كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes - صفحة 3
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

اذهب الى الأسفل 
انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2, 3
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عدد المساهمات : 18706
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes    كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 Emptyالأربعاء 02 مايو 2012, 11:40 pm

تذكير بمساهمة فاتح الموضوع :

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
How Products, Components and Materials Are Made
James G. Bralla
With Contributions by a Distinguished
Editorial Board

كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 H_b_o_20
و المحتوى كما يلي :


TABLE OF CONTENTS IN BRIEF
Editorial Board xxvii
About the Author xxix
Dedication xxxi
Preface xxxii
Acknowledgments xxxv
How to use this Handbook xxxvii
Section I - Manufacturing Processes xxxix
Chapter 1 - Casting Processes 1
Chapter 2 - Metal Forming Processes 33
Chapter 3 - Machining Processes 87
Chapter 4 - Processes for Plastics 147
Chapter 5 - Glass and Ceramic Processes 211
Chapter 6 - Woodworking Processes 255
Chapter 7 - Assembly and Fusion (or Joining) Processes 295
Chapter 8 - Finishing Processes (including Heat Treating) 329
Chapter 9 - Paper, Fiber and Printing Processes 361
Chapter 10 - Textile Processes 385
Chapter 11 - Chemical Processes 417
Chapter 12 - Food Processes 483
Chapter 13 - Processes for Electronic Products 519
Chapter 14 - Advanced Manufacturing Methods 585
Section II - How Products, Components and Materials Are Made 613
Index 78
v
Preface xxxii
Section I-Manufacturing Processes
Editorial Board xxvii
About the Author xxix
Dedication xxxi
Preface xxxii
Acknowledgments xxxv
How to use this Handbook xxxvii
Chapter 1-Casting Processes 1
A. Melting Metal for Casting 1
A1. cupola melting 1
A2. electric arc melting 1
A3. crucible melting 2
A4. air furnace (reverbatory) melting 2
A5. induction melting (high frequency
and low frequency) 2
A6. open-hearth melting 4
A7. pouring 4
B. Sand-mold Casting 5
B1. green sand casting 6
B2. dry sand casting 6
B2a. skin-dried casting 6
B3. other sand-mold casting processes 6
B3a. shell mold casting 6
B3b. lost foam casting 8
B3c. magnetic molding 9
B3d. V-process casting (vacuum molding) 9
B3e. cement-sand molding 9
B3f. loam molding 9
B3g. flaskless mold casting 11
B3h. Antioch process 11
B4. core making 12
B4a. green sand cores 13
B4b. core blowing 13
B4c. core baking 13
B4d. oil-oxygen process 13
B4e. furan no-bake core process 13
B4f. carbon-dioxide process 14
B4g. shell process for cores 14
B5. sand mold methods 14
B5a. ramming 14
B5b. bench molding 14
B5c. floor molding 14
B5d. pit molding 14
B5e. machine methods 14
B5e1. jolt-squeeze methods 14
B5e2. sand slinging 15
B5e3. rap-jolt machines 15
B5e4. match-plate molding 15
B6. sand processing 16
B6a. sand mulling 16
B6b. reclamation of sand 16
B6b1. mechanical reclamation 16
B6b2. thermal reclamation 17
B6b3. wet reclamation 17
B6c. metal separation from sand 17
B6d. cooling of sand 17
B7. pattern making 18
B8. post-molding operations 18
B8a. shakeout 18
B8b. core knockout 18
B8c. blast cleaning 19
B8d. tumble cleaning 19
B8e. wire brush cleaning 20
B8f. gate, riser and fin removal 20
B8g. snagging 20
C. Other Expendable Mold Processes 20
C1. ceramic mold casting 20
C2. ceramic-shell process 21
C3. Shaw process 21
C4. Unicast process 21
C5. plaster mold casting 22
C5a. foamed plaster mold casting 22
D. Permanent Mold Processes 23
D1. permanent mold casting 23
D2. low pressure permanent
mold casting 24
D3. slush casting 24
D4. pressed casting 24
D5. vacuum casting 24
E. Centrifugal Casting 24
E1. true centrifugal casting 25
E2. semicentrifugal casting 25
E3. centrifuged casting 25
DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTSvi Table of Contents
F. Die Casting 26
F1. hot-chamber die casting 26
F2. cold-chamber die casting 27
F3. trimming 28
F4. impregnation of die castings 28
G. Investment Casting (lost wax process) 29
G1. flask method 29
G2. shell method 29
H. Continuous Casting 32
Chapter 2-Metal Forming Processes 33
A. Hot and Warm Forming Methods 33
A1. hot rolling 33
A2. hot drawing or cupping 34
A3. extrusion 34
A3a. indirect extrusion 35
A3b. Sejournet process 35
A4. forging 35
A4a. open-die drop-hammer forging
(hammer, flat-die or smith forging) 36
A4b. impression die forging (closed die forging)
(die forging) 36
A4b1. drop forging 36
A4b2. precision forging 37
A4b3. flashless forging 37
A4c. press forging 37
A4d. upset forging 38
A4e. roll forging 38
A4f. isothermal forging 38
A4g. swaging 38
A4h. ring rolling (mandrel forging) 38
A5. piercing 39
A6. pipe welding 39
A7. hot spinning 39
A9. warm heading 39
B. Primary Cold-working Operations 39
B1. rolling 39
B2. cold drawing 40
C. Sheet Metal Cutting Operations 40
C1. shearing 40
C1a. squaring shears 41
C1b. alligator shears 41
C1c. rotary shears 42
C2. nibbling 42
C3. slitting 42
C4. blanking 42
C4a. steel rule die blanking 43
C4b. dinking 43
C4c. cutoff 44
C4d. parting 44
C4e. photochemical blanking 44
C5. punching 44
C5a. turret punching 44
C5b. notching 45
C6. trimming 46
C7. shaving 46
C8. lancing 46
C9. fineblanking 46
C9a. semi-piercing 48
D. Press Bending and Forming Operations
of Sheet Metal 48
D1. bending 48
D1a. press brake bending 48
D1b. V-die bending 49
D1c. air bending 50
D1d. punch press (bending die) bending 50
D2. forming 50
D3. forming with rubber tooling 51
D3a. rubber tool forming
(rubber pad forming) 51
D3b. Guerin process 51
D3c. Marform process 51
D3d. rubber diaphragm forming
(hydroform process) (fluid forming) 52
D3e. Verson-Wheelon process 53
D4. drop hammer forming 53
D5. drawing (sheet metal parts) 54
D5a. shallow drawing 55
D5b. deep drawing 55
D5c. redrawing, direct and reverse 55
D6. coining 55
D6a. drop hammer coining 55
D7. embossing 56
D8. flanging 56
D9. beading 56
D10. hemming and seaming 56
D11. edge curling 57
D12. swaging 57
D13. sizing 57
D14. ironing 58
E. Multiple Die Stamping
Press Operations 58
E1. progressive die operations 58
E2. transfer die (transfer press) operations 59
E3. compound die operations 60
F. Sheet Metal Operations Performed
on Equipment Other Than Presses 61
F1. rotary swaging 61
F1a. stationary die swaging 62
F2. three-roll forming 62
F3. stretch forming 62
F3a. stretch draw forming 62
F3b. stretch wrapping
(stretch wrap forming) 63
F3c. compression forming 63
F3d. radial-draw forming 64
F4. roll coining 64
F5. rotary embossing 64
F6. metal spinning 64
F6a. manual spinning 065
F6b. power spinning, “flow turning”
or “shear spinning” 65
F7. roll forming (contour roll forming) 66
F7a. roll forming of tubing and pipe 66
G. Wire Forming Operations 67
G1. wire forming 67
G1a. manual forming of wire parts 67
G1b. wire forming in power presses
and special machines 67
G2. forming in four-slide machines 67
Table of Contents vii
G3. spring forming 68
G4. Turk’s-head rolling of wire 68
H. Tubing and Section Operations 68
H1. tube spinning 68
H1a. forward tube spinning 68
H1b. backward tube spinning 68
H2. tube and section bending 68
H2a. draw bending 68
H2b. compression bending 70
H2c. ram-and-press bending 70
H2d. stretch bending 71
H2e. wrinkle bending 71
H2f. roll bending 71
H2g. roll extrusion bending 72
H2h. bulging, mechanical 72
H2i. bulging, hydraulic 72
H2j. other methods of bulging tubing 73
I. Non-sheet Forming Operations 73
I1. shearing of bars and other non-flat shapes 73
I2. cold heading 73
I3. thread rolling 74
I4. impact/cold extrusion 74
I4a. backwards extrusion 74
I4b. forward extrusion 75
I4c. combined extrusion 75
J. High-energy-rate Forming Methods 75
J1. explosive forming 75
J2. combustible gas forming 75
J3. electromagnetic forming (EMF)
(also known as magnetic pulse forming) 76
J4. spark-discharge forming
(electrospark forming) 77
J5. electrohydraulic forming 77
J6. pneumatic-mechanical forming 78
J7. peen forming 78
K. Straightening 78
K1. manual straightening 78
K2. press straightening 79
K3. parallel roll straightening 79
K4. rotary straightening 79
K5. epicyclic straightening 80
K6. stretch straightening 80
L. Other Forming Processes 80
L1. powder metallurgy (P/M) processes 80
L1a. metal powder manufacture 80
L1b. powder blending and mixing 80
L1c. pressing (compacting) 81
L1d. sintering 81
L1e. repressing 83
L1f. secondary operations 83
L1g. powder metal forging 83
L2. electroforming 84
L3. metal injection molding (MIM) 84
Chapter 3-Machining Processes 87
A. Lathe and Other Turning Operations 87
A1. lathe operations (general description) 87
A1a. turning 87
A1b. form turning 87
A1c. tracer turning 87
A1d. facing 88
A1e. grooving 88
A1f. knurling 88
A1g. cutting off (parting) 89
A2. lathes and other turning machines 89
A2a. engine lathes 89
A2b. turret lathes 90
A2c. screw machines 90
A2c1. single spindle screw machines 91
A2c2. Swiss-type screw machines 91
A2c3. multiple spindle screw machines 91
A2d. chucking machines 92
A2e. turning centers 93
B. Round-hole-making Methods 93
B1. drilling 93
B2. counterboring 93
B3. countersinking 94
B4. reaming 94
B5. boring 94
B5a. jig boring 95
B5b. horizontal boring mills 95
B5c. vertical boring mills 95
B6. gun drilling 96
B7. trepanning 97
B8. multiple-spindle drilling 97
C. Grinding and Abrasive Machining 97
C1. cylindrical grinding 98
C1a. center-type cylindrical grinding 98
C1b. centerless grinding 99
C1b1. through-feed centerless grinding 99
C1b2. infeed centerless grinding 100
C1b3. end-feed centerless grinding 100
C2. internal grinding 100
C2a. internal centerless grinding 101
C3. surface grinding 101
C3a. horizontal spindle
surface grinding 102
C3b. vertical spindle surface grinding 102
C3c. creep-feed grinding 102
C4. jig grinding 103
C4a. tool post grinding 103
C5. low-stress grinding 103
C6. plunge grinding 103
C7. disc grinding 103
C8. abrasive belt grinding 104
C9. abrasive jet machining 104
C10. abrasive flow machining (AFM) 104
C11. ultrasonic machining 105
C11a. rotary ultrasonic machining 105
D. Milling 106
D1. face milling 106
D2. peripheral milling 106
D3. end milling 106
D4. slab milling 106
D5. form milling 106
D6. gang milling 106
D7. straddle milling 106
D8. fly cutter milling 106
D9. pin routing 108
D10. spotfacing 109viii Table of Contents
E. Screw Threads 109
E1. hand-die external threading 109
E2. internal thread tapping 109
E3. single-point screw-thread cutting 110
E4. thread cutting die heads 110
E5. thread milling 110
E6. thread grinding 111
E7. thread rolling 111
E8. cold-form tapping of internal threads 111
F. Broaching 112
F1. internal broaching 113
F2. external broaching 113
F3. pot broaching 113
G. Sawing 113
G1. circular sawing 113
G2. band sawing 113
G3. contour sawing 114
G4. hacksawing 114
G5. abrasive sawing 114
G6. diamond-edge sawing 114
G7. friction sawing 114
H. Flame Cutting (Thermal Cutting) 116
H1. oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC) 116
H2. metal powder cutting (POC) 116
H3. chemical flux cutting (FOC) 117
H4. arc cutting 117
H4a. plasma-arc cutting (PAC) 117
H4b. air-carbon arc cutting and grooving 118
H4c. oxygen lance cutting (LOC) 118
H4d. gas metal arc cutting 118
H4e. gas tungsten arc cutting 118
H4f. shielded metal arc cutting 118
H4g. carbon arc cutting 118
H5. laser cutting 118
I. Electrical Machining Processes 119
I1. electrical discharge machining or EDM 119
I1a. ram EDM 119
I1b. wire EDM 120
I1c. electrical discharge grinding (EDG) 120
I2. electrochemical machining (ECM) 120
I2a. electrochemical grinding (ECG) 122
I2b. electrochemical turning (ECT) 122
I3. electrochemical discharge grinding (ECDG) 122
I4. electrochemical honing (ECH) 123
I5. electro etching 123
J. Finish Machining Operations 123
J1. honing 123
J2. lapping 124
J3. superfinishing 124
J4. burnishing 125
J5. roller burnishing 125
K. Deburring 126
K1. abrasive flow deburring 126
K2. abrasive jet deburring 127
K3. barrel tumbling 127
K4. chemical deburring 128
K5. electropolish deburring 128
K6. electrochemical deburring 128
K7. liquid hone deburring 128
K8. manual deburring 128
K9. thermal energy deburring 128
K10. ultrasonic deburring 128
K11. vibratory deburring 128
K12. water-jet deburring 129
K13. centrifugal barrel tumbling 129
K14. spindle finishing 129
K15. powered brush deburring 129
K16. abrasive belt sanding 129
K17. laser deburring 129
K18. plasma glow deburring 129
K19. skiving 130
K20. edge rolling 130
K21. burnish deburring 130
K22. edge coining 130
K23. robotic deburring 130
K24. CNC machining center deburring 130
K25. cryogenic deflashing 130
L. Filing 130
L1. burring (rotary filing) 131
M. Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining) 131
M1. abrasive water jet machining (AWJ) 131
N. Electron Beam Machining (EBM) 132
O. Laser Beam Machining 133
O1. laser-assisted hot machining (LAM) 134
P. Shaping 134
Q. Planing 134
R. Slotting 135
S. Chemical Machining 135
S1. chemical milling 136
S2. chemical engraving 136
S3. chemical blanking 136
S4. photochemical blanking 136
T. Machining Centers 137
T1. turning centers 139
T2. multiple operation machines 139
U. Numerical and Computer Control 139
U1. NC, numerical control 140
U2. computer numerical control (CNC) 140
U2a. DNC (direct numerical control) 144
U3. programmable controllers 144
U4. CAD-CAM 144
U5. digital readouts in machining 145
U6. automatic tracing 145
U7. robots and robotic operations 145
V. Trimming 145
W. High-Speed Machining 145
X. Special Purpose Machines 145
Y. Transfer Lines 146
Chapter 4-Processes for Plastics 147
A. How Plastics Are Made 147
A1. definition - Plastics 147
A2. polymerization reactions 147
A2a. addition polymerization 147
A2b. condensation polymerization 148
A3. polymerization methods 148
A3a. bulk polymerization 148
A3b. solution polymerization 149
Table of Contents ix
A3c. suspension polymerization 149
A3d. emulsion polymerization 149
A3e. gas-phase polymerization 149
A4. compounding plastics 149
A4a. mixing by tumbling 150
A4b. intensive dry mixing 150
A4c. internal intensive batch mixing 151
A4d. continuous mixing 151
A4e. single screw extruders 151
A4f. compounder-extruder mixing 151
A4g. twin screw extruder mixing 152
A5. pelletizing and dicing of plastics 152
A5a. mixing and dicing with two-roll mills 153
A5b. strand pelletizers 153
A5c. underwater pelletizing 153
B. Compression and Transfer Molding 153
B1. compression molding 153
B1a. automatic compression molding 155
B2. transfer molding 155
B2a. plunger molding 155
B2b. screw transfer molding 155
B3. cold molding 156
C. Injection Molding 156
C1. conventional injection molding 156
C1a. hot runner molding
(heated runnerless molding) 157
C2. injection molding of thermosetting plastics 158
C3. structural foam molding processes 158
C3a. low-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics 158
C3b. reaction injection molding 158
C3c. high-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics 158
C3d. gas counterpressure molding 159
C3e. co-injection or sandwich molding 159
C3f. gas-assisted injection molding 160
C3g. casting of structural foam plastics 160
C3h. extrusion of structural foam plastics 160
C3i. slabstock foam process 161
C4. expanded polystyrene foam processes 161
C4a. pre-expansion of EPS beads 161
C4b. shape molding of EPS beads 161
C4c. block molding of EPS 162
C4d. expanded polyolefin foam process 162
C5. two-color injection molding 162
C6. insert molding 163
D. Thermoforming (Vacuum Forming) 163
D1. straight vacuum forming 163
D2. pressure forming 163
D3. drape vacuum forming 164
D4. plug-assist forming 164
D5. vacuum snap-back forming 165
D6. slip-ring forming (slip forming) 165
D7. matched mold forming 168
D8. pressure-bubble plug-assist forming (also called
reverse-draw plug-assist forming, pressure-bubble
plug-assist forming, billow-up plug-assist forming
or reverse-draw with plug assist) 169
D9. pressure-bubble vacuum-snapback forming
or billow-up vacuum snap-back forming 169
D10. trapped sheet, contact heat, pressure forming 170
D11. air-slip forming 171
D12. free forming (free blowing) 171
D13. dual sheet forming (twin sheet forming) 171
D14. solid phase pressure forming 171
E. Rotational Molding 173
F. Blow Molding 173
F1. extrusion blow molding 173
F2. injection blow molding 173
F3. In stretch blow molding 174
F4. multilayer blow molding 175
F5. dip blow molding 175
F6. other blow molding processes 176
G. Processes for Reinforced
Thermosetting Plastics 176
G1. hand lay-up 176
G2. spray-up 177
G3. vacuum-bag molding 177
G4. pressure-bag molding 177
G5. autoclave molding 177
G6. centrifugal casting 177
G7. Filament winding 178
G8. continuous laminating 178
G8a. continuous laminating with
a thermosetting plastic 178
G8b. continuous laminating with a thermoplastic 178
G9. matched metal mold forming (cold stamping) 179
G10. matched metal mold forming of reinforced
thermosetting material 179
G11. pultrusion 179
G12. pulforming 180
G13. resin transfer molding (RTM)
(liquid resin molding) 181
G14. other processes for reinforced
thermosetting plastics 181
H. Casting of Plastics 182
H1. casting of sheet 182
H1a. cell casting of sheet 182
H1b. continuous casting of sheet 182
H2. casting structural foam parts 183
H3. casting nylon parts 184
H4. casting acrylic parts 184
H5. encapsulation and potting 184
I. Plastics Extrusion 184
I1. profile extrusion 184
I2. coextrusion (dual extrusion) 185
I3. foam extrusion 185
I4. extrusion coating and laminating 186
I4a. wire coating 186
I5. extrusion of film and sheet 187
I5a. blown film extrusion 187
I5b. cast film extrusion 188
I6. operations after extruding 188
J. Calendering 188
K. Vinyl Dispersion Processes 189
K1. spread coating 189
K1a. knife coating (knife-over-roll coating) 189
K1b. roll coating 189
K2. dip coating (hot dipping) and dip molding 189
K2a. cold dipping 190x Table of Contents
K3. slush molding 191
K4. cavity, in-place and low-pressure molding 191
K5. strand coating, using plastisols and organisols 191
K6. spray coating 191
K7. extrusion of plastisol 192
L. Welding and Adhesive Bonding of Plastics 192
L1. friction or spin welding 192
L2. hot plate welding 193
L3. vibration welding 193
L4. ultrasonic welding and sealing 194
L5. ultrasonic spot welding 194
L6. ultrasonic film and fabric welding 195
L7. adhesive bonding of plastics 195
L7a. solvent cementing of plastics 195
L7b. pretreatment of plastic surfaces for bonding 195
L7c. electromagnetic adhesive bonding 195
L8. induction welding 196
L9. radio frequency sealing (dielectric sealing) 196
L10. thermal sealing (heat sealing) of sheet 196
L11. hot gas welding 197
M. Surface Finishing and Decorating
Processes for Plastics 197
M1. surface treatments for plastic parts 197
M1a. washing and cleaning 197
M1b. chemical etching 197
M1c. corona discharge 197
M1d. flame treatment 198
M1e. plasma treatment 198
M2. hot stamping 199
M2a. transfer coating (hot transfer coating) 199
M3. painting 199
M3a. spray and wipe 200
M3b. powder painting of plastics 200
M3c. manufacture of powder coatings 201
M3c1. dry blending 201
M3c2. melt mixing 201
M3c3. solution method 201
M4. decorating plastic parts with processes
that are also common to non-plastics 201
M4a. electroplating of plastics 201
M5. in-mold decorating 201
M6. sheet and film embossing 202
N. Other Plastics Processes 203
N1. insert assembly 203
N1a. molding-in inserts 203
N1b. ultrasonic insertion 203
N1c. expansion installation 203
N1d. threaded hole installation 203
N1e. press insertion 203
N1f. self tapping 203
N1g. cemented installation 203
N1h. hot insertion 204
N2. other mechanical assembly of plastic parts 204
N3. granulating plastics 204
N4. coloring and blending of plastics 204
N5. drying of plastics 204
N6. machining of plastics 205
N7. trimming and die cutting of plastics 205
N8. radiation processing 206
N8a. non-ionizing radiation processing 206
N9. vacuum handling and loading of plastic materials 206
N10. robotic handling 207
N11. deflashing 207
N12. reel-to-reel molding (continuous strip molding) 207
O. Rubber and Elastomers 207
O1. natural rubber 207
O2. rubber, synthetic 208
O3. rubber compounding 209
O4. rubber fabrication methods 209
Chapter 5-Glass and Ceramics
Processes 211
A. Glass Processes 211
A1. basic glassmaking 211
A1a. raw materials 211
A1a1. coloring materials 212
A1b. batching 212
A1c. melting 212
A2. primary forming processes 213
A2a. pressing 213
A2b. blowing 213
A2b1. manual blowing 213
A2b2. lampworking (lamp blowing,
and scientific glass blowing) 215
A2b3. machine blowing 217
A2b3a. gob feeding machine 218
A2b3b. Owens bottle machine
(the suck-blow process) 218
A2b3c. the blow-blow process 220
A2b3d. the press-blow process 222
A2b3e. the rotary-mold (paste mold)
process 222
A2b3f. ribbon machine blowing
process 222
A2c. glass tubing manufacture 222
A2d. centrifugal casting 224
A3. flat glass processes 224
A3a. manual methods 224
A3b. drawing sheet glass (the
Fourcault process) 224
A3c. drawing sheet glass (the Colburn
or Libby-Owens process) 225
A3d. drawing sheet glass
(the Pittsburgh process) 225
A3e. plate glass manufacture 226
A3f. float glass process 227
A3g. rolling (casting) flat glass 228
A4. heat and chemical treating operations 229
A4a. annealing 229
A4b. tempering 230
A4c. chemical toughening 230
A5. secondary, finishing and decorating operations 231
A5a. bending and sagging 231
A5b. grinding 231
A5c. polishing 233
A5d. fusion sealing 233
A5e. grit blasting 234
Table of Contents xi
A5f. acid etching 234
A5g. shrinking 234
A5h. staining 234
A5i. decorating with vitrifiable colors
(vitreous enamels) 234
A5j. metallic coating 235
A5k. organic decorating 235
A5l. silk screening (screen printing) 235
A6. glass fiber manufacturing 235
A6a. mechanical drawing of continuous fibers 236
A6b. steam blowing 236
A6c. flame blowing (superfine process) 237
A6d. rotary wool forming process 237
A6e. methods for production of traditional
optical glass fibers 237
A6f. methods for production of optical
communications fibers 239
A7. manufacture of other types of glass 243
A7a. glass ceramics manufacture 243
A7b. photosensitive glass manufacture 243
A7c. cellular glass (foam glass) manufacture 243
A7d. glass microsphere manufacture 244
A8. powdered glass processes 244
A8a. dry pressing and sintering 244
A8b. slip casting of glass 244
A8c. fritted filter manufacture 244
B. Ceramics Processes 244
B1. the nature of ceramics 244
B2. ceramic materials 245
B3. ceramics operation sequence 245
B4. ceramic material preparation 245
B4a. material preparation for advanced ceramics 246
B5. pressing 246
B5a. isostatic pressing 247
B6. injection molding 247
B7. extruding 248
B8. slip casting of ceramics 248
B8a. pressure casting 248
B9. jiggering 249
B10. roll compaction 249
B11. tape casting 249
B12. throwing 249
B13. drying 249
B13a. partial in-process drying 250
B13b. final drying 251
B13c. microwave drying (also called dielectric
or radio frequency drying) 251
B14. machining and grinding 251
B15. glazing 251
B16. sintering (firing) 251
B17. hot pressing 252
B17a. hot isostatic pressing (HIP) 252
Chapter 6-Woodworking Processes 255
A. Lumber Making Including
Saw Mill Operations 255
A1. debarking 255
A2. headsaw operation (breakdown sawing) 256
A3. plain sawing of boards 257
A4. quarter sawing 257
A5. rift sawing 257
A6. edging 257
A7. trimming (cutting to length) 258
A8. inspecting and grading boards 258
A9. drying (seasoning) 258
A9a. air drying 259
A9b. kiln drying 259
A9c. radio frequency drying 259
B. Making Wooden Components 260
B1. cutting boards to size 260
B1a. ripping 260
B1b. cutting to length (crosscutting) 260
B2. surfacing with planers and jointers 260
B2a. planing (surfacing) 260
B2b. jointing 264
B3. contour (curved line) sawing 266
B4. turning 266
B5. drilling and boring 267
B6. shaping and routing 267
B7. other form, and special cutting and
joint-making operations 270
B7a. computer-controlled routering 270
B7b. laser machining of wooden parts 271
B7c. dedicated special machines and
multi-operation machines 271
B8. filing and sanding 271
C. Making Wood Joints 272
C1. butt joints 272
C2. rabbet joints 273
C3. dado and groove joints 273
C4. tongue-and-groove joints 274
C5. mortise and tenon joints 274
C6. dovetail joints 275
C7. dowelled and biscuit (joining plate)
joints 276
C8. lap (halved and bridle), scarf
and bevelled joints 278
D. Making Bent Wooden Components 279
D1. wet bending 279
D2. making curved laminations 279
D3. kerf bending 279
E. Assembly and Fastening Wood Products 280
E1. clamps and fixtures 281
E2. mechanical fastening 281
E3. adhesive bonding 282
E4. Assembling veneer and inlaid surfaces 282
F. Manufacture of Plywood and Other
Panel Materials 284
F1. making veneer 284
F2. making plywood 284
F3. making wafer board (chipboard) 286
F4. making oriented strand board 286
F5. making particle board 286
F6. making fiberboard 287
F7. making engineered lumber, prefabricated
wooden beams and joists 288
F8. making rigid plastic laminates
(high pressure laminates) 289xii Table of Contents
F9. making synthetic lumber (composite lumber)
and components from plastics 289
G. Wood Finishing 290
G1. preparing the surface for finishing 290
G2. staining 290
G3. varnishing, lacquering and painting 290
G4. polishing 291
H. Upholstery 291
H1. installing webbing 292
H2. installing springs 292
H3. installing padding and cushioning 293
H4. installing covering 293
H5. cushions, channeling and tufting 293
Chapter 7-Assembly and Fusion
(or Joining) Processes 295
A. Soldering and Brazing 295
A1. solder application methods 295
A1a. wire or rod soldering 295
A1b. preform soldering 296
A1b1. how solder preforms are made 296
A1c. solder paste soldering 296
A1d. Dip soldering (DS) 296
A1e. wave soldering 296
A1f. drag soldering 296
A1g. ultrasonic soldering 297
A2. workpiece heating methods: 297
A2a. with soldering iron (INS) 297
A2b. with gas torch 297
A2c. oven or furnace heating 297
A2d. selective infrared heating 297
A2e. vapor-phase heating 297
A2f. Resistance heating (RS) 297
A2g. laser heating 298
A2h. induction heating 298
A2i. hot gas 298
A3. fluxes 298
B. Brazing 299
B1. application of filler metal 299
B2. torch brazing 299
B3. furnace brazing 299
B4. induction brazing (IB) 300
B5. dip brazing 300
B6. salt bath brazing 300
B7. Resistance brazing (RB) 300
B8. diffusion brazing 301
C. Welding 301
C1. Arc welding 301
C1a. Shielded-Metal Arc (SMAW)
or Stick Welding 301
C1b. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 302
C1c. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) 302
C1d. Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) 302
C1e. Gas-tungsten arc welding GTAW) 304
C1f. Plasma arc welding (PAW) 304
C1g. Electroslag welding (ESW) 304
C2. induction welding (electromagnetic welding) 305
C3. Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW) 306
C4. Electron beam welding (EBW) 306
C5. Laser-beam welding (LBW) 306
C6. Resistance welding 306
C6a. Spot welding (RSW) 306
C6b. Seam welding (RSEW) 306
C6c. projection welding (RPW) 307
C7. stitch welding 308
C8. stud welding 308
C9. Friction welding (FRW) 308
C10. Flash welding (FW) 309
C11. percussive welding or percussion
welding 309
C12. Thermit welding (TW) 310
C13. Solid-state welding, (SSW) 310
C13a. forge welding 310
C13b. forge-seam welding 310
C13c. cold welding 310
C13d. metal cladding 310
C13e. Roll welding (roll bonding) (ROW) 310
C13f. Explosive welding (EXW) 311
C13g. diffusion welding
(diffusion bonding) 312
C13h. ultrasonic welding (of metals) 312
C13i. Friction stir welding (FSW) 312
D. Adhesive Bonding 313
D1. surface preparation methods for
adhesive bonding 314
D1a. cleaning 314
D1b. surface roughening 314
D1c. surface ionization pretreatment 315
D2. adhesive application methods 315
D2a. brush, spray, dipping, roller
or spatula application 315
D2b. dry film application 315
D2c. hot melt adhesives application 315
D2d. pressure sensitive and contact
adhesive application 315
D2e. pump/pressure application
of solid adhesives 316
D3. joint assembly methods 316
D4. curing methods 316
E. Welding of Plastics 317
F. Mechanical Assembly Processes 317
F1. bench assembly 317
F2. assembly lines 317
F3. automatic assembly 318
F3a. parts feeding equipment 320
F3b. high speed assembly with dedicated
equipment 320
F3c. robotic assembly 321
F4. mechanical fastening methods 323
F4a. assembly with threaded fasteners 323
F4b. riveting 323
F4c. stitching/stapling 323
F4d. snap fit fastening 324
F4e. press and shrink fit fastening 326
F4f. staking, seaming and crimping 327
Table of Contents xiii
Chapter 8-Finishing Processes
(including Heat Treating) 329
A. Cleaning Processes 329
A1. mechanical cleaning processes 329
A1a. brushing 329
A1b. abrasive blasting 329
A1b1. wet blast cleaning 329
A1b2. dry blast cleaning 329
A1c. steam jet cleaning 329
A1d. tumbling 329
A2. chemical cleaning processes 330
A2a. solvent cleaning 330
A2a1. immersion cleaning 330
A2a2. spray degreasing 330
A2a3. vapor degreasing 330
A2b. ultrasonic cleaning 330
A2c. emulsion cleaning 331
A2d. alkaline cleaning 331
A2e. acid cleaning 331
A2f. pickling 331
A2g. salt bath cleaning 331
A3. electrochemical cleaning processes 332
A3a. electrolytic cleaning 332
A3b. electrolytic pickling 332
B. Polishing Processes 332
B1. conventional polishing 332
B1a. buffing 332
B2. barrel polishing (tumbling) 332
B3. electropolishing 332
B4. burnishing 332
C. Plating Processes 333
C1. conventional electroplating 333
C2. electroless plating 333
C3. barrel plating 333
C4. mechanical plating 333
C5. brush plating 333
C6. electroplating of plastics 334
D. Painting (Organic Finishing) 334
D1. brushing 334
D2. roller coating 334
D3. curtain coating 334
D4. dip painting 334
D5. flow coating 334
D6. spray painting 335
D6a. air atomized spray 335
D6b. airless spray 335
D7. electrostatic painting 335
D7a. with centrifugal spraying head 335
D8. powdered paint coating 335
D8a. electrostatic spray powder coating 335
D8b. fluidized bed powder coating 336
D8c. electrostatic fluidized bed powder coating 336
D8d. friction static spraying 337
D8e. flame spraying of powdered paint 337
D9. electrocoating (also referred to as electropainting,
electrophoresis, electrophoretic coating
or electrodeposition of paint) 337
D10. vinyl plastisol coatings 337
E. Chemical Surface Treatments 338
E1. anodizing 338
E1a. hardcoat anodizing 338
E2. phosphating 338
E3. chromate conversion coatings 338
E4. black oxide coating 339
F. Other Coatings 339
F1. porcelain enameling 339
F2. hot dip coating (galvanizing) 339
F3. vacuum metalizing 339
F3a. sputtering 340
F3b. chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 340
F3b1. plasma-enhanced (or plasma-assisted)
chemical vapor deposition 341
F3c. physical vapor deposition (PVD) 341
F3d. ion implantation 341
F4. thermal spray coating 341
F4a. wire metalizing 341
F4a1. electric arc wire metalizing 342
F4b. powder spraying 342
F4c. detonation gun spraying 342
F4d. plasma arc spraying 343
F4d1. transferred plasma-arc spraying 344
F4e. high velocity oxy-flame coating (HVOF) 345
F5. clad metals 345
G. Heat Treating of Metals 345
G1. annealing 345
G2. annealing processes for steel 346
G2a. full annealing 346
G2b. isothermal annealing 347
G2c. spherodizing 347
G2d. stress relieving 347
G2e. normalizing 347
G2f. tempering 348
G2g. process annealing 348
G3. hardening processes for steel 348
G3a. surface hardening 348
G3a1. flame hardening 348
G3a2. induction hardening 348
G3a3. laser-beam hardening 349
G3a4. electron-beam hardening 349
G3a5. other surface heating methods
for hardening 349
G3b. case hardening 349
G3b1. carburizing 349
G3b1a. pack carburization 349
G3b1b. liquid carburization 350
G3b1c. gas carburization 350
G3b2. carbonitriding 350
G3b3. cyanidizing 351
G3b4. nitriding 351
G3b5. liquid nitriding 351
G3c. through hardening 351
G3d. martempering 351
G3e. austempering 351
G4. solution treating/precipitation hardening
(aging or age hardening) 352xiv Table of Contents
G5. heat treating processes for non-ferrous metals 352
G5a. Aluminum alloys 352
G5b. copper and copper alloys 353
G5c. magnesium alloys 354
G5d. nickel and nickel alloys 354
G5e. titanium and titanium alloys 355
H. Shot Peening 355
I. Product Marking Methods 356
I1. manual marking 356
I2. stamp indented marking 356
I3. etching (chemical etching) 356
I4. engraving 356
I4a. pantograph engraving 356
I5. laser marking and engraving 356
I6. stenciling 357
I7. printing 357
I7a. pad printing 357
I7b. screen printing (silk screening) 357
I8. branding 357
I9. decal marking 357
I10. casting and molding 358
I11. embossing and coining 358
I12. nameplates, labels and tags 358
I13. hot stamping 359
I14. dyeing 359
I15. flocking 359
Chapter 9-Paper, Fiber
and Printing Processes 361
A. Definition, Paper 361
B. Paper-making Processes 361
B1. raw materials 361
B2. paper making from wood (by machine) 361
B2a. debarking of wood logs 363
B2b. pulping of wood 363
B2b1. mechanical pulping of wood 363
B2b2. chemical pulping of wood 363
B2b3. semi-chemical pulping of wood 363
B2c. refining 364
B2d. removing foreign material 364
B2e. bleaching and washing 364
B2f. beating 364
B2g. making paper from pulp 364
B2g1. Fourdrinier and cylindrical
paper-making machines 365
B2h. finishing (converting) 366
B2h1. extrusion coating and
laminating of paper 366
B2h2. water dispersion coating 366
B2h3. sizing 366
B2h4. filling 366
B3. paper making from rags and other textile fibers 367
B4. paper making from synthetic fibers 367
B5. paper making from waste paper (paper recycling) 367
B5a. waste paper processed with de-inking 367
B5b. waste paper processed without
de-inking 367
C. Manufacture of Various Paper Grades 367
C1. bond paper 368
C2. newsprint 368
C3. paperboard 368
C4. sanitary papers 368
C5. kraft paper 368
C6. vulcanized fiber 369
D. Printing 369
D1. relief or letterpress printing 369
D1a. typesetting for letterpress printing 369
D1b. flexographic printing 371
D2. planographic printing 371
D2a. lithography and offset lithography 371
D2b. collotype (collography) 372
D3. intaglio printing 373
D3a. gravure printing 373
D3b. making gravure plates 374
D4. stencil and screen printing (porous printing) 376
D4a. stencil printing 376
D4b. screen printing (serigraphy)
(silk screening) 376
D5. electronic printing methods 377
D5a. laser printing 377
D5b. copy machine printing 378
D5b1. electrophotographic printing systems 378
D5c. ink-jet printing 379
D5d. magnetographic printing 380
D5e. ion or electron deposition printing
(ionography) 380
D5f. microcapsule printing 380
D5g. thermal sublimation, dye sublimation,
thermal wax and wax transfer printing 380
D5h. dot-matrix printing 380
D6. sheet and web printing 380
D7. color printing 382
D8. halftone screens 382
D9. pad printing 383
Chapter 10-Textile Processes 385
A. Textile Fibers 385
A1. natural fibers 385
A2. manufactured and synthetic fibers 386
B. Yarn Making (Spinning) 387
B1. picking (including opening and blending) 387
B2. carding 389
B3. combing 389
B4. drawing (drafting), (re-blending) 390
B5. spinning (twisting) 390
B6. spinning synthetic fibers 391
C. Weaving 392
C1. Jacquard loom weaving 393
C2. automatic bobbin changing 393
C3. shuttle-less looms 394
C4. pile weaving 394
D. Knitting 394
D1. weft or filling knitting 396
D2. warp knitting 396
Table of Contents xv
E. Non-woven Fabrics 398
F. Finishing 398
F1. preparation 398
F2. bleaching 399
F3. finishing to improve appearance 399
F3a. napping 399
F3b. shearing 400
F3c. brushing 400
F3d. beetling 400
F3e. decating 400
F3f. calendering 400
F3g. creping 400
F3h. embossing 400
F3i. optical brightening 401
F3j. tentering 401
F3k. crabbing 401
F3l. flocking 401
F4. finishing to improve feel (tactile properties)
of the fabric 401
F4a. sizing (stiffening) 401
F4b. weighting 401
F4c. fulling, (felting or milling) 402
F4d. softening 402
F5. finishing to improve performance 402
F5a. anti-shrinkage treatment 402
F5b. durable press (permanent press)
(wash and wear) 402
F5c. antistatic treatment 402
F5d. treatment for soil and stain
release properties 402
F5e. water repelling and water proofing
treatments 403
F5f. other treatments 403
G. Coloring 403
G1. dyeing 403
G1a. stock dyeing 404
G1b. top dyeing 404
G1c. yarn dyeing 404
G1d. piece dyeing 404
G1e. cross dyeing 404
G1f. solution pigmenting (dope dyeing) 404
G2. printing 404
G2a. block printing 405
G2b. engraved printing (intaglio printing) 405
G2b1. duplex printing 405
G2c. discharge printing 405
G2d. heat-transfer printing 405
G2e. stencil and screen printing 405
G2f. resist printing 406
G2g. warp printing 406
G2h. pigment printing 406
H. Manufacture of Clothing and Other
Sewn Products (“Needle Trades”) 406
H1. spreading/stacking 406
H2. marking 407
H3. cutting (chopping or knifing) 407
H4. sewing 409
H4a. stitch-less joining (seam bonding)
(heat sealing) 411
H5. pressing 411
H6. folding, labeling, wrapping/packing 411
I. Rug and Carpet Making 412
I1. weaving rugs and carpets 412
I2. tufting rugs 413
I3. making knitted rugs 413
I4. making needlepunch carpets 413
I5. making hooked rugs 413
I6. making braided rugs 413
I7. making oriental rugs 415
I8. making needlepoint rugs 415
Chapter 11-Chemical Processes 417
A. Batch Processes in General 417
B. Continuous Processes in General 417
C. Separation Processes 418
C1. distillation 418
C1a. fractional distillation (rectification,
fractionation or enrichment) 418
C1b. vacuum distillation 421
C1c. flash distillation (equilibrium
distillation) 421
C1d. multiple-effect distillation
(multistage flash evaporation) 422
C1e. steam distillation 422
C1f. sublimation 422
C1g. destructive distillation 422
C2. absorption-stripping 422
C3. extraction and leaching 424
C4. expression 426
C5. crystallization 427
C6. precipitation 428
C7. fluid-particle separation 429
C7a. filtration 429
C7b. types of filters 430
C7c. membrane separation (including
ultra filtration) 432
C7d. sedimentation 435
C7e. centrifugation 435
C7e1. cyclone separation, cycloning 438
C7f. bag filtering 439
C7g. evaporation 439
C7h. scrubbers - or wet collectors 441
C8. separation of solids 443
C8a. screening (sieving) 443
C8b. flotation 444
C8c. dense-media separation 445
C8d. magnetic separation 446
C8e. electrostatic separation 446
C9. adsorption and ion exchange 448
C10. electrolytic processes (electrolysis) 449
C11. electro thermal processes 449
C12. drying 449
C12a. spray drying liquid materials 453
C12b. freeze drying 454
D. Size Reduction 454
D1. crushing 454xvi Table of Contents
D2. secondary crushing 455
D3. pulverizing 455
E. Size Enlargement 458
F. Fermentation 458
G. Mixing Methods 458
G1. mixing gases with gases 459
G2. mixing gases with liquids 459
G3. mixing liquids with liquids 460
G4. liquids-solids mixing 461
G5. solids mixing 461
H. Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals 465
H1. separation 465
H1a. fractional distillation of crude petroleum 465
H1b. vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions 465
H1c. absorption/stripping of petroleum factions 466
H1d. solvent extraction 466
H1e. crystallization of petroleum fraction
contaminants 466
H2. conversion 466
H2a. cracking 466
H2a1. thermal cracking 466
H2a2. catalytic cracking 466
H2b. polymerization 467
H2c. alkylation 467
H2d. reforming 467
H3. chemical and other treatments 467
H3a. sulfur removal (hydrogen treatment) 467
H3b. additive addition 468
H3c. blending 468
I. Chemical Reactions 468
I1. gas-phase reactions 469
I2. gas/liquid reactions 469
I3. liquid/liquid reactions 470
I4. gas/liquid/solid reactions 472
I5. solids/solids and solids/gas reactions 472
I6. reactions with catalysts 474
J. Heat-transfer Methods 474
J1. heat exchange for solid materials 476
J2. cooling with air 476
K. Extracting and Recovering Metals from Ores 478
K1. recovery/refining processes 478
K1a. hydro metallurgy 479
K1a1. precipitation in hydro metallurgy 479
K1b. pyrometallurgy processes 479
K1b1. roasting 479
K1b2. smelting 480
K1c. electrometallurgy 480
K1c1. electrowinning (electrolytic deposition) 480
K1c2. electrorefinning 480
K2. other chemical processes 480
K3. alloying processes 480
L. Esterification 481
Chapter 12-Food Processes 483
A. Cleaning Raw Food Materials 483
B. Sorting and Grading of Foods 484
C. Size Reduction 485
C1. roll crushing 487
C2. hammer milling 487
C3. ball milling (tumble milling) 487
C4. disc attrition milling 487
C5. milling grain 487
C5a. post-milling treatments 488
C5a1. altering protein content 488
C5a2. bleaching flour 488
C5a3. enriching flour 488
D. Mixing 489
E. Separation Processes 490
E1. filtration 490
E2. expression 490
E3. centrifugation 492
E4. crystallization 492
E5. extraction 494
F. Concentration 495
F1. evaporation 495
F2. freeze concentration 496
F3. reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration 496
G. Thermal Processing of Foods 497
G1. blanching 497
G2. pasteurization 498
G3. heat sterilization 498
G4. canning 498
G5. aseptic processing 499
G6. cooking 500
G7. baking 501
H. Dehydration and Drying 501
H1. vacuum drying 503
H2. spray drying 503
H3. drum drying 503
H4. fluidized-bed drying 503
H5. freeze drying (freeze dehydration) 503
I. Cooling for Preservation 505
I1. freezing food 505
I1a. freezing with refrigerated air 505
I1b. freezing with a liquid medium 505
I1c. indirect-contact freezing 506
I2. dehydrofreezing 506
J. Other Operations 506
J1. irradiation 506
J2. homogenization 506
J3. hydrogenation 507
J4. fermentation 507
J5. extrusion of foods 507
J6. food additives 508
J7. pickling 508
J8. salting 510
J9. sugar curing/sugar addition 510
J10. candying and glazing 510
J11. high-intensity pulsed electric field
processing (PEF) 510
J13. high pressure processing (or ultra-high
pressure processing) 511
K. Meat Packing 511
K1. stunning 512
K2. slaughtering 512
K3. butchering 512
L. Bottling 513
M. Other Packaging 515
Table of Contents xvii
N. Storage 515
O. Food Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing 515
O1. equipment rinsing 516
O2. equipment cleaning 516
O3. equipment sanitizing 516
O4. other factors 516
Chapter 13-Processes
for Electronic Products 519
A. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) 519
A1. making bare printed circuit boards 519
A1a. resists and photoresists 520
A1b. subtractive process for making
wiring patterns on the board 521
A1c. additive method 522
A1d. making photo masters and masks 522
A1e. screen printing the masks 523
A1f. stripping resists from printed
circuit boards 524
A2. other board operations 524
A2a. hole making in boards 524
A2b. contact finger plating 524
A2c. solder fusing 524
A2d. solder masks 524
A2e. separating boards (depanelling) 525
A2f. silkscreen identification 525
A3. multilayer boards 525
A4. making flexible printed circuit boards 527
B. Wiring and Populating Boards 527
B1. populating boards with through-hole
connections 527
B2. assembling surface mounted components 528
B2a. dispensing adhesives 530
B2b. using solder paste 530
B2b1. syringe dispensing of solder paste
(pressure dispensing) 530
B2b2. pin transfer dispensing
of solder paste 531
B2b3. screen printing of solder paste 531
B2b4. stencil dispensing of solder paste 532
B2b5. submerged disk dispensing
of solder paste 532
B2b6. dip coating of solder paste 532
B2b7. roller coating of solder paste 533
B2c. using solder preforms 533
B3. cleaning prior to soldering 533
B4. prebaking before soldering 533
C. Soldering Processes 534
C1. flux application 534
C1a. dip fluxing 534
C1b. brush application of flux 534
C1c. foam flux application 534
C1d. spray application of flux 534
C1e. wave fluxing 534
C1f. roller fluxing 535
C1g. cored solder fluxing 535
C1g1. making flux cored wire solder 535
C2. preheating 535
C3. dip soldering 536
C4. drag soldering 536
C5. wave soldering 537
C6. reflow methods 538
C6a. oven heating for reflow 538
C6b. vapor-phase soldering 539
C6c. laser soldering 540
C7. hot gas soldering 541
C8. soldering iron soldering 541
C9. using lead-free solders 541
D. Cleaning After Soldering 541
D1. solvent cleaning 542
D2. water washing 542
D3. semi-aqueous cleaning 543
E. Making Solder Paste 544
E1. making solder powder by gas atomization 544
E2. spinning disk powder making 545
E3. ultrasonic method of powder making 546
E4. screen classification of powder 546
E5. air classification of powder 547
E6. inspection of powder 547
E7. mixing solder paste 547
E8. inspection of paste 547
F. Ball Grid Arrays 549
G. Fluxes for Electronics 549
H. Tinning 550
I. Quality Control and Inspection Operations 550
I1. visual inspection of joints 550
I2. incoming inspection 550
I3. solderability testing 550
J. Repair and Touch-up 551
K. Integrated Circuits (ICs)
(Microcircuits or Chips) 551
K1. material preparation - making
ultra-pure silicon 551
K2. making a single crystal of silicon 552
K2a. slicing into wafers 553
K2b. polishing the wafers 553
K2c. other wafer preparation operations 554
K3. wafer fab 554
K3a. layering 555
K3a1. oxidation of silicon 556
K3a2. nitridation 556
K3a3. chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 556
K3a3a. epitaxy 557
K3a4. vacuum deposition 557
K3a5. sputtering 557
K3a6. adding thick films 557
K3a7. adding protective layers 558
K3b. patterning 558
K3b1. lithography 558
K3b1a. making masks 560
K3b1b. applying resist
(photoresist film) 560
K3b1c. expose and develop the resist 562
K3b2. etching 563
K3b2a. wet etching with liquid
etchants (wet chemical
etching) 563xviii Table of Contents
K3b2b. dry etching 564
K3b2b1. plasma etching 564
K3b2b2. ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3. reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3. stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c. doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d. heat treating 568
K3d1. annealing 568
K3d2. alloying 568
K4. wafer testing and sorting 568
K5. packaging (assembly) of chips 569
K5a. backside preparation 570
K5b. dicing (die separation) 570
K5c. chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d. wire bonding 570
K5e. closing and sealing the package 571
K5f. lead plating and trimming 571
K5g. marking and final testing 571
K6. other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a. chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b. conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c. tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d. flip-chips 574
L. Making Discrete Devices 575
L1. making resistors 575
L2. making capacitors 576
L3. making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4. making transformers 578
L5. making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M. Conformal Coatings 582
N. Other Chip Configurations 582
N1. multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods 585
A. Rapid Prototyping (RP) Methods 585
A1. initial step: computer aided design
(CAD) 586
A2. the STL file 586
A3. the SLI file 586
A4. liquid-based rapid prototyping systems 586
A4a. the stereolithography (SLA) system 586
A4b. QuickCast 587
A4c. solid ground curing (SGC) 588
A4d. solid creation system (SCS) 589
A4e. solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP) 589
A4f. soliform System 589
A4g. MEIKO system 589
A4h. E-Darts system 589
A5. solid-based systems 590
A5a. laminated object manufacturing (LOM) 590
A5b. fused deposition modeling (FDM) 591
A5c. paper lamination technology (PLT) 591
A5d. multi-jet modeling (MJM) 592
A5e. ModelMaker and PatternMaster 592
A5f. slicing solid manufacturing (SSM),
melted extrusion modeling (MEM)
and multi-functional RPM systems
(M-RPM) 592
A6. powder-based systems 592
A6a. selective laser sintering (SLS) 592
A6b. EOSINT 594
A6c. three dimensional printing (3DP) 594
B. Rapid Tooling 594
B1. direct shell production casting (DSPC) 596
B2. Prometal 3D printing process 596
B3. RapidTool 596
B4. laminated metal tooling 597
B5. direct AIM 597
B6. SL composite tooling 597
B7. 3D Keltool 597
B8. direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) 597
C. Manufacturing Cells (Group Technology)
(Family of Parts Concept) 597
D. Advanced Inspection Devices 599
D1. coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) 599
D2. machine vision 599
D3. laser scanning 601
E. Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) Systems 602
F. Automated Storage/Retrieval (AS/R)
Systems 603
G. Use of Robots in Manufacturing
Operations 605
G1. areas of robot applicability 605
G2. robots in foundries 606
G2a. in die casting 606
G2b. in sand-mold casting 606
G2c. in investment casting 606
G3. robots in forging 606
G4. robots in metal stamping 606
G5. robots in injection molding and other
plastics molding 606
G6. robots in welding 607
G7. robots in painting, sealing, coating 608
G8. robots in material handling 608
G9. robots in mechanical assembly 608
G10. robots in electronics 608
G11. robots in quality control 609
G12. robots in machining 609
G13. robots in heat treatment 610
G14. robots in some specific industries 610
G14a. in automobile assembly 610
G14b. in appliances 610
G14c. in the food industry 610
G14d. in glass making 610
G14e. in chemical industries 611
G14f. in woodworking 611
G14g. in other industries 611
Table of Contents xix
Section II-How Products, Components
and Materials Are Made 613
(listed in alphabetical order)
A 615
abrasives 615
ABS plastics 615
acetal plastics 615
acetate fibers and fabrics - See chapter 10,
particularly section 10A2. 616
acetone 616
acrylic plastics 616
adhesives 616
advanced ceramic materials, (high technology ceramics),
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a. 617
air bags (for automotive passenger protection) 617
air conditioners 618
aircraft, (airplanes) 619
alcohol, denatured 623
alcohol, ethyl (ethanol) 623
alcoholic beverages 624
alcohol, isopropyl, (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) 624
alcohol, methyl 624
ale 624
alloys 625
aluminum 625
aluminum foil 627
aluminum oxide - See abrasives. 627
ammonia 627
antifreeze 627
antimony 627
anti-shrink fabrics (cloth) - See 10F5a. 627
apple sauce 627
argon 627
asbestos / asbestos board 628
asphalt 628
aspirin 628
athletic shoes - See shoes, athletic. 628
automobile engines 628
automobile bodies 629
automobile chassis 629
automobiles 629
automobile windshields 630
B 632
bacon 632
bags, paper 632
bags, plastic 632
baking powder 632
ball bearings 632
ball grid arrays - See 13F. 632
ballpoint pens 632
balls, athletic 633
banknotes - See paper money. 633
bar codes 633
baseballs 633
bathtubs, cast iron 634
bathtubs, plastic 634
bathtubs, steel 634
bats, baseball 634
batteries, flashlight (dry cells) 634
bauxite - See aluminum. 636
beams, plastic, reinforced 636
beer 636
bells 638
bent wood components - See 6D. 638
bicycles 638
bills, dollar, and other paper money -
See paper money. 638
bleach 638
blue jeans 639
boats, small, plastic 639
boats, fiberglass 639
bolts (machine screws, cap screws, set screws) 639
books 639
bond paper 639
bottled drinks - See 12L and soft drinks. 640
bottles, glass 640
bottles, plastic 640
bowling balls 640
bowls, glass 640
boxes, corrugated - See cartons, corrugated. 640
brake linings 640
brandy 640
brass 640
bread 641
breakfast cereal - See cereals, breakfast. 642
bricks 642
bronze 642
brushes 642
bulbs, light - See light bulbs. 643
bulletproof glass 643
bullet-proof vests 643
bullets (small arms ammunition or cartridges) 643
bungee cords 644
burlap 644
butter 644
buttons 645
C 646
cabinets, wood - See chapt. 6. 646
cams 646
candied fruit - See 12J10. 646
candy 646
canned food - See 12G4. 647
cans, metal 647
capacitors, electronic - See 13L2. 649
carbon, activated 649
carbon black 649
carbon fibers 649
carpets 649
carrying cases, power tools and instruments 649xx Table of Contents
cars - See automobiles. 649
cast iron 649
CDs - See compact discs. 649
cellophane 649
cellular glass - See 5A7c. 650
cellulose acetate plastics 650
cement, portland 650
ceramic materials, advanced, (high technology ceramics),
(modern ceramics), (fine ceramics) - See 5B4a. 650
ceramics - See 5B. 650
cereals, breakfast 650
chairs, upholstered - See 6H. 652
chairs, wooden - See chapt. 6. 652
charcoal 652
cheese 652
cheese, Swiss 652
chewing gum 653
chinaware 653
chipboard (wafer board) - See 6F3. 654
chips, electronic - See 13K. 654
chlorine 654
chocolate 654
chokes, choke coils, inductors (electronic) -
See 13L3. 654
chromium 654
cider 655
clad metals - See 7C13d. 655
cloth, anti-shrink - See 10F5a. 655
cloth, knitted - See 10A, 10B and 10D. 655
cloth, non-woven - See 10A, 10B and 10E. 655
cloth, woven - See 10A, 10B and 10C. 655
clothing - See 10H. 655
coal gas - See gas, manufactured. 655
coffee 655
coffee, decaffeinated 655
coffee, instant 655
coils, electrical - See 13L3. 655
coins 655
combs 656
compact discs 656
composite structural lumber - See 6F7. 656
concrete blocks 656
condensers, electronic - See 13L2 and 13K3a6. 656
confectioner’s glaze - See candy. 656
contact lenses - See lenses, contact. 656
containers, plastic 656
cooking utensils 656
copper 657
corn flakes - See cereals, breakfast. 659
corn, frozen - See 12I1. 659
corn oil 659
corrugated cartons 659
cotton fabric 660
cottonseed oil - See margarine. 660
crayons (wax) 660
crepe fabric - See 10F3g. 660
crystal, lead glass - See 5A1. 660
cups, plastic, disposable 660
cups, paper - See drinking cups, paper. 660
cut glass - See 5A5b. 660
D 661
denim 661
detergents 661
diamonds, synthetic 661
diesel fuel - See fuel, diesel. 662
digital video discs (DVDs) 662
dinner plates - See chinaware. 663
diodes and transistors - See 13L5 and Fig. 13L5. 663
dishes, china - See chinaware. 663
dishes, glass 663
dishes, plastic 663
distilled spirits (distilled liquors) 663
downspouts, roof 663
drill bits 664
drinking cups, foam plastic 664
drinking glasses 665
drive screws - See screws. 665
drums, 55 gallon 665
dry cells - See batteries, flashlight. 665
dry ice 665
ductwork, steel 665
ductwork, plastic 665
DVD’s - See digital video discs. 665
dyed fabrics - See 10G1. 665
dyes 665
dynamite 665
E 666
edible oils - See oils, edible. 666
elastomers 666
electrical wire - See wire, electrical. 666
electricity 666
electric light bulbs - See light bulbs and lights,
fluorescent. 666
electric motors - See motors, electrical. 666
electric transformers - See 13L4. 666
electrical wire - See wire, electrical. 666
enamel, vitreous (porcelain enamel) 666
enclosures, shower 666
engineered lumber - See 6F7. 666
engine blocks 666
envelopes 667
epoxy 668
essential oils - See oils, essential. 668
etched glass - See 5A5f. 668
ethanol - See alcohol. 668
ethylene (ethene) 668
explosives - See dynamite. 668
eyeglasses 668
F 669
fabrics, anti-shrink - See 10F5a 669
fabrics, dyed - See 10G1. 669
fabrics, knitted - See 10A, 10B and 10D. 669
fabrics, flocked - See 10F3l. 669
Table of Contents xxi
fabrics, non-woven - See 10A, 10B and 10E. 669
fabrics, permanent press (wash and wear) - See 10F5b. 669
fabrics, printed - See 10G2. 669
fabrics, stain release - See 10F5d. 669
fabrics, woven - See 10A, 10B and 10C. 669
felt 669
felt-tip marking pens - See marking pens, felt tipped. 669
fertilizer 669
fiberboard, low density (insulation board) - See 6F6. 669
fiberboard, medium density - See 6F6. 669
fiberglass insulation 669
fibers, glass 669
fibers, textile - See 10A. 669
fibers, optical - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5A6f. 669
fibers, synthetic - See 10A2 and 10B6. 669
fiber, vulcanized - See 9C6. 669
film, photographic 669
film plastic - (See section 4I5.) 670
filters 670
finger-jointed lumber - See 6F7. 670
fireworks 670
fishing rods (poles) 671
flashlights 673
flatware (tableware)(silverware) 673
flexible printed circuit boards - See 13A4. 674
flocked fabrics - See 10F3l. 674
floor covering, vinyl - See vinyl flooring. 674
flour 674
flour, bleached - See entry 12C5a2. 674
flour, enriched - See entry 12C5a3. 674
fluorescent lights 674
flux-cored wire solder - See 13C1g1. 675
foam plastics - See 4C3. 675
food wrap, (“saran wrap”) - See saran. 675
footballs 675
footwear - See shoes. 675
Formica(r), Micarta(r) (rigid plastic laminates) - See 6F8
and fig 6F8. 675
fragrances (perfumes) 675
freeze dried food - See 12H5. 675
frozen food - See 12I1, 12I1a, 12I1b, 12I1c and 12I2. 676
fuel, diesel 676
fuel, jet 676
furniture, upholstered - See 6H. 676
furniture, wooden - See chapt. 6. 676
G 677
garlic - See spices. 677
garments (clothing) 677
gaskets, packings and seals 677
gas, manufactured 677
gas, liquified petroleum (LPG) 677
gasoline 678
gears 678
Gemstones - See Jewelry. 684
gin - See distilled spirits. 684
ginger - See spices. 684
girders, steel 684
glass - See 5A 684
glass bottles - are made by glass blowing (5A2b). 684
glass, bulletproof (bullet resistant) 684
glass, cellular (foam glass) - See 5A7c. 684
glass ceramics - See 5A7a. 684
glass containers - See 5A2b1 and 5A2b3. 684
glass, cut - See 5A5b. 684
glasses, drinking - See drinking glasses. 684
glasses, eye - See eyeglasses. 684
glass, etched - See 5A5f. 684
glass, pyrex - See cooking utensils. 684
glass fibers 684
glass filters - See 5A8c 684
glass, foam (cellular glass) - See 5A7c. 684
glass jars 684
glass lenses - See lenses. 684
glass microspheres - See 5A7d. 684
glass, photosensitive - See 5A7b. 684
glass pitchers - See 5A2b1 684
glass, plate - See 5A3e. 684
glass, safety - See safety glass. 684
glass thermometers - See thermometers, glass. 684
glass tubing - See 5A2 684
glassware, laboratory (scientific) - See 5A2b1,
5A2b2, 5A5h and 5A5i. 684
glass vases - See 5A2b1 684
glass, window - See flat glass processes, 5A3. 684
glass wool - See glass fibers. 684
glazing compound - See putty. 684
glove compartments, automotive 684
gloves 684
glue - See adhesives. 684
glued-laminate lumber (“glulam”) - See 6F7. 684
gold 684
golf balls 685
golf clubs 685
graphite 686
gravure printing plates - See 9D3b. 686
grease, lubricating 686
grinding wheels 686
guitars, acoustic 687
gum, chewing - See chewing gum. 687
guns (firearms) 687
gutters, roof 689
gypsum plaster 689
gypsum board - See plasterboard. 689
H 690
ham 690
hammers 690
handles, cooking utensils 690
handles, tool 690
hand tools - See hammers, pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers and handles, tool. 690
hardboard (including tempered hardboard) - See 6Fc. 690
helium 690
herbicides 691
high-density polyethylene - See polyethylene,
high-density. 691xxii Table of Contents
hosiery (stockings and socks) 691
houses, prefabricated (modular houses) 691
housings, appliance 692
housings, business machine 692
hydraulic fluid 693
hydrochloric acid (HCl) 693
hydrogen 693
I 694
I-joists, wooden - See 6F7 and Fig. 6F7-1. 694
ice, dry - See dry ice. 694
ice cream 694
ice skates 694
inductors (chokes, choke coils) - See 13L3. 694
ink 694
in-line skates 695
insecticides (pesticides) 695
instant coffee - See coffee, instant. 696
insulation board (low-density fiberboard) - See 6F6. 696
integrated circuits - See 13K. 696
iron 696
isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) -
See alcohol, isopropyl. 697
J 698
jars, glass - See 5A2b3. 698
jelly 698
jelly beans 698
jet engines (gas turbines) 698
jet fuel 701
jewelry 701
K 703
kerosene 703
Kevlar 703
keyboards, computer 703
keys 703
keys for computer keyboards 704
kidskin 704
knit fabrics 704
kraft paper - See 9C5, 9B and 9B2b. 704
L 705
lace 705
lacquer 705
ladders 705
lasers 705
latex 706
lawn mowers 707
lead 707
lead glass (lead crystal) 707
leather 707
leather goods 708
lenses 709
lenses, contact 710
licorice 711
light bulbs, incandescent 711
lights, fluorescent - See fluorescent lights. 712
linen 712
liquid crystal displays (LCDs) 712
locks, combination 713
low-density fiberboard - See 6F6. 714
lubricating grease - See grease, lubricating. 714
lumber 714
lumber, pressure treated 714
M 715
magnesium 715
magnets 715
manganese 716
maple syrup 716
marbles 716
margarine 716
marking pens, felt tipped 717
matches 717
meat - See 12K. 717
meat tenderizer 717
melamine plastic - See urea and melamine plastic. 717
mercury 717
medium density fiberboard - See 6F6. 717
metal cans - See cans, metal. 717
metal powders - See powders, metal. 717
methane 717
microcircuits - See 13K. 718
microspheres, glass - See 5A7d. 718
milk, condensed 718
milk, powdered 718
milk, skim 718
mineral wool (rock wool) - See 5A6d. 718
mirrors 718
molybdenum 718
monuments 718
motors, electric 719
multiple chip packages (electronic) - See 13N1. 720
musical instruments 720
musical instruments, brass 720
N 722
nail polish 722
nails 722
nameplates - See 8I12, 8I2, 8I4, 8I4a, 8I5, 8I7 and other
items under 8I (Product Marking). 722
naphtha - See 11H1a and 11H2a1. 722
napkins, paper - See 9C4 and 9B5. 722
napped fabrics - See 10F3a 722
natural gas 722
natural rubber - See 4O1. 723
needlepoint carpets - See 10I8. 723
needlepunch carpets - See 10I4. 723
neon signs 723
neoprene - See 4O2. 723
newspapers 723
Table of Contents xxiii
newsprint - See 9C2 723
nickel 723
nitrile rubber - See 4O2. 724
nitrogen 724
no-clean solder flux - See 13G 724
non-woven fabric - See 10E. 724
nuclear power - See electricity and Fig. E1. 724
numerical controls - See 3U and 3U1. 724
nutmeg - See spices. 724
nuts, screw 724
nylon 724
O 726
oils, edible 726
oils, essential 726
oil, fuel (furnace oil) 726
oil, lubricating 726
oils, vegetable - See oils, edible; olive oil; oils, essential 726
olive oil 727
olives, green 727
optical glass fibers - See 5A6, 5A6e and 5a6f. 727
optical lenses - See lenses. 728
orange juice 728
oriented strand board (OSB) - See 6F5. 728
o-rings 728
Orlon 728
oxygen 728
P 729
packages, blister 729
paint 729
paint brushes - See brushes. 730
paint removers (paint strippers) 730
pallets, plastic 730
pallets, wood 730
pans, cooking - See cooking utensils. 730
paper - See 9A and 9B. 730
paperboard 730
paper, bond - See 9B and 9C1. 730
paper clips 730
paper hankerchiefs - See 9C4. 730
paper, kraft - See 9B, 9B2b2 and 9C5. 730
paper money 730
paper, rag (rag bond) - See 9B and 9B3. 730
paper, sanitary - See 9B and 9C4. 730
paper towels - See 9C4. 730
particle board - See 6F5. 730
partition glass - See 5A3g. 730
pasta 731
patterns for casting - See 1B7. 731
peanut butter 731
pencils, lead 731
pens, ball point - See ballpoint pens. 731
pepper - See spices. 731
perfume 731
permanent press fabrics - See 10F5b. 732
pesticides - See insecticides. 732
petrochemicals - See 11H. 732
petroleum 732
petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline) 732
pewter 732
phenolic plastics 732
photographic film - See film, photographic. 732
pickles - See 12J. 732
pig iron 732
pile rugs (tufted rugs) - See 10I2. 732
pipe, plastic - See tubing, plastic. 732
pipe and tubing,metal 732
pipe, cast - See 1E1. 733
pipe, welded - See pipe and tubing, metal above. 733
plaster - See gypsum plaster. 733
plasterboard, gypsum board, wallboard and drywall 734
plastics 734
plastic film - See 4I5. 734
plastic laminates, rigid (“Formica” or “Micarta”) - See 6F8. 734
plastic wood, wood filler 734
plate glass - See 5A3e. 734
platinum 734
playground equipment 734
plexiglas 735
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes    كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 Emptyالأربعاء 24 سبتمبر 2014, 10:03 am

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كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes    كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes  - صفحة 3 Emptyالسبت 27 سبتمبر 2014, 12:27 pm

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كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
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صفحة 4 من اصل 3انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2, 3
 مواضيع مماثلة
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» كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
» كتاب Handbook of Manufacturing Processes
» كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume V - Manufacturing Management
» كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume VIII - Plastic Part Manufacturing
»  كتاب Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook - Volume IX - Material and Part Handling in Manufacturing

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