366–371
DIY, 363
dual-fuel engines, 365–366
straight vegetable oil, 363–365
U.S. and Europe, 361–363
heaters, 302
leaks, 48, 54, 109
malfunctions, 40
metering, 3
petroleum-based, 18–20
leaks into crankcase, 53
shutoff valve, 66
testing, 42
pipe adapters, 72
pressure, 116, 121, 126
quality, 42
shutoff valve, 109
specific gravity, 109
system tests, 42–44
high-pressure (mech.), 47–50
low-pressure, 45–47
systems, 110, 362
bleeding, 44–45
mechanical, 43
temperature, 109, 113
fuel-return circuits, 43
full-floating piston pins, Yanmar, 225
full-flow filtration, 195
furnaces, cleaning, 158–159
fusible links, 297–298
G
gas flows, 53
gaskets, 149, 157
gauge wire, plastic, 248–249
gauges
Caterpillar-supplied height, 115
cylinder bore, 208–209
cylinder compression, 56, 148
depth, 169
failure of, 202
feeler, 199
go-nogo, 222–223
installments, flow restriction tests, 46
split ball, 165–166
verification of oil pressure with, 55
gear teeth, 104–105
gear trains, 183
gear-type pumps, 199–200
General Motors, 51, 56, 101, 106, 139
generators, electrical, 285–289
germanium, 299
Gerotor pumps, 198
Gilmer belts, 154
glaze breaking, 242–243
global warming, 362
glow-plugs, 40, 52, 53–54, 124, 126, 302–303
power stroke, 126
relay, 52
glycerin, 362
380 IndexGM 350 engines, 155
GM Bedford valves, 146
go-nogo gauge, 222–223
governors
adjustments, 50
Bosch-type, 84
CAV, 84
centrifugal, 81–84
“drive-by-wire”, 106–107
malfunctions, 83
pneumatic, 85–87
seals, 110
speed-limiting, 82
gradeability, 2, 24
gravity
API, 20
specific, 43
grinding
crankshaft, 236–237
valve face angles, 167
groove wear measurements, 222–223, 224
ground circuit tests, 309–310
grounded fields, 317
grounding, electrical, 276–277
group numbers, battery, 333
growlers, 316
H
Hall-effect sensors, 104
harmonic balancers, 239
harness connectors, 108
hazardous waste, 158–159
HC (hydrocarbons), 366
head bolts, 155–156
heads
aluminum, 139, 164–165, 170–171
casting, 148, 159
resurfacing, 160–161
thickness specifications, 161
warp, 159–160
heat
balance chart, 261
dams, 217
engines, 2–4
exchangers, 264–265
transfer, 357–358
heaters, cold start, 302
Heins Balancing Systems, 270–271
HEUI. See hydraulic/electronic unit injector
high parasitic loads, 40
high-pressure circuits, 43, 48–50,
116–117
Hino Rising Ranger truck, 95
hold-down bolt torque limits, 32
Honda 2.2-L i-CTDi, 370
honing, 212–213
hookups, battery, 337–338
Hornsby-Ackroyd low-compression oil
engine, 95
horsepower, 23
formula, 15
requirements for stationary engines, 26
requirements for trucks, 23–24
horsepower screws, 263
hoses, 357
hot bulbs, 141–144
hydraulic lifters, 238
hydraulic/electronic unit injector (HEUI),
45, 53–54, 115–123
boost pressure, 121–122
fuel pressure, 121
hydraulics, 119–121
overview, 117
servicing, 117–119
throttle position sensor, 122–123
trouble codes, 123
hydrocarbons (HC), 366
hydrogenation, 371
hydrometers, 333–334
Hyundai, 95
I
IAPCV (injector actuation pressure control
valve), 117, 120–121
IDI (indirect injection) chambers, 52, 62,
71, 141–144
idle, erratic, Power Stroke engines, 127
idle speed adjustment screws, 49, 50
IDMs (injector drive modules), 128
ignition, 13–14
ignition lag, 12–13
ignition quality, fuel, 21
inch cap screw torque values, 187
indicator lamps, relay-tripped charging, 297
indirect injection (IDI) chambers, 141–144
induction, 12–13
inductive approach to invention, 3
industrial engine ratings, 26
injection, 10–13, 61–62
injection pressures, 12
injection pumps, 47–48, 71–74
injector actuation pressure control valve
(IAPCV), 117, 120–121
injector drive modules (IDMs), 128
injector pump, 5, 62, 63, 64
bleeding, 66
Bosch, 62–63
failure, 49–50
inline, 63–64
leaks, 48
Index 381injector pump Continued
Lucas/CAV, 65
NOP, 72, 77
Roosa Master, 53
service, 66–69
timing, 66–68
injector-oil pressure, 126
injector-pump timing, 109
injectors, 10, 12, 14, 141
alternative fuels, 360, 367–368
failure, 48–49
in fuel systems, 76–79
leaks, 48–49
operation, 71–73
piezo, 99
servicing, 72–73, 117
solenoid-actuated, 97–98
unit, 112–123
injector-spring replacement, 137
inlet manifold air temperature sensors,
113
inline pumps, 62–66, 74
insert-type bearings, 239
inspection, turbocharger, 268–269
installation, 23–37
marine engine, 30, 34–37
overview, 23
piston and rod, 245–248
stationary engine, 26–32
alignment, 27–32
power requirements, 26–27
thermal expansion, 27
trucks and motor vehicle engine, 23–25
installed valve height, 169–170
insulation, armature shaft, 315
insulators, 274
intake, 15–16
internal-pressure test ports, 50
International 7.3L DI Power Stroke engines,
124–129
International T444E, DT 466E, 1530E,
T444E, VT 365, 115, 121
iron heads, 139
iron, permeability of, 283–284
Ishikawajima-Harima turbochargers,
262–263
Isuzu 2.2 liter, 51
Itoh, Shokei, 95
J
Jabsco raw-water pumps, 356–357
jerk pump systems, 62–63
jigs, engine-mounting, 34, 36
journal measurement points, 229, 230
Junkers Motorenwerke AG, 366
K
keel coolers, 344
L
lag, ignition, 13
lamps, charging, 323
Land Rover, 5
Lanova divided chambers, 143–144
laying crank, 243–245
lead plates, batteries, 292, 294
lead-acid batteries, 292–293
leak-down tests, cylinders, 57, 148
leaks
air, 47–48
coolant, 55, 347
exhaust, 347
fuel, 48, 54, 109
leak sites for compression, 58
oil, 54–55, 195, 349
in radiator, 351
lever-type valve spring compressors, 157
lift brackets, 179
lift pumps, 62, 78–79, 90–93
AC, 79
Chrysler-Nissan, 78
lifter plungers, 170
lifting, cylinder head, 156–157
lifting tackle, 179
lift-pump output measurements, 47
Linde, Carl von, 1
linear motors, 318–319
liners
arrangements, Detroit Diesel, 211–212
eccentricity, 212
height, 206–207
protrusion measurements, 207
lines of force, magnetism, 283
liquid cooling, 341–358
accessories, 357–358
cavitation erosion, 349
cleaning, 347–349
coolant, 343–345
fans, 352–354
hoses, 357
overcooling, 349–350
overheating, 346–347
pressure caps, 351–352
radiators, 350–351
thermostats, 354–355
water pumps, 355–357
loads
circuits, 275
load factors, 26–27
parasitic, 110
lobes, camshaft, 237–238
382 Indexlocating tabs, crankshaft installment, 243–244
locomotive engines, 5
Loctite 515, 47
loop scavenging, 16–17
L’Orange GmbH, 96
low-pressure circuits, 43, 45–48, 116
low-pressure systems, 90–92
lube oil, 127–128, 197
lube oil heaters, 302
lubrication
failure, 216
honing, 242
insufficient, 174
piston rings, 213–214
rollers, 154
systems, 189–194, 265
Lucas
10-AC and 11-AC alternators, 326
CAV distributor pumps, 67–68
operation, 65, 67–68
charging lamp relay, 323
Lugger marine engine, 16
lugs, 307–308
Lula de Silva, Luis Inácio, 360
lung cancer, 367
M
MAF (mass air flow) sensors, 104–105
Magnaflux, 163
Magneti Marelli Power Trains computer,
95, 101, 359
magnetic fields, 283, 285
magnetic whirl, 289
magnetism, 283–284
maintenance, 265–268, 335
malfunctions, 40–42, 54–59
MAN, 62
manifold pressure, turbochargers, 271
manometers, 51
marine drives
angle drive, 31
parallel drive, 31
V-drive, 31
marine engines
exhaust systems, 35–37
mounts, 34–35
overview, 5, 30
Marx, Karl, 6
mass air flow (MAF) sensors, 104–105
match-weighing piston assemblies, 249–250
match-weighing rods, 250–251
maximum speed adjustment screws, 49, 50
measurements
bearing play, 268
electrical, 277–278
points, cam lobe, 237–238
points, crankshaft, 234
mechanical damage during assembly,
174–175
mechanical fuel systems, 61–93
air blast, 61
centrifugal governors, 81–84
common-rail, 61–62
delivery valves, 74–76
diaphragm controls, 81
distributor pumps, 67–74
Bosch VE, 68–71
injection pump service, 71–74
Lucas/CAV, 67–68
overview, 67
fuel filters and water separators, 92–93
injectors, 76–79
inline pumps, 63–66
jerk pump, 62–63
low-pressure systems, 90–92
overview, 61
pneumatic governors, 85–87
timers, 79–81
unit injection, 87–90
mechanics. See engine mechanics
memory, on-board computer, 103
Mercedes-Benz, 17–18
common-rail fuel system, 96
first diesel passenger car, 5
IDI, 139
metering, fuel, 3
metering valves, starting fluid, 303–304
methanol, 362
metric cap screw torque values, 188
mica, 315
milling, 160–161
misalignment
angular, 29–30
parallel, 29–30
misalignment, mount, 28–31
misfiring, 40–41, 109
Miyaki, Mashiko, 95
molybdenum, 214
monitoring devices, air filter, 257
motor effect, 290–291
motor mounts, 23–25
motor vehicle engines, 5, 23–25
motors, starter, 310–312
mounting bolts, 27
mounts, 23–25, 34–35
mufflers, 37
multi-hole nozzles, 76, 79, 81
mushroom valves, 146
MZ centrifugal governors, 75–77,
85–87
Index 383N
natural gas, 365–366
naturally aspirated engines, 27
Navistar DT358, 67
needles, spring-loaded, 76, 96–97
neutrons, 273–274
Nippon Denso, 95, 111, 359
nitrogen oxides (NOx), 366–371
No. 1-D fuel grades, 20–21
No. 2-D fuel grades, 20–21
noise, causes of, 267
no-load starter tests, 318
NOP (nozzle opening pressure), 44, 71,
72, 77, 79
NOx (nitrogen oxides), 130–131, 257,
366–371
nozzle opening pressure (NOP), 44, 79
nozzle valves, 76
n-type semiconductor materials, 299–300
nuclei, 273–274
NVH (noise, vibration, harshness), 12
O
OBD-2 (second generation On-Board
Diagnostics), 104, 106
OEM (original equipment manufacturer),
147
off-road trucks, 25
offset spring length, 171–172
Ohm’s law, 278–280
ohv (overhead valves), 144–145
oil
analysis, 56, 59
consumption, 56
cooler, 54
leaks, 53–54
reserves, 359
temperature, 359–360
changes, 197
clogging, 191
consumption, 56, 214–215, 267
cooking, 363
coolers, 191, 194, 345
crankcase, 13, 117
deterioration of, 197
effects in turbocharger case, 52–53
excessive consumption of, 56
grades of, 197
leaks, 54–55, 194, 349
low pressure, Power Stroke engines, 127
lube, 127–128, 197
lubrication systems, 189–190
pressure check, 202
pressure monitoring devices, 202–203
pressure sensors, 113
pumps, 198–202
return ports, 268
rings, 214
seals, 251–253
vegetable, 361–362
oil-bath air filters, 255–256
oil-spray jets, 182
Oldsmobile, 18
Onan
DJ series lubrication systems, 189–190
oil pressure monitors, 202–203
on-board computers, 102–106
open circuits, 275
opposed-piston distributor pump, 68
original equipment manufacturer (OEM),
147
o-rings, 117, 119, 136
Otto engines, 3
overbore limits, 209
overcooling, 349–350
overhauls, 177, 269–271
overhead camshafts, 154–155
overhead valves (ohv), 144–145
overheating, 216, 315, 340, 344–345,
346–347, 348–349, 353
overspeed relays, 319–320
oxidation, FAME, 362
P
palm oil, 359–361, 366
paper-element air filters, 256–257
parallel circuits, 275–276
parallel filters, 195–196
parallel misalignment, 28–31
parameter identifier (PID) codes, Detroit
Diesel Electronic Control, 134–136
parasitic loads, 110
particulate matter (PM), 366–371
particulate trap, 53, 95, 98, 372–374
PCV (positive crankcase ventilation),
51, 52, 265, 267
peak-to-peak values, 280–281
pedestal-type rockers, 151–152
penetrant dyes, 163
peripherals, on-board computer, 103–104
Perkins, 115
Perkins rebuild kit, water pumps, 356
permeability, 283
Petrobras, 360–361
Peugoet, 5
pH, 345
PID (parameter identifier) codes, Detroit
Diesel Electronic Control, 119, 134–136
piezo-actuated injectors, 97, 98–99
pill-type thermostats, 354
384 Indexpinholes, 221
pinions, 321–323
pins, 221, 224
pintle nozzles, 76, 78–80, 82
pipe plugs, 155
pistons
assemblies, 249–250
crown, thermal coating, 217–218
failure modes, 222
height, 205
installation, 245–248
measurement points, 222–223
mechanics, 217–226
construction, 217–219
failure modes, 219–221
overview, 217
servicing, 221–226
pins, full-floating, 224
relation to connecting rods, 227
rings, 213–216, 245–247
piston-to-bore clearance, 226
Piston-type Chrysler-Nissan lift pumps,
90–91
plastic gauge wire, 198, 248–249
Plasti-Gage, 198, 248–249
platinum, 368
platinum-coated zirconium-oxide O2
sensors, 106
plunger actions, 65–66
PM (particulate matter), 366–371
pneumatic governors, 75–77, 85–87
pneumatic governors MZ, 75
poles, switch, 294–296
Pollution Control Products, 158
ports, size in GM engines, 142
position sensors, 104
positive crankcase ventilation (PCV),
52, 265, 267
power, 12–13, 18, 26–27, 41
Power Stroke engines, 124–129
precision balancers, 270–271
precombustion chambers, 141–142,
161–162
pressure
brake mean effective, 18
caps, 351–352
drops, 50–51, 55
fuel, 44
injection, 12
relief valves, 263–264
sensors, 104
testing, 164
testing, cylinder head, 164
Prestolite CAB-1235 alternators, 325–327
Prestolite CAB-1245 alternators, 327
PRIME HEUI injectors, 117
propellers, 34
prop-shaft angle wet exhaust systems,
30–31, 32–33
protons, 273–274
protrusion, valve, 169
p-type semiconductor materials,
299–300
pulled threads, 160
pulse width modulation (PWM), 101
pulsed system, glow plugs, 303
pumps
air, 13
bleeder, 44
distributor, 62
inline, 62, 74
lift, 62, 90
single-plunger, 64–65
testing of output pressure, 49
water, 355–357
pushrods, 152
PWM (pulse width modulation), 101
pyrolysis, 361
Q
quantity, 278
quick charges, 336
Quick-Start Unit, 303–304
R
rack teeth, 74–75
radiator cap, 344–345, 348–349
radiator hose, 345, 353
radiators, 1, 125, 339–343, 345,
346, 348–351, 352
radius ride, 244
rails, mounting, 27–28
RAM (random access memory), 103
Rankine cycle engines, 3
ratings
battery, 333
engine, 26
raw-water pumps, 356–357
reactance, capacitors, 299
read-only memory (ROM), 103
rear mounts, 24–25
reboring, Detroit Diesel, 211–212
rebuild kits, water pump, 356
rebuilding processes, 177
regulators, 331–332
relay switches, 296–297
relays
adjustment points, 332
glow plugs, 52
overspeed, 319–320
Index 385relay-tripped charging indicator lamps, 297
Renault, 95
renewable fuels, 362
repairs, 177. See also cylinders
connecting rod, 228–233
crankshaft, 233–235
injector pump, 74
wiring, 305–308
resistance, and engine power, 24
resistance constant, 278–279
resurfacing, head, 160–161
reverse flushing, radiators, 348
reversed orientation, 174
rigging, 179–181
ring belt, fire grooves, 217
rings
band wear, 229, 231
configuration, 215
gaps, 245–246
land damage, 222
orientation codes, 221
piston, 213–216
wear in grooves of, 218
rise formula, 27
rms (root mean square), 282
rocker assemblies, 150–153
rocker-arm lashes, 114
rod bolts, piston installment, 248
rods
alignment fixtures, 230
installation of, 245–248
match-weighing, 250–251
roller lubrication, 154
rolling resistance, 23–24
ROM (read-only memory), 103
root mean square (rms), 282
rotating mass, crankshaft balancing,
251–252
rotors, 199, 328
runaway engines, 11–12, 110
S
saddle alignment, 241
SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers), 144
scale, 347
scan tools, 39, 48, 51, 105–106
scanners for trouble codes, 39
scavenging, 16–17
forced-air, 14–15
Schrader valves, 44–45
scoring, piston, 220
scraper rings, 214
screws
adjustment, 49–50, 151
bleeder, 44–45
scuffing, piston, 220
seals
crankshaft, 252
governor, 110
injector, 79
lubrication of, 212
tests, 79
umbrella-type, 157–158
SEAT, 99
seat replacement, cylinder valve, 169–170
seawater aftercoolers, 357–358
seawater-cooled heat exchangers, 343
self-actuating switches, 296
self-purging systems, coolant flow, 342
semiconductors, 274, 299
sensors
atmospheric pressure, 113
camshaft position, 113, 128–129
coolant temperature, 113
crankshaft position, 113
Delta-P, 138
Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, 131
fuel temperature, 113
inlet manifold air temperature, 113
oil pressure, 113
Onan monitors, 202–203
on-board computer, 104–106
throttle position, 122
types of, 102–104
vulnerability of, 108, 110
series, electrical, 275–276
series filters, 195–196
servicing
centrifugal governors, 83–84
connecting rods, 228–233
crankshafts, 233–235
cylinder valves, 167–169
delivery valves, 74–76
hydraulic/electronic unit injector,
117–119
injection pumps, 71–74
injectors, 78–79
lift pumps, 90–92
piezo-actuated injectors, 98–99
pistons, 221–226
pneumatic governors, 87
shaft-bearing wear, 200, 201
shafts
balancing, 184–186
defection, 313–315
measurement, 268–269
rocker assemblies, 151
shaft-type rockers, 150–151
sheathed-type glow plugs, 302
shorted circuits, 275, 280, 300
386 Indexshorting tabs, Delcotron, 324
shutters, thermostatically controlled, 339–340
SI (spark ignition) engines, 9, 12–15, 18–20
Siemens c-r injectors, 98
Siemens VDO, 97
silent shafts, 184–185
silicon, 299
single-loop direct current generators,
288–289
single-plunger pumps, 63–64
single-wire electrical circuits, 276–277
sinks, circuit, 275
Skoda, 99
sleeves, 206–210, 253
slip rings, 325, 328
slow starts, Power Stroke engines, 124–127
smoke, 40–41, 56, 266–267
smoke limiters (air-fuel ratio controllers),
27, 28
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 144
sodium in valves, 144
soldering
effect in diodes, 300, 329–330
radiators, 351
wiring, 308–309
solder-type terminal lugs, 307–308
solenoid valves, 113
solenoid-actuated injectors, 96–98
solenoid-operated fuel shutoff valves, 50
solenoids, 120, 318–321
Solidarismus, 6
solids, FAME, 362
solid-state components, 299–300
solid-state regulators, 332
spark ignition (SI) engines, 9, 12–15, 18–20
specific gravity, 335
speed, and power, 23
speed-limiting governors, 82
spindle speed, 213
splicing, 308–309
split ball gauges, 165–166
split fields, 317
spray jet aiming, 182
spray patterns, injectors, 79–81
spring-loaded needles, 76, 96–97
springs
cylinder valve, 170–172
tension, 147, 313
squish mechanisms, DI chambers, 140–141
SRS (Synchronous Reference Sensor),
132, 137
SRS/TRS (Synchronous Reference
Sensor/Timing Reference Sensor), 133
stall torque tests, 318–319
stands, engine, 181
startability, 1, 2, 23–24
starter circuits, 309–318
armature, 313–317
bearings, 317–318
brushes, 312–313
field coils, 317
final tests, 318
overview, 309
starter motors, 310–312
tests, 309–310
starter drives, 321–322
starter motors, 291–292
starting engine, 301–338
aids for, 302–303
batteries, 332–338
charging, 336
hookups, 337–338
maintenance, 335
overview, 332
ratings, 333
tests, 333–335
charging systems, 322–330
bench testing, 324–330
initial tests, 323–324
overview, 322
Detroit Diesel Electronic Control,
132–133
malfunctions, 40
overview, 301
Power Stroke engines, 124–127
solenoids, 318–321
starter circuits, 309–318
armature, 313–317
bearings, 317–318
brushes, 312–313
field coils, 317
final tests, 318
overview, 309
starter motors, 310–312
tests, 309–310
starter drives, 321–322
voltage regulation, 331–332
wiring, 303–309
color coding, 304
overview, 303
repairs, 305–308
soldering, 308–309
starting fluid, 303
state of charge, 335
static tests, 318
stationary engines, 26–32
alignment, 27–32
power requirements, 26–27
thermal expansion, 27
stators, 325, 328–329
Index 387steam engines, 3
steel valves, 144
Stewart-Warner
adapter, 250–251
oil pressure monitor, 202
storage batteries, 292–294
straight vegetable oil (SVO) engines,
359–360, 363–365, 366–368
straightening cylinder heads, 164–165
stress, 164, 182
stripped threads, 160
studs, 151
sulfated ash content in oil, 197
sulfation of batteries, 294
sulfur content, fuel, 20–21
Sun-timing lights, 73
superchargers, 13
SVO (straight vegetable oil) engines,
359–360, 363–365, 366–368
swept volume, 9
swirl chamber, IDI chambers, 142–143
swirl mechanisms, DI chambers, 140
switches, electrical, 294–299
Synchronous Reference Sensor (SRS),
132, 137
synthetic seals, 252
T
tank vent restrictions, 109
tappets, 152–154
Tarasov etch, 236
teardown, 189
Teflon insulated wire, 307
temperatures
air charge, 109
cylinder, 167
fuel, 109
sensors, 104
TCI or TCO, 136
terminals, 274, 333–334
tests
battery, 333–335
bleeding, 44–45
charging system, 323–324
chatter, 79
compression, 148
cylinder leak-down, 148
fuel quality, 42
fuel system, 42–44
ground circuit, 310–311
high-pressure circuit tests, 48–50
low-pressure circuit tests, 45–48
starter circuit, 309–310, 318
thermostat, 354–355
thermal efficiency, 11, 15–16, 18
thermal expansion, 27, 28, 217–218
thermostatic bypass valves, 191, 194–195
thermostats, 255–257, 261–263, 267–268,
339–342, 354–355
third brush generators, 289
threads, 160
three-point mounting systems, 24–25
throttle controls, “Drive-by-wire”, 106–107
throttle position sensor (TPS), 104, 122–123
throttles, 12
throttling pintle nozzles, 76, 78
throws, switches, 294–296
thrust bearings, 239–240, 245
timers, 73
timing
injection pump, 66–68, 71–73, 109
marks, 71–72, 149
reference sensors, 132
timers, 79–81
Timing Reference Sensor (TRS), 137
tires, 24
tolerances, 181–182
tools, electronic management systems,
107–108
toothed belts, 184
top clearance, cylinder, 172–174
torque, 9, 18, 26–27, 174, 187–188
formula, 15
torsional damage, 236
TPS (throttle position sensor), 100, 103,
104, 106, 119, 122–123
transesterfication, 363
transistorized regulators, 332
transmission, bending moment, 23
transmission mounts, 25
traps, particulate matter, 368–371
trouble codes. See diagnostic trouble codes
troubleshooting, 39–59
air inlet system, 50–53
electronic management systems, 108–110
engine mechanical malfunctions, 54–59
exhaust backpressure, 54
glow plugs, 53–54
malfunctions, 40–42
overview, 39
tests
bleeding, 44–45
fuel quality, 42
fuel system, 42–44
high-pressure circuit tests, 48–50
low-pressure circuit tests, 45–48
TRS (Timing Reference Sensor), 137
truck engines
Caterpillar 3176, 19
installation, 23–25
388 Indextubing couplings, 257–258
Tufftriding, 233, 237
tulip valves, 146
turbine housing, 268
turbine-holding fixtures, 269–270
turbo boost, 109
turbo housing, 268
turbo wastegate actuators, 113
turbochargers, 11, 259–272
construction, 262–271
aftercoolers, 264–265
maintenance, 265–268
overhaul, 269–271
overview, 262–271
turbocharger inspection, 268–269
wastegate, 262–264
conventional vs. VGT, 28, 257
failure, 52–54
forced induction, 13
lag, 27–28
power, 27
troubleshooting, 52–53
variable geometry turbine, 28, 271–272
turbulence chambers, 142–143
two-cycle operating principle, 13–14
two-piece pistons, 219–220
two-stroke-cycle engines, 15–18
two-wire electrical circuits, 276–277
U
UIs (unit injectors), 43, 77–78, 99
Ulanet oil pressure monitor, 203
ULSD (ultra-low sulfur diesel), 21, 38, 371
ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), 21, 371
unit injection systems, 77–78, 87–90,
99–100, 113–117, 129–132
unit injectors (UIs), 43
unit pump system (UPS), 43
United States of America, 361–363
upgrade kits, Detroit Diesel, 131
UPS (unit pump system), 43
urea, 369
V
valves
configuration, 143–144
cylinder, 144–147, 156–157, 165–169
delivery, 74–76
fuel shutoff, 109
lash, 176
lifters, 152–154
materials, 144–145
pressure-relief, 263–264
Schrader, 44–45
seats, 169–171
sine-wave amplitude, 280
solenoid, 113
solenoid-operated fuel shutoff, 50
specifications, 167–168
springs, 157, 170–172
thermostatic bypass, 194
timing, head resurfacing, 160
in two- and four-cycle engines, 15–16
vanes, turbochargers, 271
Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT),
Detroit Diesel, 28, 52, 102, 131,
133–134, 136–138, 271–272
v-belt tension, 353
vegetable oil, 361–365
velocity sensors, 104
venturi constant, 85
VGT (Variable Geometry Turbocharger),
Detroit Diesel, 28, 52, 102, 131,
133–134, 136–138, 257, 271–272
vibration, 267, 300
vibration dampeners, 239
Vila Soledade, Brazil, 359
viscosity, 21, 362, 365
Volkswagon, 9, 18, 99, 141
voltage
changes, 100
constant, 278–279
drop tests, 308–309
drops, JIS AV wires, 307
effect in diodes, 300
injectors, 132
overview, 277
piezo crystals, 98
produced by magnetism, 286
regulation, 331–332
regulators, 331
sine waves, 282
sources, 285
volumetric efficiency, 18
Volvo, 95
VOP (valve opening pressure), see NOP
W
wafer expansion, 98
Walker Peenimpac, 159
wastegates, turbocharger, 262–264
water
boiling point, 352
FAME, 362
immersion heaters, 302
jackets, 345
pumps, 355–357
separators, 66, 79–80, 92–93
traps, 32, 37, 53
water-cooled turbochargers, 262–263
Index 389waterlines, 37
wax-pellet thermostats, 354
wear sleeves, crankshaft, 253
weight
engine, 19
fuel, 18
wet exhaust systems, 35, 37
wet liners, 206–207, 210, 349
wiring, 303–309
color coding, 304–305
overview, 303
repairs, 305–308
soldering, 308–309
wt/hp ratio, 16
Y
Yanmar
1GM10 engine, 10
aftercoolers, 358
atmospheric crankcase breathers,
205
cartridge-type filters, 195
injectors, 71
marine engines, 30, 33
valves, 158
Z
zero cranking power, 333
zirconium-oxide O
2 sensors, 106
390 Index


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