كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.



 
الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 16965
التقييم : 29903
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications   كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Emptyالجمعة 08 يونيو 2012, 2:55 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications
Sixth Edition
R. E. Smallman, CBE,DSc, FRS, FREng, FIM
R. J. Bishop, PhD, CEng, MIM

كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications M_p_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface . xi
1. The Structure and Bonding of Atoms 1
1.1 The Realm of Materials Science 1
1.2 The Free Atom . 2
1.2.1 The Four Electron Quantum Numbers 2
1.2.2 Nomenclature for Electronic States 3
1.3 The Periodic Table . 4
1.4 Interatomic Bonding in Materials 7
1.5 Bonding and Energy Levels . 9
2. Atomic Arrangements in Materials . 11
2.1 The Concept of Ordering . 11
2.2 Crystal Lattices and Structures 12
2.3 Crystal Directions and Planes 13
2.4 Stereographic Projection 16
2.5 Selected Crystal Structures . 18
2.5.1 Pure Metals . 18
2.5.2 Diamond and Graphite . 21
2.5.3 Coordination in Ionic Crystals . 22
2.5.4 AB-Type Compounds . 24
2.5.5 Silica . 24
2.5.6 Alumina . 26
2.5.7 Complex Oxides 26
2.5.8 Silicates . 27
2.6 Inorganic Glasses 30
2.6.1 Network Structures in Glasses . 30vi Contents
2.6.2 Classification of Constituent Oxides . 31
2.7 Polymeric Structures 32
2.7.1 Thermoplastics 32
2.7.2 Elastomers 35
2.7.3 Thermosets 36
2.7.4 Crystallinity in Polymers . 38
3. Structural Phases; Their Formation and Transitions 42
3.1 Crystallization from the Melt . 42
3.1.1 Freezing of a Pure Metal 42
3.1.2 Plane-Front and Dendritic Solidification at a Cooled
Surface 43
3.1.3 Forms of Cast Structure . 44
3.1.4 Gas Porosity and Segregation 45
3.1.5 Directional Solidification . 46
3.1.6 Production of Metallic Single Crystals for Research 47
3.2 Principles and Applications of Phase Diagrams 48
3.2.1 The Concept of a Phase 48
3.2.2 The Phase Rule . 48
3.2.3 Stability of Phases . 49
3.2.4 Two-Phase Equilibria . 52
3.2.5 Three-Phase Equilibria and Reactions . 56
3.2.6 Intermediate Phases 58
3.2.7 Limitations of Phase Diagrams . 59
3.2.8 Some Key Phase Diagrams . 60
3.2.9 Ternary Phase Diagrams . 64
3.3 Principles of Alloy Theory 73
3.3.1 Primary Substitutional Solid Solutions 73
3.3.2 Interstitial Solid Solutions . 76
3.3.3 Types of Intermediate Phases 76
3.3.4 Order-Disorder Phenomena . 79
3.4 The Mechanism of Phase Changes . 80
3.4.1 Kinetic Considerations . 80Contents vii
3.4.2 Homogeneous Nucleation 81
3.4.3 Heterogeneous Nucleation . 82
3.4.4 Nucleation in Solids . 82
4. Defects in Solids 84
4.1 Types of Imperfection 84
4.2 Point Defects 84
4.2.1 Point Defects in Metals 84
4.2.2 Point Defects in Non-Metallic Crystals 86
4.2.3 Irradiation of Solids 87
4.2.4 Point Defect Concentration and Annealing . 89
4.3 Line Defects . 90
4.3.1 Concept of a Dislocation 90
4.3.2 Edge and Screw Dislocations . 91
4.3.3 The Burgers Vector 91
4.3.4 Mechanisms of Slip and Climb . 92
4.3.5 Strain Energy Associated with Dislocations 95
4.3.6 Dislocations in Ionic Structures 97
4.4 Planar Defects . 97
4.4.1 Grain Boundaries . 97
4.4.2 Twin Boundaries 98
4.4.3 Extended Dislocations and Stacking Faults in ClosePacked Crystals . 99
4.5 Volume Defects 104
4.5.1 Void Formation and Annealing . 104
4.5.2 Irradiation and Voiding . 104
4.5.3 Voiding and Fracture 104
4.6 Defect Behaviour in Some Real Materials . 105
4.6.1 Dislocation Vector Diagrams and the Thompson
Tetrahedron . 105
4.6.2 Dislocations and Stacking Faults in fcc Structures 106
4.6.3 Dislocations and Stacking Faults in cph Structures . 108
4.6.4 Dislocations and Stacking Faults in bcc Structures . 112viii Contents
4.6.5 Dislocations and Stacking Faults in Ordered
Structures 113
4.6.6 Dislocations and Stacking Faults in Ceramics 115
4.6.7 Defects in Crystalline Polymers 116
4.6.8 Defects in Glasses . 117
4.7 Stability of Defects . 117
4.7.1 Dislocation Loops 117
4.7.2 Voids . 119
4.7.3 Nuclear Irradiation Effects 119
5. The Characterization of Materials . 125
5.1 Tools of Characterization . 125
5.2 Light Microscopy 126
5.2.1 Basic Principles . 126
5.2.2 Selected Microscopical Techniques 127
5.3 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis . 133
5.3.1 Production and Absorption of X-Rays . 133
5.3.2 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystals 134
5.3.3 X-Ray Diffraction Methods . 135
5.3.4 Typical Interpretative Procedures for Diffraction
Patterns . 138
5.4 Analytical Electron Microscopy 142
5.4.1 Interaction of an Electron Beam with a Solid . 142
5.4.2 The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) . 143
5.4.3 The Scanning Electron Microscope 144
5.4.4 Theoretical Aspects of TEM . 146
5.4.5 Chemical Microanalysis . 150
5.4.6 Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) . 152
5.4.7 Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) . 154
5.5 Observation of Defects 154
5.5.1 Etch Pitting 154
5.5.2 Dislocation Decoration . 155
5.5.3 Dislocation Strain Contrast in TEM . 155Contents ix
5.5.4 Contrast from Crystals . 157
5.5.5 Imaging of Dislocations 157
5.5.6 Imaging of Stacking Faults . 158
5.5.7 Application of Dynamical Theory 158
5.5.8 Weak-Beam Microscopy 160
5.6 Specialized Bombardment Techniques . 161
5.6.1 Neutron Diffraction . 161
5.6.2 Synchrotron Radiation Studies . 162
5.6.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) . 163
5.7 Thermal Analysis . 164
5.7.1 General Capabilities of Thermal Analysis . 164
5.7.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis . 164
5.7.3 Differential Thermal Analysis 165
5.7.4 Differential Scanning Calorimetry . 165
6. The Physical Properties of Materials 168
6.1 Introduction 168
6.2 Density . 168
6.3 Thermal Properties 168
6.3.1 Thermal Expansion 168
6.3.2 Specific Heat Capacity . 170
6.3.3 The Specific Heat Curve and Transformations 171
6.3.4 Free Energy of Transformation . 171
6.4 Diffusion . 172
6.4.1 Diffusion Laws . 172
6.4.2 Mechanisms of Diffusion 174
6.4.3 Factors Affecting Diffusion . 175
6.5 Anelasticity and Internal Friction 176
6.6 Ordering in Alloys . 177
6.6.1 Long-Range and Short-Range Order 177
6.6.2 Detection of Ordering . 178
6.6.3 Influence of Ordering Upon Properties . 179x Contents
6.7 Electrical Properties . 181
6.7.1 Electrical Conductivity 181
6.7.2 Semiconductors . 183
6.7.3 Superconductivity 185
6.7.4 Oxide Superconductors 187
6.8 Magnetic Properties . 188
6.8.1 Magnetic Susceptibility . 188
6.8.2 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 189
6.8.3 Ferromagnetism . 189
6.8.4 Magnetic Alloys 191
6.8.5 Anti-Ferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 192
6.9 Dielectric Materials . 193
6.9.1 Polarization 193
6.9.2 Capacitors and Insulators 193
6.9.3 Piezoelectric Materials . 194
6.9.4 Pyroelectric and Ferroelectric Materials 194
6.10 Optical Properties 195
6.10.1 Reflection, Absorption and Transmission Effects 195
6.10.2 Optical Fibres 195
6.10.3 Lasers . 195
6.10.4 Ceramic 'Windows' . 196
6.10.5 Electro-Optic Ceramics 196
7. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials 197
7.1 Mechanical Testing Procedures . 197
7.1.1 Introduction 197
7.1.2 The Tensile Test 197
7.1.3 Indentation Hardness Testing . 199
7.1.4 Impact Testing . 199
7.1.5 Creep Testing 199
7.1.6 Fatigue Testing 200
7.1.7 Testing of Ceramics . 200Contents xi
7.2 Elastic Deformation 201
7.2.1 Elastic Deformation of Metals . 201
7.2.2 Elastic Deformation of Ceramics 203
7.3 Plastic Deformation 203
7.3.1 Slip and Twinning 203
7.3.2 Resolved Shear Stress 203
7.3.3 Relation of Slip to Crystal Structure 204
7.3.4 Law of Critical Resolved Shear Stress 205
7.3.5 Multiple Slip . 205
7.3.6 Relation Between Work-Hardening and Slip . 206
7.4 Dislocation Behaviour During Plastic Deformation 207
7.4.1 Dislocation Mobility 207
7.4.2 Variation of Yield Stress with Temperature and Strain
Rate 208
7.4.3 Dislocation Source Operation . 209
7.4.4 Discontinuous Yielding . 211
7.4.5 Yield Points and Crystal Structure 212
7.4.6 Discontinuous Yielding in Ordered Alloys . 214
7.4.7 Solute-Dislocation Interaction . 214
7.4.8 Dislocation Locking and Temperature 216
7.4.9 Inhomogeneity Interaction 217
7.4.10 Kinetics of Strain-Ageing 217
7.4.11 Influence of Grain Boundaries on Plasticity 218
7.4.12 Superplasticity . 220
7.5 Mechanical Twinning . 221
7.5.1 Crystallography of Twinning . 221
7.5.2 Nucleation and Growth of Twins . 222
7.5.3 Effect of Impurities on Twinning . 223
7.5.4 Effect of Prestrain on Twinning . 223
7.5.5 Dislocation Mechanism of Twinning 223
7.5.6 Twinning and Fracture . 224
7.6 Strengthening and Hardening Mechanisms . 224
7.6.1 Point Defect Hardening 224xii Contents
7.6.2 Work-Hardening . 226
7.6.3 Development of Preferred Orientation 232
7.7 Macroscopic Plasticity 235
7.7.1 Tresca and Von Mises Criteria . 235
7.7.2 Effective Stress and Strain . 236
7.8 Annealing . 237
7.8.1 General Effects of Annealing 237
7.8.2 Recovery . 237
7.8.3 Recrystallization . 239
7.8.4 Grain Growth . 242
7.8.5 Annealing Twins 243
7.8.6 Recrystallization Textures 245
7.9 Metallic Creep 245
7.9.1 Transient and Steady-State Creep . 245
7.9.2 Grain Boundary Contribution to Creep 247
7.9.3 Tertiary Creep and Fracture . 249
7.9.4 Creep-Resistant Alloy Design . 249
7.10 Deformation Mechanism Maps 251
7.11 Metallic Fatigue 252
7.11.1 Nature of Fatigue Failure . 252
7.11.2 Engineering Aspects of Fatigue 252
7.11.3 Structural Changes Accompanying Fatigue 254
7.11.4 Crack Formation and Fatigue Failure . 256
7.11.5 Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures . 258
8. Strengthening and Toughening 259
8.1 Introduction 259
8.2 Strengthening of Non-Ferrous Alloys by Heat-Treatment 259
8.2.1 Precipitation-Hardening of Al-Cu Alloys 259
8.2.2 Precipitation-Hardening of Al-Ag Alloys 263
8.2.3 Mechanisms of Precipitation-Hardening . 265
8.2.4 Vacancies and Precipitation . 268
8.2.5 Duplex Ageing . 271Contents xiii
8.2.6 Particle-Coarsening . 272
8.2.7 Spinodal Decomposition 273
8.3 Strengthening of Steels by Heat-Treatment . 274
8.3.1 Time - Temperature - Transformation Diagrams . 274
8.3.2 Austenite-Pearlite Transformation 276
8.3.3 Austenite-Martensite Transformation 278
8.3.4 Austenite-Bainite Transformation . 282
8.3.5 Tempering of Martensite 282
8.3.6 Thermo-Mechanical Treatments . 283
8.4 Fracture and Toughness 284
8.4.1 Griffith Micro-Crack Criterion 284
8.4.2 Fracture Toughness . 285
8.4.3 Cleavage and The Ductile-Brittle Transition 288
8.4.4 Factors Affecting Brittleness of Steels 289
8.4.5 Hydrogen Embrittlement of Steels 291
8.4.6 Intergranular Fracture 291
8.4.7 Ductile Failure 292
8.4.8 Rupture . 293
8.4.9 Voiding and Fracture at Elevated Temperatures . 293
8.4.10 Fracture Mechanism Maps . 294
8.4.11 Crack Growth under Fatigue Conditions . 295
9. Modern Alloy Developments . 297
9.1 Introduction 297
9.2 Commercial Steels . 297
9.2.1 Plain Carbon Steels . 297
9.2.2 Alloy Steels 298
9.2.3 Maraging Steels . 299
9.2.4 High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels 299
9.2.5 Dual-Phase (DP) Steels . 300
9.2.6 Mechanically Alloyed (MA) Steels 301
9.2.7 Designation of Steels . 302
9.3 Cast Irons 303xiv Contents
9.4 Superalloys 305
9.4.1 Basic Alloying Features 305
9.4.2 Nickel-Based Superalloy Development . 306
9.4.3 Dispersion-Hardened Superalloys 307
9.5 Titanium Alloys . 308
9.5.1 Basic Alloying and Heat-Treatment Features 308
9.5.2 Commercial Titanium Alloys . 310
9.5.3 Processing of Titanium Alloys 312
9.6 Structural Intermetallic Compounds . 312
9.6.1 General Properties of Intermetallic Compounds 312
9.6.2 Nickel Aluminides 312
9.6.3 Titanium Aluminides . 314
9.6.4 Other Intermetallic Compounds 315
9.7 Aluminium Alloys 316
9.7.1 Designation of Aluminium Alloys 316
9.7.2 Applications of Aluminium Alloys 316
9.7.3 Aluminium-Lithium Alloys . 317
9.7.4 Processing Developments 317
10. Ceramics and Glasses . 320
10.1 Classification of Ceramics 320
10.2 General Properties of Ceramics . 321
10.3 Production of Ceramic Powders 322
10.4 Selected Engineering Ceramics . 323
10.4.1 Alumina . 323
10.4.2 From Silicon Nitride to Sialons . 325
10.4.3 Zirconia . 330
10.4.4 Glass-Ceramics . 331
10.4.5 Silicon Carbide 334
10.4.6 Carbon 337
10.5 Aspects of Glass Technology 345
10.5.1 Viscous Deformation of Glass 345
10.5.2 Some Special Glasses . 346Contents xv
10.5.3 Toughened and Laminated Glasses . 346
10.6 The Time-Dependency of Strength in Ceramics and Glasses . 348
11. Plastics and Composites . 351
11.1 Utilization of Polymeric Materials . 351
11.1.1 Introduction 351
11.1.2 Mechanical Aspects of Tg . 351
11.1.3 The Role of Additives . 352
11.1.4 Some Applications of Important Plastics . 353
11.1.5 Management of Waste Plastics 354
11.2 Behaviour of Plastics During Processing . 355
11.2.1 Cold-Drawing and Crazing . 355
11.2.2 Processing Methods for Thermoplastics . 356
11.2.3 Production of Thermosets 357
11.2.4 Viscous Aspects of Melt Behaviour 358
11.2.5 Elastic Aspects of Melt Behaviour 359
11.2.6 Flow Defects 360
11.3 Fibre-Reinforced Composite Materials 361
11.3.1 Introduction to Basic Structural Principles . 361
11.3.2 Types of Fibre-Reinforced Composite 366
12. Corrosion and Surface Engineering . 376
12.1 The Engineering Importance of Surfaces 376
12.2 Metallic Corrosion 376
12.2.1 Oxidation at High Temperatures . 376
12.2.2 Aqueous Corrosion 382
12.3 Surface Engineering 387
12.3.1 The Coating and Modification of Surfaces 387
12.3.2 Surface Coating by Vapour Deposition . 388
12.3.3 Surface Coating by Particle Bombardment . 391
12.3.4 Surface Modification with High-Energy Beams . 391xvi Contents
13. Biomaterials 394
13.1 Introduction 394
13.2 Requirements for Biomaterials . 394
13.3 Dental Materials . 395
13.3.1 Cavity Fillers 395
13.3.2 Bridges, Crowns and Dentures . 396
13.3.3 Dental Implants 397
13.4 The Structure of Bone and Bone Fractures . 397
13.5 Replacement Joints . 398
13.5.1 Hip Joints . 398
13.5.2 Shoulder Joints 399
13.5.3 Knee Joints 399
13.5.4 Finger Joints and Hand Surgery . 399
13.6 Reconstructive Surgery 400
13.6.1 Plastic Surgery 400
13.6.2 Maxillofacial Surgery 401
13.6.3 Ear Implants 402
13.7 Biomaterials for Heart Repair . 402
13.7.1 Heart Valves 402
13.7.2 Pacemakers . 403
13.7.3 Artificial Arteries . 403
13.8 Tissue Repair and Growth . 403
13.9 Other Surgical Applications 404
13.10 Ophthalmics . 404
13.11 Drug Delivery Systems 405
14. Materials for Sports . 406
14.1 The Revolution in Sports Products 406
14.2 The Tradition of Using Wood . 406
14.3 Tennis Rackets 407
14.3.1 Frames for Tennis Rackets 407
14.3.2 Strings for Tennis Rackets . 408Contents xvii
14.4 Golf Clubs 409
14.4.1 Kinetic Aspects of a Golf Stroke . 409
14.4.2 Golf Club Shafts . 410
14.4.3 Wood-Type Club Heads . 410
14.4.4 Iron-Type Club Heads 411
14.4.5 Putting Heads 411
14.5 Archery Bows and Arrows 411
14.5.1 The Longbow . 411
14.5.2 Bow Design . 411
14.5.3 Arrow Design . 412
14.6 Bicycles for Sport . 413
14.6.1 Frame Design 413
14.6.2 Joining Techniques for Metallic Frames 414
14.6.3 Frame Assembly Using Epoxy Adhesives . 414
14.6.4 Composite Frames . 415
14.6.5 Bicycle Wheels 415
14.7 Fencing Foils 415
14.8 Materials for Snow Sports 416
14.8.1 General Requirements . 416
14.8.2 Snowboarding Equipment 416
14.8.3 Skiing Equipment . 417
14.9 Safety Helmets . 417
14.9.1 Function and Form of Safety Helmets 417
14.9.2 Mechanical Behaviour of Foams 418
14.9.3 Mechanical Testing of Safety Helmets 418
Appendices . 420
1 SI Units . 420
2 Conversion Factors, Constants and Physical Data 422
Figure References 424
Index 427
Index
Index terms Links
A
Acceptor level, (band theory) 184
Acetabular cup (hip joint) 394 398
Acheson carbothermic process 334 341
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) 354 355 356 357
Activation energy (Q), see Arrhenius equation
Additives:
anti-oxidant 353
anti-ozonant 353
filler 352
plasticizer 352
stabilizer 352
Adhesives 414
Age-hardening 260 261
see also Hardening (precipitation-)
Allotropy 20 60 337
Alloying elements in steel 278 283 290 298
Alnico alloys 191
Alumina:
crystal structure 26
deformation 103 116
fibre reinforcement 369 371
laser ruby 196
nanocomposites 374
refractories 323
specific moduli 321
strength-probability-time diagram 349
zirconia-toughened, ZT(A) 331428
Index terms Links
Aluminium alloys 316 412 414
Al-Ag 263
Al-Li alloys 317
designation (IADS) 316
mechanical alloying 318
rapid solidification processing 318
superplastic 317
Anelastic behaviour 176
Anisotropy:
anisotropic thermal expansion 121
baked carbons 340
birefringence in crystals 129
composites 362 369
development during solidification 45
elastic 203
optical properties of crystals 129
stress-anisotropy of plastics 129
wood 407
Annealing 53 86 98 117
237 283 378
see also Grain growth; Preferred orientation; Recovery stage of annealing;
Recrystallization; Twinning
Annealing point (glass) 345
Anti-phase boundaries (APB) 178 214 232 313
Archery bows, arrows, strings 411
Arrhenius equation 80 89 175 177
178 218 237 246
282 345
Asbestos 28
Ashby diagrams 168 286 356
Asterism 238 267
Atom:
atomic mass, relative 7
atomic number (Z) 4 133429
Index terms Links
Atom: (Continued)
atomic volume 168
Bohr model 2
energy states 9
interatomic distance 21
nuclear cross-section 88
transmutation 88
see also Electron
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) 46 150 154
Ausforming 283
Austenite 60 76 274
Austempered ductile iron (ADI) 304
Austempering 283 304
Avogadro constant (N) 21
Avrami equation 240 276
B
Bain transformation theory 279
Bainite 274 282
Band structure (electronic) 181
conduction band 183 193 194
diamond 339
magnetism 189
optical behaviour 195
valency band 183 184 193 194
Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity 186
Barkhausen effect 190
Basquin's law 253
B-H curves for magnets 189
Bauschinger effect 235
Bauxite 324
Beam theory (bending) 413
Bearings 61
Bend test 201 412430
Index terms Links
Berman-Simon line 338
'Beryllium-copper' 53 260 411
Bicycle frames, wheels 413
Biomaterials:
bioactive 394 395 399
biocompatible 394 399 401
biodegradable 395 405
bioinert 394
biometric 404
mechanical properties 396
requirements, general 394
Bismaleimides (BMI) 367
Bloch wall 190
Boart 337
Boltzmann constant 51 80 85
Bonding, interatomic 7
8-N Rule 9
bonding and energy levels 9
covalent 9
ionic 8
metallic 8
van der Waals 9
Bone, human:
fracture repair 397
osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteons 398
see also Joints
Boric oxide 30
Boron nitride 23
Bragg diffraction law 134 135 141
Brasses:
brazing alloys 414
compounds 24 78
phase diagram 60
season cracking 386431
Index terms Links
Bridgman method (single crystals) 47
Bright-annealing of copper 378
Brillouin zone 75 77 181
Buckminsterfullerne 344
Bulk density 321
Bulk modulus 197
Burgers vector 91 102
see also Thompson tetrahedron
C
Capacitors 193
Carbon 337 353
Carbon electrodes, baked 340
Carbon, vitreous 343
Cast ingot structure 44
Cast irons 303
austempered ductile (ADI) 304
grey 304
malleable 304
mottled 303
spheroidal graphite (SG) 304
white 303
Cathodic (sacrificial) protection 386 415
Cement and concrete:
reinforcement 372
thermal analysis 165
Cementite 60 274
Ceramics:
classification 320
elastic deformation 203
firing 322 325 326
general properties 321
optical applications 195
production of powders 322432
Index terms Links
Ceramics: (Continued)
testing 200
thermal shock resistance 334
time-dependence of strength 348
transformation-toughening 330
Channelling patterns 145
Chemical stress 89
Chemisorption 378
Coble creep 175 249
Coffin-Manson law 253
Coherency (interfaces):
devitrification 332
inoculation 45
laser-heated surfaces 392
nucleation in solids 82
precipitation-hardening 262
recrystallization 245
strain 191
Cold-drawing (plastics) 355
Collagen 397 400 402
Colour 195
Compliance, elastic 202 413
Composites, fibre-reinforced:
principles:
functions of matrix 361
modulus ratio versus stress ratio 362
Rule of Mixtures 362
see also Fibres
types:
carbon fibre (CFRP) 367 369 408 410
412
ceramic-matrix (CMC) 372
continuous-fibre 361
duplex steel 416433
Index terms Links
Composites, fibre-reinforced: (Continued)
glass-reinforced (GRP) 361 366
metal-matrix (MMC) 368
polymer-matrix (PMC) 366
short-fibre 363
Compounds:
AB-type 24
AB2-type 24
AB2O4-type (spinel) 26
ABO3-type 26
deviation from stoichiometric composition 87
electrochemical 76
electron 78
intercalation 343
intermetallic 312
Laves phases 77
order-disorder transitions 79
size-factor 77
Conservative motion, of dislocations 94
Considère’s construction 199
Conversion factors and constants 422
Coordination:
coordination number (CN) 20
ionic crystals 22
Pauling Rules 22
radius ratio (r/R) 22
Cordierite 72
Cords in glass 117
Coring 53
Corrosion, aqueous:
differential aeration cell 382
electrochemical principles 382
failures 386
inhibitors 384434
Index terms Links
Corrosion, aqueous: (Continued)
passivity 384 385
prevention 384
Corrosion-fatigue 254 387
Crazing of plastics 355
Creep, metallic 199 245
fracture 249
grain boundary diffusion (Coble) 175 249
grain boundary sliding 247 258
Herring-Nabarro 176 249
tertiary 249
testing 199
transient and steady-state 245
Creep-resistant alloys 249
Critical field and temperature (superconductivity) 185
Cross-slip 93 101 210 214
230 232 268
Crystal structures:
alumina 26
barium titanium oxide 26
boron nitride 23
cristobalite 25
CuAu 79 179
Cu3Au 79
CuAl2, θ' 270
CuZn 24 79
diamond 21 103
Fe3Al 79
graphite 21 341
Kaolinite 29
Ll2 structure 115
magnesia 24
martensite 278
metals at room temperature 20435
Index terms Links
Crystal structures: (Continued)
MgCu2 77
perovskite 26 187
Potassium graphite 343
polyethylene 38
silicon nitride 326
TiAl (Ll0) 314
zinc sulphide (blende) 23
YBa2Cu3O7-x 187
Crystallinity in polymers 36 38
chain-folding model 39
crystalline melting point (Tm) 38 355
defects 116
microscopy 129
spherulites 40 117 355
Crystallography:
axial ratio (c/a) 15 19 204 278
crystal systems 12
directions and planes 14
equivalence 16
interplanar spacing 134
lattices 12
Miller-Bravais indices 15
Miller indices 14
reciprocal lattice 141
stereographic projection 16
symmetry 17
unit cell 12
Vector Addition Law 17
Weiss Zone Law 16
Curie temperature (point) 27 190
Curing of thermosetting resins 37 357 415
Czochralski 'crystal-pulling' (single crystals) 47436
Index terms Links
D
Dacron 400 413
Damping capacity 176 407
de Broglie relation 10 125
Debye characteristic temperature 170
Debye-Scherrer (power) method of X-ray analysis 136
Deep-drawing 234
Defects:
ceramics 323
defect lattice 80
defect tetrahedra 108
glasses 117
line 90
planar 97
point 84
polymers 116 360
volume 104
see also Vacancies; Dislocations; Radiation damage; Stacking fault; Voids
Deformation, elastic 201
Deformation mechanisms (Ashby) maps 176 251 356
Dendrites 43
Density:
dislocations 90
intermetallic compounds 312
theoretical, calculation of 21 168
various materials 321
see also Property ratios
Dental materials 395
bioglass 397
implants 397
porcelain 397
Detonation-gun (D-gun) method of coating 391
Devitrification 31 117 331 345
Dezincification 386437
Index terms Links
Diamond:
classification 339
natural 337
polycrystalline (PCD) 340 371
structure 8 21
synthetic 338
Dielectric materials 70 72 193 324
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) 165
Differential thermal analysis (DTA) 165
Diffusion:
Cu/Zn couple 60
diffusion coefficient (D) 173
Fick's 1st law 173 175
Fick's 2nd law 54 173
interstitial 174
mechanisms 173
oxidation, during 379
pipe 250
radiation-induced 124
reptation in polymers 41
self- 86 175
stress-induced 174
surface 175
'uphill' 273
vacancy 174
Diffusion bonding 370
Dilatation strain 202 215
Dilatometry 169
Dipoles in dielectric materials 193 194
Dislocation:
behaviour of:
'atmosphere' (Cottrell) locking 212 214
chemical stress, response to 90438
Index terms Links
Dislocation: (Continued)
climb 93 94 110 237
246 288
cross-slip 93 101 210 214
230 232 268
decoration of 155
dissociation 99 105 108 116
Frank-Read source 210 223 265
interaction 96
Lomer-Cottrell barrier 103 107
motion, conservative and non-conservative 94
multiplication 210
pile-up 247 288
characteristics:
Burgers vector 91
density 230 237 371
force acting per unit length 92
image formation in TEM 147 155
jog 93 97 108
kink 216
line tension 210
loops, see Dislocation loops
strain energy, elastic 95
velocity 207
width 207
forms:
dipole 94 228
edge 91
extended, see Stacking faults
extrinsic 98
'forest' 93 238
grain boundary (gbds) 97
intrinsic 98
ionic crystals, fcc 97
misfit, at interface 83439
Index terms Links
Dislocation: (Continued)
partial (Shockley) 99 105
screw 91 97
sessile (Frank) 102
stair-rod 102 107
superdislocations 114 214 231
unit 106
loops:
cross-slip multiplication source 210
double 107 111 119
growth and stability 117 269
irradiation effects 119
Orowan 231 266 371
prismatic 94 106 119
sessile (Frank) 102 104 107 121
single 91 93
Domain structures 178 190
Dough-moulding compounds (DMC) 366
Drug delivery, polymeric 405
'Ductile' ceramics 286
Dulong and Petit law 170 179
Duplex (double) ageing 271
Duplex steel 416
Duralumin alloys 260
E
Elastomers 35
Electrical conductivity 181
ceramics 321
effect of ordering 180
Electrical contacts 62
Electrochemical effect, in alloying 73 74
Electrochemical Series 383
Electrode (half-cell) potential 382440
Index terms Links
Electrographites 340
Electromagnetic spectrum 125 194
Electron:
-atom ratio (e/a) 75 78 186
Auger 142 143 150 154
band structure theory 181
back-scattered (BS) 144 150
exchange energy (magnetism) 190
'gas' 8
orbitals, radii of 190
polarization in dielectrics 193
quantum numbers 2
secondary 150
states, density of 9 75 182
states, filling of 3
volt 10
see also Atom: Electron microscopy
Electronegativity 74 77
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) 150 152
Electron microscopy 142
back-scattered (BS) electrons 144
bend (extinction) contours 156
bright-and dark-field imaging 147 161
convergent beam diffraction pattern (CBDP) 149
diffraction contrast 147
dynamical theory 158
electron channelling 145
first-order Laue zones (FOLZ) 150
g-vector 156
higher-order Laue zones (HOLZ) 149
higher-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) 149
imaging of dislocations 147 157 159 166
Kikuchi lines 148
kinematical theory 156441
Index terms Links
Electron microscopy (Continued)
scanning electron microscope (SEM) 144
scattering of plasmons and electrons 142
selected area diffraction (SAD) 147
transmission electron microscope (TEM) 143
weak-beam 160
Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) 150
Electro-optic ceramics 196
Emery 324
Epitaxy, see Coherency
Epoxy resins (adhesives) 36 412 415
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phage diagrams
Etching techniques for microscopy 126 154
Eutectic reaction:
binary systems 56
in-situ composites 374
ternary systems 66
Eutectoid reaction 58 274
Ewald 'reflection' sphere 141 148 156
Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) 163
Extrusion of plastics 356
F
Fatigue 200 252
Basquin's Law 253
Coffin-Manson Law 253
cracking and failure 256 295 413 416
corrosion- 254 387
endurance limit 200
fatigue limit 252 254
fatigue ratio 253
hardening 256
high-temperature 258
Miner's hypothesis 254442
Index terms Links
Fatigue (Continued)
S-N diagram 200 252
surface striations 257
testing 200 252
variables 252
Feldspars 30
Fencing foils 415
Fermi surface (level) 10 75 183 186
189
Ferri-and ferroelectric materials 194
Ferrite 60 76 274 301
Fibres for composites:
aramid 367
aspect ratio 363
boron 369
carbon 367
coupling agents 364
critical length 363
glass 285 361 366
lay-up sequence 365
orientation 364
stress transfer length 363
whiskers 284 369
Firebricks 63
Floating-zone technique (single crystals) 47
Flow stress 203 206 219 233
235 268
Fluxes:
alumina 325
dielectrics 72
glasses 30 31
silicon nitride 326
solders 56
Foams (polymeric) 169 287 418443
Index terms Links
Forsterite ceramics 71
Fracture:
brittleness in ceramics 286
cleavage 199 288
creep 249 293
cup-and-cone 199
debonding in composites 364 371 372
ductile-brittle transition 198 289
ductile fracture 104 292
fatigue 256 295 348
fracture mechanism map 294
hydrogen, effect of 291
intercrystalline 199
intergranular 287
slow (delayed) crack growth in ceramics 348
toughness 285
toughness parameter (Kc) 199 286
transformation-inhibited 331
twins, effect of 224
Frank Read Source, dislocations 210 223 265
Fretting corrosion 387
Fullerenes and fullerite 344
'Fused quartz' 345
Fusible alloys 68 408
G
Galvanic Series 383
see also Electrochemical Series
Gauss error function 174
GEC process for synthesizing diamonds 338
Gibbsite 325
Glass:
manufacture:
commercial glass, of 31444
Index terms Links
Glass: (Continued)
formation from melt 31
working range of temperature 345
see also Fluxes
properties:
colour 195
optical 129
specific moduli 321
time-dependency of strength 348
viscosity 333 345
structure:
devitrification 31 117 331 345
network-formers 31
network-modifiers 31 117
network structure 11 31
types:
AR-, E-, H-modulus, S- 366
aluminosilicate 346
borosilicate (Pyrex) 346
chemically-strengthened 346
'fused quartz' 345
laminated 347
'lead crystal' 346
photochromic 195
soda-lime 346
thermally-tempered 346
Vycor 48
Glass-ceramics 322 331
Glass transition point (Tg) 35 351 355 367
Glaze 324
Globars (SiC) 336
Golf club shaft, and heads 410
Goss texture 146445
Index terms Links
Grain boundary:
cavitation during fatigue 258
coincident site lattice (CSL) model 98
diffusion creep (Coble) 176 249
dislocation pile-up at 155
fracture effect on 290
grain boundary sliding 247 258 288
high-angle 43 97 239
intergranular nucleation 240
low-angle (tilt) 43 97
tripe junction 99
twist 97
work-hardening at 231
Grain growth 242
Grain size:
dual-phase steels 301
heat-treatment (steel), effect on 276
toughness, effect on 289
Hall-Fetch equation 216 219 224 289
measurement 131
yield strees, effect on 219
Grain structures:
cell formation 230 238
chill crystals 44
columnar crystals 45 46
equiaxed grains 43 45
planes of weakness 45
Graphite:
conventional structure 22
intercalation compounds 344
pyrolytic (PG) 341 368 402
turbostratic 367
'Green' powder compact 322 325
Greninger-Troiano theory 279446
Index terms Links
Griffith micro-crack criterion 284 289
Griffith-Preston (GP) zones 261 267
g-vector in electron microscopy 157
H
Hall-Petch equation 216 219 224 289
HAPEX, composite 399 402
Hardening:
chemical 266
coherency strain- 265
dispersion- 231 250 266 301
302
fatigue- 255
heat-treatment of steels 274
irradiation 290
point defect 224
precipitation- 53 259 317
secondary 283
texture- 233
work (strain)- 226
Hardness (indentation):
Brinell 199
hot 329
Knoop 130
Meyer line 131
microhardness 130
Vickers 130 199
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) 405 414
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle 2
Helmets Safety 417
Herring-Nabarro Creep 176 249
Heusler alloy 188 192
Hooke's Law 197 202
Hume-Rothery Rules 73447
Index terms Links
Hund's Rule 4 7
Hydrogen embrittlement 291
Hydroxyapatite (HA) 396 397 399 402
I
Impact testing 199 418
Internal friction 176
Investment casting ('Lost wax' process) 410
Ionic crystals:
coordination in 22
dislocations in 97
In-situ composites 373
Inclusion counting methods 131
Inoculation of melts 45
Insulators, electrical 193
Intermediate phases 59
see also Compounds
Intermediate compounds 312 370
Interstitial atoms 86 122
'Invisibility' criterion (g) in electron microscopy 157
Ion implantation 391
Iron 172
Iron-nickel alloys (Permalloys} 191
Iron-silicon alloys (magnets) 191 243
Isoforming 283 284
Isostatic pressing:
alumina 325
silicon nitride 325
Isothermal annealing 283448
Index terms Links
J
Johnson-Mehl equation 240
Joining:
adhesives 414
brazing 414
HAZ problems 414
Tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding 414
Joints, human:
failure 399
finger 399
hip 394 398
knee 399
shoulder 399
wrist (carpal) 400
K
Kaolinite 29 63
Kê torsion pendulum 177
Kear-Wilsdorf (K-W) lock 232
Kevlar 367 408 410
Kikuchi lines 148 157
Kirkendall effect 123 175
inverse 123
Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relation 278
L
Larsen-Miller parameter 308
Lasers 195 412
Lattice friction 207 225
Lattice rotation 205
Laue method of X-ray analysis 135
Laves phases 26 77
Le Chatelier principle 49
'Lead crystal' glass 346449
Index terms Links
Lever Rule 52
Liquid pressure forming (LPF) 370
Liquidus 52
Littleton softening point (glass) 345
Lomer-Cottrell barrier 103 107
Lüders band 211
M
Ms
temperature 276 281 283
Magnesia (MgO) 8 115
Magnet:
hard (permanent) 188 191
soft (temporary) 188 191
Magnetic alloys 191
Magnetic hysteresis (B-H loop) 189 191
Magnetic remanence 189
Magnetic susceptibility 188 192
Magnetism:
anti-ferro- 162 192
dia- 189
ferri- 193
ferro- 162 172 188 189
para- 162 188
Magnetostriction 191
Magnox alloys 258
Manganese sulphide in steel 60
Martempering 283
Martensite 61 76 274 278
Material property (Ashby) chart 168 286
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law 80
Mechanical alloying 301 318 369
Meissner effect 186
Melt flow index (MFI) test 358450
Index terms Links
Melting point:
congruent 52 58 66
creep-resistant alloys 249
electrochemical effect in alloying 74
incongruent 58
intermetallic compounds 312
intermediate phase, of 76
pure metal 42
Michel-Lévy colour chart 129
Microscopy, light:
etching 126
hot-stage 129
illumination, bright- and dark-field 126
magnification 127
microhardness testing 130
numerical aperture (NA) 127
objective lens 126
Burch reflecting 130
oil-immersion 127
ocular lens 126 127
parfocalization 127
phase-contrast 127
polarized light 129
quantitative 131
grain size 131
inclusions 131
stereological notation 131
resolution 126
tube length 127
Miller-Bravais indices 15
Miller indices 14
Mineralizers 25
Miscibility, solid see Solid solution
Modifiers, see Glass451
Index terms Links
Modulus of rupture (MoR) 201 321 411
Moduli, elastic 197 203 321 396
Molecular mass distribution (MMD):
in polymers 33 360
polydispersivity index 33
Molecular sieves 30
Molybdenum disulphide 22
Moment of Inertia (I) 410 413
Monel 52
Monotectic reaction 59 61 64
Moulding of plastics:
blow- 357 359
injection- 356 360
reaction injection-(RIM) 357
tennis rackets 408
Mullite 63 335
Multiple cross-slip (Koehler) 210
Mylar 413
N
n-type semiconductor 87 184 380 381
Nanocomposites 374
Néel temperature 192
'Necking' during tensile test 198
Nernst equation 383
Neumann bands 223
Neutron:
diffraction 161 179
mass absorption coefficients 162
scattering amplitudes 162
'thermal' 161
Newtonian flow 345 358
Nichrome alloy 382452
Index terms Links
Nickel aluminides 312
Nimonic alloys 249 295
Nishiyama orientation relation 279
Nitridation 325
Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of ceramics 323 337
Notch-sensitivity, see Fracture; Impact testing
Nuclear fission 88 122 161
Nucleation and growth processes:
defect tetrahedra 108
glass-ceramics 332
heterogeneous nucleation 43 82
homogeneous nucleation 42 81 332
nucleating agents (inoculants) 45 333
nucleation in solids 82
oxidation 378
pearlite formation 276
precipitation-hardening 53 259 270
recrystallization 239
spherulite formation in polymers 40
twinned crystals 222
void formation 104 292 371
Nylon 355 359 366 409
O
Ophthalmic materials (lenses) 404
Optic axes of crystals 129
Optical fibres 195
Optical properties 195 339
Ordering of atoms:
effect on physical properties 179
entropy of disorder 49
irradiation effects 123
magnets, in 191
order-disorder transformation 60 79453
Index terms Links
Ordering of atoms: (Continued)
ordered solid solutions (superlattice) 79 113 178 192
231
short-range, long-range 11 177
work-hardening, effect of 231
Orowan loops 231
Ostwald ripening 272
Overvoltage 383
Oxidation of metals:
kinetics 378
logarithmic rate law 379
parabolic rate law 379
thermodynamics 376
P
Pacemaker, heart 403
p-type semiconductors 87 184 380 381
p-n-p semiconductor 184
Paris-Erdogan (fatigue) equation 295
Particles, precipitate:
coarsening of 272
stability of 74
Pauli Exclusion Principle 2 9 190
Pauling Rules, of coordination 22
Pearlite 60 276
Peierls-Nabarro stress 207 213 280 312
Periodic Table 4 74 151
Peritectic reaction:
in binary systems 57 60
in ternary systems 69
Peritectoid reaction 58
Permalloys 191
Permittivity 193
Persistent slip band (PSB) 255454
Index terms Links
Phase 48
Phase diagrams:
principles:
arrest points 60
binary 52
double-reciprocal 327
Gibbs triangle 65
Lever Rule 52 56
limitations 59
liquidus 52
miscibility gap 123
Phase Rule 64
solidus 52
solvus 52
ternary 65
tie-line 52 64 66 70
tie-triangle 65
unary 48
systems;
Al-Cu 78 259
Al2O3–SiO2 63
Au-Ni 73
Au-Pt 73
Cr-S-O 382
Cu-Ag 73
Cu-Be 53
Cu-Pb 61
Cu-Sn 78
Cu-Zn 60 78
Fe-C 60 274
Fe-Cr 298
Fe-Ni 298
MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 70
Mg-Si 59
Ni-Cu 52 73455
Index terms Links
Phase diagrams: (Continued)
Ni-Pt 73
Ni-S-O 64
Pb-Sn 57
Si-Al-O-N 327
Ti-Al 309
Ti-Cu 309
Ti-V 309
ZrO2–Y2O3 330
Phase equilibrium:
Class I reactions 68
Class II reactions 69
Class III reactions 69
four-phase 68
two-phase 52
three-phase 56 61
Phase Rule 48 64
Phase transformations:
austenite-bainite 282
austenite-martensite 278
ceramics 63
conversions 24
devitrification 31
diffusionless 275
inversions 24
order-disorder transformation 60
pure metal 48
solidification of pure metal 42
specific heat, changes in 171
thermodynamical aspects 50
volumetric changes 169
zirconia 330
Phenol-formaldehyde resin (P-F; Bakelite) 36 37 357
Piezoelectric effect 194456
Index terms Links
Pilling-Bedworth (P-B) ratio 379
Pistons, diesel 371
Plasma-spray method of coating 391
Plasmon interactions 142 153
Platinum phthalocyanine 117
Plasticity, macroscopic 235
Poisson ratio 197 202
Polarization 193 194
Polarized light microscopy 129
spherulites in polymers 40
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 366 408
Polybutadiene 36
Polybutylene (PB) 353
Polycarbonates 354
Polychloroprene 36 354
Polyester resin 37 366
Polyether ketone (PEEK) 366 409
Polyethylene (PE) 33 39 41
linear low-density (LLDPE) 353
low-density (LDPE) and high-density (HDPE) 34 38 353
ultra-high molecular weight (UHMPE) 353
Polygonization 238
Polyimides (PI) 367
Polyisoprene (natural rubber) 36 354
Polymerization:
condensation polymerization 37
copolymerization 35
degree of (n) 32
vulcanization 35
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) 38 352 357
Polypropylene (PP) 34 35 39 130
353 354 355 359
366457
Index terms Links
Polystyrene (PS) 34 38 40 352
354 355 356
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 352 366
Polytypoids (polytypes) 328 334
Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) 34
Polyvinyl butyrate (PVB) 347
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC):
plasticized 34 352 353 357
unplasticized (UPVC) 353
Porosity, gas:
scavenging treatment of melts 45
Sievert's relation 45
Pourbaix diagram 384
Powder (Debye-Scherrer) method of X-ray analysis 136 142
Powders, ceramic 322 324 334
Preferred orientation:
annealing texture 233
cube texture 191 245
deformation textures 232
Goss texture 146 243
recrystallization texture 245
texture transition 233
Preferred (Renard) numbers 127
Prepregs (pre-impregnated shapes) 366
Proof-testing 201 348
Property ratios, specific:
E /ρ 321 410 411 412
413 416
MoR/ρ 411
Klc /σy 286 287
σ
y /ρ 169 369 407 413
Prosthetic materials:
ear implants 402
heart valves and arteries 402458
Index terms Links
Prosthetic materials: (Continued)
maxillofacial surgery 401
plastic surgery 400
tissue repair 403
Pykecrete 361
Pyroelectric materials 194
Q
Quantum theory 2 170
R
Radiant tubes (gas-fired furnaces) 336
Radiation damage:
damage cascades 121
displacement spike 88
electron miroscopy 149
growth and swelling 121
induced precipitation 123
induced segregation 123
microscopy 149
neutron 'annealing' of metals 90
ordered alloys 123
radiation hardening 225
thermal spike 88
void formation 104
Radiography 133
Reaction-sintering (bonding) 325 335
Read-Shockley formula 97
Reciprocal lattice 141 148 156
Recovery stage of annealing 86 237 246
Recrystallization 146 239 243 293
319 342
REFEL silicon carbide 334459
Index terms Links
Refractories:
properties:
general 25 29 62
modulus of rupture 201
pyrometric cone equivalent (PCE) 62
refractoriness 63 322
spalling 322
types:
alumina 63 323
aluminosilicate 62
carbon 337
insulating 322
mullite 63
silica 63
silicon carbide 334
zirconia 330
Relative valency effect, in alloying 73 74
Relaxation modulus (polymers) 351
Relaxation time (anelastic) 176 359
Reptation in polymers 41
Resins, thermosetting 36 357 415
Resolution 126
Reversion (retrogression) 260
Rubber:
decomposition 164
hard (Ebonite) 35
natural 354
repeat units 36
silicone 36 371
styrene-butadiene- 36 354
S
SI units 420
S-N diagram (fatigue) 200460
Index terms Links
Schmid's Law 233
Season-cracking of brass 386
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) 163
'Seeds' in glass 117
Segregation:
cellular microsegregation 54
inverse 46
normal 46
X-ray analysis of 141
Selected area diffraction (SAD) 148
Semiconductors 87 103 138 183
195 336 340 392
Sensitization of austenitic steels 386
Shape-memory effect (SME) 315
'Sharkskin' (plastics) 360
Shear strength of crystals, theoretical 90
Shear stress for slip, resolved 203
Sheet moulding compounds (SMC) 357 366
Shrinkage:
firing 325
plastics 361
silicon nitride 326
solidification 43
SI units 420
Sialons 326
Sievert relation, gas 45
Silica 24 30
Silicates 27
Silicon carbide 24 334
Silicon-lithium detector 152
Silicon nitride 326
hot-isostatically-pressed (HIPSN) 326
hot-pressed (HPSN) 326461
Index terms Links
Silicon nitride (Continued)
reaction-bonded (RBSN) 325
Single crystals:
polyethylene 39
production for research 47
slip and lattice rotation 204
stress-strain curves 226
turbine blades 46 250 307
X-ray diffraction analysis 135
Sink-marks (plastics) 361
Sintered aluminium powder (SAP) 242 250
Sintering 119 243 322 325
330
Size factor, in alloying 73 77
Skiing boots bindings, skis, poles 417
Slip:
comparison with twinning 203
critical resolved shear stress 205
dislocation movement 92 110
lines and bands 205 211
multiple 205
overshooting of primary system 206
persistent slip band (PSB) 255
resolved shear stress 203
systems in metals 204
see also Cross-slip
Snowboarding equipment 416
Sol-gel process 323
Solders 56
Solid solution:
ceramic 326
complete miscibility in ternary system 66
coring in 53
extended (continuous) 52462
Index terms Links
Solid solution: (Continued)
interstitial 76
ordered 79
Primary (terminal) 52 74
solvus 53
substitutional 73 79
see also Hume-Rothery Rules
Solidification:
cellular front 54
dendritic 43
directional (DS) 46 374
kinectics, of 81
plane-front 43
pure metal, of 42
volume changes 170
Solidus 52
Solution heat-treatment 259
Spark plugs 324
Specific heat (capacity) 170 179
Specific modulus 321
Spherulites, see Crystallinity in polymers
Spinels:
degree of inversion 27
ferrospinels (ferrites) 27
inverse 27
oxide scale 381
structure 26
Spinodal decomposition 273
Sputtering yield (Y) 389
Squeeze-casting 370
Stacking fault:
Ceramics, in 103 115
corrosion, effect on 386
cross-slip 101463
Index terms Links
Stacking fault: (Continued)
energy 48 98 100
extrinsic 102
imaging in electron microscope 158 159
intrinsic 102 105
ordered structures 113
structure 99 112
tetrahedra 93 104 107
width 101
work-hardening 227
Stacking sequences:
cubic structures 19 112
fee crystals 99 102
hexagonal structures 19 110
intercalation compounds 343
precipitation-hardening 269
pyrolytic graphite 341
semiconductors 103
Steatite:
low-loss-factor 70
porcelains 70
Steels, types of:
alloy 278 298 302
austenitic (stainless) 291 298 303
designation (BS) of steels 302
dual-phase (DP) 300
duplex 416
high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) 286 299
maraging 299 416
mechanically-alloyed (MA) 301
non-strain-ageing 212
plain carbon 277 297
Stereographic projection 16
preferred orientation 232464
Index terms Links
Stereographic projection (Continued)
slip 205
Thompson tetrahedron 105
Stiffness constants, elastic 202
Stirling's approximation 85
'Stones' in glass 117
Strain-age hardening 211 215 217
Strain-anneal technique, for single crystals 47
Strain-hardening, see Work-hardening
Strain ratio (R) 234
Strength-probability-time (SPT) diagrams 348
Strengthening, see Hardening
Stress:
chemical 89
cycles (fatigue) 252
flow 203 206 219 233
235 268
intensity factor (K) 286
nominal 197
Peierls-Nabarro 207 213 288 312
relaxation in polymers 351 359
resolved shear 203 220 222
tensor 202
true 198
yield, variation with temperature and strain rate 208
Stress-corrosion:
Ceramics, of 348
cracking (SCC) 386
Stress-recrystallization 342
Stress-strain curve 197 226 362
Stretcher strain markings 212
Stroh (fracture) mechanism 288
Styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) 36 354465
Index terms Links
Superalloys:
alloying elements 305
eutectic (NITAC, COTAC) 374
hot corrosion of 64
Superconductors 26 181 185
Superlattice, see Ordering of atoms
Superplasticity 220 317
Surface (interfacial) energy:
ductile failure 293
grain growth 242
hydrogen embrittlement 291
nucleation, influence on 81
particle-coarsening 272
sintering 243
triple junctions 99
Surgical materials see Prosthetic materials
Swell, degree of 359
Symmetry in crystals:
cubic 17
elements 17
Laue patterns 135
point and space groups 18
tetrahedral 18
Synchro-shear (Kronberg) 116
Synchrotron radiation studies (SRS) 162
T
Tacticity, in polymers; syndio-, iso- and atacticity 35 39
Talc (French chalk) 9 30
TD (thoria-dispersed)-nickel 250 295 307
Temper embrittlement 291
Tempering of martensite 282
Tennis racket frames and strings 407466
Index terms Links
Tensile test 198
see also Yielding, discontinuous
Thermal analysis 164
Thermal expansion 168 372 407
Thermistor (PTC) 185
Thermodynamic criteria for equilibrium:
entropy 49 74 374
free energy 49
aqueous corrosion 382
oxidation of metals 376
recrystallization 239
transformation, of 171
variation with temperature/composition 50 75
heat content 49
Thermo-mechanical (THT) treatments 283
Thermocouple sheaths 323
Thermoforming of plastics 356
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) 164 379
Thermoplastics 32
adhesive 415
copolymer 35
flow defects 360
molecular mass distribution 33
processing 356
structural repeat units, typical 35
tacticity 35
Thermosets 36 357 375 415
Thompson tetrahedron:
bcc crystals 112
cph crystals 108
defect (stacking fault) tetrahedra 111
fee crystals 106
ionic crystals 114
stair-rod dislocations 107467
Index terms Links
Throwing power 388
Time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams 274 281 284
Titanium alloys 308 410 414
α-stabilizers, in 308
β-stabilizers, in 308
commercial 310
processing 312
Titanium aluminides 314
Tool tips 329
Transducers 194
Transformation-toughening (zirconia) 330
Transformer laminations 243
Transistor 184
Transmutation of elements 88
Tresca yield criterion 235
Turbine blades:
ceramic 322
directional solidification of 46
superalloys 305
Twins:
annealing 244
boundary 98
boundary energy 101
comparison with slip 203
crystallography 221
dislocation (pole) mechanism 223
fracture 224
impurities, effect of 223
prestrain, effect of 223
stacking sequence 102 244
Tyres, automobile 353468
Index terms Links
U
Undercooling 42
constitutional 54
effect on rate of precipitation 81
Uranium 122
Urea-formaldehyde (U-F) resin 36 415
V
Vacancies:
activation energy of formation 89
activation energy of migration 89
chemical stress 89
clustering 104 120 269
creep mechanisms 247
definition 84
di-vacancies 89
diffusion of 174
emission 122
equilibrium concentration 85
fatigue 254
Frenkel defect (vacancy-interstitial pair) 86
Precipitation, role during 268
Schottky defect (vacancy pair) 86
self-diffusion 86 174
sinks 85 89 117 122
sources 85
tri-vacancies 89
Vacuum melting and degassing 45
Vapour deposition:
chemical (CVD) 323 342 368 388
physical (PVD) 388
plasma-assisted chemical (PACVD) 388
plasma-assisted physical (PAPVD) 390
Varistor 185469
Index terms Links
Vegard's Law 168
Viscoelasticity 35 351 359
Viscosity:
glasses 345
thermoplastic melts 358
Voids:
debonding in composites 371
ductile fracture 104 293
fatigue failure 256
formation of 90 104
gas-filled 104
irradiation swelling 122
sintering 119
von Mises yield criterion 220 287
Vulcanization 35
Vycor glass 48 333
W
Wagner-Hauffe Rule 380
Waste management (plastics) 354
Wave number 181
Weld decay 386
Whiskers 284 369
Wiedemann-Franz law 181
Widmanstatten structure 53 83 262
'Windows', ceramic 196
Wood:
anisotropy 407
cell structure 406
properties 407
types 407
Work (strain)-hardening 226
brittle behaviour 289
creep, during 246470
Index terms Links
Work (strain)-hardening (Continued)
dislocation-dislocation interaction 212
jog theory 93
Lomer-Cottrell barrier 103 107
relation to slip 206
Taylor model 226
X
X-ray diffraction:
methods of analysis:
diffractometry (XRD) 137
Laue 135 261
topography 138
powder (Debye-Scherrer) 136 179
principles:
'absent' reflections 139 141
asterism 238 267
atomic scattering factor 139
Bragg law 134
determination of lattice parameters 140
determination of solvus 140
intensity of diffraction 138
line-broadening 140
reciprocal lattice 141
reflection (line) number (N) 134
small angle scattering (SAS) 141 261 262
structure-factor equation 139
X-rays:
absorption coefficients 133 162
characteristic 133 150
continuous ('white') spectrum 133 161
diffraction by crystals 134
extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) 163
filtering 134
intensity measurement 138471
Index terms Links
X-rays: (Continued)
scattering amplitudes 162
Si-Li detector 151
wavelength- and energy-dispersive spectrometers 150
Y
YBCO (1-2-3 compound) superconductor 187
Yielding, discontinuous:
effect of overstraining 211
effects of temperature and grain size 217
Lüders band formation 211
ordered alloys 214
strain age-hardening 211
yield point (upper, lower) 211
Young's modulus 197 203 321
see also Property ratios
Yttria 326 330
Yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) 328
Z
Z(AF) micro-analysis technique 152
Zener drag equation 242
Zeolites 30
Zirconia 330
fully-stabilized cubic (CSZ) 330
partially-stabilized (PSZ) 330 331
refractories 330
tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) 330 331
toughened alumina (ZT(A)) 331
Zone-refining 46 55 185


كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 16965
التقييم : 29903
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications   كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Emptyالأربعاء 12 ديسمبر 2012, 6:15 pm

تم تعديل الرابط

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ali abdelmonem
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار
ali abdelmonem

عدد المساهمات : 1
التقييم : 1
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/08/2016
العمر : 30
الدولة : مصر
العمل : معيد
الجامعة : عين شمس

كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications   كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications Emptyالثلاثاء 29 يونيو 2021, 4:08 pm

الرابط غير موجود

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Science, Process, Applications
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 2 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية الأجنبية-
انتقل الى: