كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques
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 كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques    كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques  Emptyالأحد 15 أبريل 2012, 4:33 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Specialized Injection Molding Techniques
Edited by
Hans-Peter Heim
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik,
Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany  

كتاب Specialized Injection Molding Techniques  S_i_m_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :

1 Multicomponent Technologies
Florian Mieth and Mike Tromm
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Kunststofftechnik,
Kassel, Germany
2 Foam Injection Molding
Martin Rohleder and Fabian Jakob
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany
3 Gas- and Fluid-InjectionTechnique
Hans-Peter Heim
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany
4 Injection Molding of Multimaterial Systems
Tatjana Geminger and Stefan Jarka
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany
5 Injection Molding of Bio-Based Plastics, Polymers, and Composites
Maik Feldmann and Johannes Fuchs
Universität Kassel, Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Kunststofftechnik, Kassel, Germany
Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
Acetal copolymers, 190
Adhesion, 3 6, 24, 166 171, 166f
mechanical, 169 171
specific, 166 169
types, 195 196
Adsorption theory, 167
“Airing”. See Precision mold opening
(PMO)
Amylopectin, 223
Amylose, 223
Anisotropy, 177 178, 229
AquaCells, 231
B
Back-pressure-method, 161
Basic bonding mechanism, 3 9
adhesion, 4 6
diffusion, 6 9
influences of material and process
control on, 10 26
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure,
25
injection speed, 25 26
interface compatibility, 11 16
interface stresses, 21 26
interface temperature, 16 20
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 17 20
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 21 22
surface and interface tension,
11 12
surface pretreatment,
16
surface roughness, 23 24
thermal expansion behavior, 25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 15 16
Bi-injection, 29 30
Bio-based plastics
injection molding of, 211
materials, 212 225
Biocomposites, 212, 219 220,
224 226
Bioplastics, 211 212, 214 219,
225
biopolyamides with a vegetable oil
basis, 217 218
linkage between biopolymer and,
212f
polylactic acid (PLA), 219
starch blends, 215 216
thermoplastic starch (TPS),
214 215
Biopolyamides with a vegetable oil
basis, 217 218
Biopolymers, 211 212, 214
Biot number, 151 152
Blowing agents, 56, 62, 80 82
chemical blowing agent, 64 65,
80 81
concentration, 82 83
239Blowing agents (Continued)
physical blowing agents, 62 64,
81 82, 96
supercritical points of, 63 64
Bonding mechanism, 10 26
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure, 25
injection speed, 25 26
interface compatibility, 11 16
interface stresses, 21 26
interface temperature, 16 20
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 17 20
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 21 22
surface and interface tension,
11 12
surface pretreatment, 16
surface roughness, 23 24
thermal expansion behavior,
25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 15 16
“Breathing tool”. See Precision mold
opening (PMO)
C
Cadmoulds, 109
Carbon dioxide, 81 82
CellMoulds, 96 97
Cellulosic fibers, 219 222
Chemical blowing agents, 64 65,
80 81
foaming using, 75 77
Chemisorption, 5, 166
Coalescence, 59
Cohesion, 4
Composites, injection molding of,
211
Compressibility of the fluid,
influence of, 153 154
Connection design/interface
geometry, 23
Constructive connection design,
192 193, 192f
Contact time, 20, 21f
“Core back expansion”. See Precision
mold opening (PMO)
Core back technique, 37 38, 38f
Core-pull method, 107 108, 150
Crystallinity, 13
Cube technology, 45 46, 46f
double cube technology, 47 48
D
Decompression, tools with, 88 90
precision mold opening (PMO),
88 90
pull-and-foam method, 90
Demolding shrinkage, 21
Differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), 215
Diffusion, 4, 6 9, 25, 57 58
Einstein equation, 8 9
reptation model, 9
Diffusion theory, 6, 167
Double cube technology, 47 48
Draping, 199
Draping simulation, 205 206
DSC. See Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC)
Dynamic mixing elements, for
injection molding, 76f
Dynamic pressure, 86 87
E
Einstein equation, 8 9
Electrostatic theory, 5, 167
Elongational viscosity, 135 136
Endothermic blowing agents, 64 65
240 INDEXErgocell, 96 97, 98f
EUROMAP interface, 137
Exothermic blowing agents, 64 65,
80 81
F
Fault-tolerant positioning elements, 193
FEMs. See Finite element methods
(FEMs)
Fiber composite technology, 194
Fiber-reinforced plastics, 175, 192,
232 234
glass, 226
natural, 219 220, 226
Filling/reinforcement materials,
influences of, 136
FIM. See Foam injection molding
(FIM)
Finger effect, 33, 126 127, 127f, 128f
Finite element methods (FEMs), 109,
170
Flexural modulus, 70, 91f
Fluid injection technology, 107,
147 161
GITBlow (GIT combined with
blow molding), 155 159
multilayered hollow parts
manufactured using GIT and
WIT, 159 160
overflow cavity method, 147 150
push-back and core-pull methods,
150
surface optimization, measures for,
161
water injection technology,
150 154
Foam injection molding (FIM),
53 57, 231 232
decompression, tools with, 88 90
precision mold opening (PMO),
88 90
pull-and-foam method, 90
foaming mechanism, 57 73
cell growth, 58 60
chemical blowing agents,
64 65
mechanical and optical
properties, 67 73
mechanical properties, 67 72
morphology of foams, 65 67
nucleation, 58
optical properties, 72 73
physical blowing agents, 62 64
solubility and diffusion, 57 58
stabilizing effects, 61 62
gas counter pressure (GCP)
method, 90 93
general idea, 53 55
physical foaming techniques,
96 100
CellMoulds, 96 97
Ergocell, 97
MuCells, 96
Optifoams, 98
ProFoam, 99
SmartFoams, 99 100
process route, 73 87
blowing agent concentration,
82 83
chemical blowing agent, 80 81
chemical blowing agents,
foaming using, 75 77
dynamic pressure, 86 87
injection speed, 86
mass temperature, 83 84
mold temperature, 85 86
physical blowing agents, 81 82
physical blowing agents,
foaming using, 77
standard tool technique, 78 79
static mixing elements for
distributing gas in the melt,
77 78
sandwich technique, 94 95
typical applications, 56 57
for use in nonvisible areas, 56f
variothermic mold temperature,
93 94
INDEX 241Form bound shrinkage, 22, 22f
Form-fitting connection options,
172
Free shrinkage, 22, 22f
G
Gas counter pressure (GCP)
technique, 55, 90 93, 161
Gas injection molding, 112
Gas injection technology (GIT),
107
components and tools, design of,
139 147
gas-guiding geometries,
designing, 145 147, 145t
melt and gas injection points,
determination of, 139 144
fluid injection technology, variants
of, 147 161
GITBlow, 155 159
multilayered hollow parts
manufactured using GIT and
WIT, 159 160
overflow cavity method,
147 150
push-back and core-pull
methods, 150
surface optimization, measures
for, 161
water injection technology,
150 154
form and position of gas bubble,
influencing, 125 128
geometric groups, 111 112, 113t
machine setup for, 137f
material properties, influence of,
130 136
Carreau parameter, 131 133,
134f
elongational viscosity, 135 136
filling/reinforcement materials,
influences of, 136
shear viscosity, 133
structural viscosity, 133 135
mechanisms of gas penetration,
115 124, 116t
cooling phase/formation of the
quality features in the
component, 121 124
gas injection/remaining filling,
117 121
injection/partial filling, 110f,
115 116, 116f, 117f
procedure, description of,
110 112
shrinkage, 128 130
surface quality, influencing,
128 130
tools and machine technology,
136 139
gas injector, 137 139
gas source pressure
generation gas control, 137
typical applications and tasks,
112 114, 114t
Gas-holding pressure, 121
GCP technique. See Gas counter
pressure (GCP) technique
GIT. See Gas injection technology
(GIT)
GITBlow (GIT combined with blow
molding), 155 159
one-step method, 156 157
two-step method, 155
Glass fiber-reinforced plastics,
226
Glass mat-reinforced thermoplasts
(GMTs), 194, 199, 203, 205
GMTs. See Glass mat-reinforced
thermoplasts (GMTs)
H
Heat capacity/storage capacity,
influence of, 150 152
Heat transition coefficient and heat
conductivity, influence of,
152
Heterogeneous nucleation, 58
242 INDEXHolding pressure, 25, 88, 185
Hollow space, 107, 111, 115, 123,
130, 147, 154
Homogeneous nucleation, 58
I
IMC. See Injection-molding
compounder (IMC)
Infrared radiators, 203 204
Injection and holding pressure, 25
Injection sequence, 36 37
sequential process control, 37
simultaneous process control, 36
Injection speed, 25 26, 86, 185
Injection-molding compounder
(IMC), 232 234
Insert molding technology, 186 188,
186f, 187f
plastic metal connection in, 187f
Insert technique, 40f
Institute of Plastics Processing, 98 99
Interface, structure of, 168f
Interface compatibility, 11 16
Interface stresses, 21 26
Interface temperature, 16 20
Interface tension, 12
Intermediate cooling time, 20
Internal stresses, 80, 129, 175,
180 183
bonding at, 196 197
K
Key technology, 1
L
Linear thermal expansion coefficient,
179
Load-bearing plastic metal
structures, 191 193
Localized shrinkage compensation,
160 161
M
Machines and processes, 26 48
material combination, 27 29
point of material joining, 29 36
bi-injection, 29 30
injection sequence, 36 37
marbling technique, 34 36
sandwich technique, 30 34
tool technologies, 37 48
horizontal turning technologies,
45 48
index plate, 43 44
linear systems, 44 45
rotary disks, 41 43
slider technology, 37 39
transfer process, 39 41
Marbling technique, 34 36
Mass temperature, 17 20, 83 84
Material combination, 27 29
Material joining, 29 36
bi-injection, 29 30
injection sequence, 36 37
sequential process control,
37
simultaneous process control,
36
marbling technique, 34 36
sandwich technique, 30 34
basic method, 33
general information, 32 33
monosandwich method, 31f, 34
traditional technique, 31f
Mechanical adhesion, 5 6,
169 171
Melt and gas injection points,
determination of, 139 144,
141t
Melt temperature, 17, 85, 183 184
Metal insert, 176, 193
temperature of, 184
Metals, surface pretreatments for,
168, 169t
Microcellular foams, 55
Mold design, 24
Mold temperature, 20, 85 86,
184 185
variothermic, 93 94
INDEX 243Moldexs, 109
Moldflows, 109
Molecular orientations, 14, 25 26,
178, 185
Molecular weight, 13
Monosandwich technique, 31f, 34
Morphology of foams, 65 67
Motivation, 2 3
MuCells, 82 83, 96, 97f, 231
Multicomponent technologies, 1
Multilayered hollow parts,
manufacturing
using GIT and WIT, 159 160
Multimaterial systems, injection of,
165
construction, 174 177
component design, 175 177
selection of materials, 174 175
injection-molded organic sheet
parts, production of, 194 207
process technology, 197 207
thermoplastic composites,
bonding mechanisms of,
194 197
material effects, 177 183
anisotropy, 177 178
internal stresses, 180 183
linear thermal expansion
coefficient, 179
plastic metal systems, bonding
mechanisms in, 166 172
adhesion, 166 171
form-fitting connections, 172
processing variants, 186 193
insert technology, 187 188
load-bearing plastic metal
structures, 191 193
outsert technology, 188 191
process parameters, 183 185
holding pressure, 185
injection speed, 185
melt temperature, 183 184
mold temperature, 184 185
temperature of the insert, 184
N
Natural fiber, 220 221
classification of, 219f
plant-based, 221
-reinforced plastics, 219 220, 224,
226, 231
“Negative injection compression
molding”. See Precision mold
opening (PMO)
Nitrogen gas, 81 82
Nucleation, 58
O
Optifoams, 96, 98, 99f
Organic sheet parts, injectionmolded, 194 207
process technology, 197 207
process sequences, 200 207
process structure, 198 200
thermoplastic composites, bonding
mechanisms of, 194 197
bonding at internal stresses,
196 197
types of adhesion, 195 196
Organic sheets, 165, 194
preparation of, 202 203
Outsert molding technology,
188 191
plastic metal connection
in, 190f
Overflow cavity method, 109 111,
147 150
P
PAs. See Polyamides (PAs)
PBT. See Polybutylene terephthalate
(PBT)
PC. See Polycarbonate (PC)
PE. See Polyethylene (PE)
PET. See Polyethylene terephthalate
(PET)
Physical blowing agents, 62 64,
81 82
foaming using, 77
244 INDEXPhysical foaming techniques,
96 100
CellMoulds, 96 97
Ergocell, 97
MuCells, 96
Optifoams, 98
ProFoam, 99
SmartFoams, 99 100
Plant-based natural fibers, 221
Plastic composites, injection molding
of
basic bonding mechanism, 3 9
adhesion, 4 6
diffusion, 6 9
basic bonding mechanism, material
and process control on,
10 26
connection design/interface
geometry, 23
contact time, 20
crystallinity, 13
injection and holding pressure,
25
injection speed, 25 26
interface compatibility, 11 16
interface stresses, 21 26
interface temperature, 16 20
intermediate cooling time, 20
mass temperature/injection
sequence, 17 20
mold design, 24
mold temperature, 20
molecular orientations, 14
molecular weight, 13
polarity, 14
shrinkage, 21 22
surface and interface tension,
11 12
surface pretreatment, 16
surface roughness, 23 24
thermal expansion behavior,
25
thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 15 16
machines and processes, 26 48
material combination, 27 29
point of material joining, 29 36
tool technologies, 37 48
motivation, 2 3
multicomponent technologies, 1
Plastic metal composite, 165,
173 174, 176, 177f, 179, 183
Plastic metal hybrid injection
molding, 186f, 191, 193
Plastic metal systems, bonding
mechanisms in, 166 172
adhesion, 166 171
mechanical adhesion, 169 171
specific adhesion, 166 169
form-fitting connections, 172
Plastic-plastic composites, injectionmolded, 2
Plastics
fiber reinforcement, 192
shrinking behavior of, 190, 191f
structural viscosity of, 133 135
PMO. See Precision mold opening
(PMO)
Polarity, 14
Polarization theory, 5, 167
Polyamides (PAs), 190, 217
with vegetable oil basis, 217 218
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT),
217
Polycarbonate (PC), 69 70, 83
Polyethylene (PE), 226 227
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 217
Polylactic acid, 219
Polymer-gas mixture, 57, 73 74, 79,
98
Polymers, injection molding of, 211
Polypropylene (PP), 81, 226 227
Polysaccharides, 213 214
Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT),
217
Polyurethane (PUR), 217
Pore density, 68 69, 82 83
Postshrinkage, 21
INDEX 245PP. See Polypropylene (PP)
Precision mold opening (PMO), 88 90
Preheating, 203 206
“Process Sequences”, 195 196,
200 207
Processing shrinkage, 21
Processing variants, 186 193
insert technology, 187 188
load-bearing plastic metal
structures, 191 193
outsert technology, 188 191
ProFoam, 99
PTT. See Polytrimethylene
terephthalate (PTT)
Pull-and-foam method, 90, 91f
Pulling injectors, 139
PUR. See Polyurethane (PUR)
Push-back method, 121, 150
Push-button effect, 170
PvT-behavior, 180
R
Reflection electron microscopy
(REM), 229 230
Relocating technique, 40f
REM. See Reflection electron
microscopy (REM)
Remaining wall thickness (RWT),
115, 123, 130 131
definition of, 131f
measurement, 130
rheological influences on, 132f
Rotary central block, 45 46
Rotary disk and cube mold, 188, 189f
Roughness
geometries of, 170f
surface roughness, 23 24, 92, 92f,
95
RWT. See Remaining wall thickness
(RWT)
S
Sandwich technique, 30 34, 94 95
basic method, 33
general information, 32 33
monosandwich method, 31f, 34
traditional technique, 31f
SB. See Styrene butadiene (SB)
Semicrystalline plastics, 7, 13,
15 17, 175
Shear viscosity, 133
Shrinkage, 21 22, 40 41, 61 62
demolding, 21
form bound, 22, 22f
free, 22, 22f
localized shrinkage compensation,
160 161
postshrinkage, 21
processing, 21
Side cavity method. See Overflow
cavity method
SIGMASOFTs, 109
Single-material systems, 194,
196 197
Single-phase polymer-gas mixture,
57, 73 74, 86 87
SmartFoams method, 99 100
Solidworkss, 109
Solubility, 57 58
Specific injection-molding behavior,
225 230
injection molding, characteristics
in, 225 226
biocomposites,
226
bioplastics, 225
process-induced material
properties, 226 230
process variants, 231 234
foam injection molding,
231 232
injection-molding compounder,
232 234
Stabilizing effects, 61 62
Stack turning technologies, 45 48
Starch as filling material, 222 223,
223t
Starch blends, 215 216
246 INDEXStatic mixing elements for
distributing gas in the melt,
77 78
Stationary injectors, 139
Stiffness of the foam core, 70 71
Structural viscosity, 133 135
Styrene butadiene (SB), 151 152
Supercritical fluid, 63f
Supersaturation, 82 83
Surface and interface tension, 11 12
Surface optimization, measures for,
161
Surface pretreatment, 16
for metals, 169t
Surface roughness, 23 24, 92, 92f
Surface tension, 11 12
T
Temperature-dependent reptation
time, 9
TGA. See Thermogravimetric
analysis (TGA)
Thermal expansion behavior, 25
Thermodynamic compatibility/
miscibility, 15 16
Thermodynamic theory, 5 6
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
221 222
Thermoplastic composites, bonding
mechanisms of, 194 197
Thermoplastic foam injection
molding. See Foam injection
molding (FIM)
Thermoplastic starch (TPS),
214 215
Tool technologies, 37 48
classification of, 38f
horizontal turning technologies,
45 48
index plate, 43 44
linear systems, 44 45
rotary disks, 41 43
slider technology, 37 39
transfer process, 39 41
TPS. See Thermoplastic starch (TPS)
Trellis effect, 205
U
Upstream thermoforming, 198 199
V
Variotherm method, 55, 93 94
Variothermic mold temperature,
93 94
Vegetable oils, 217
Vertical injection-molding machine
technology, 198
W
Water injection technology (WIT),
107 109, 150 154
influence of the compressibility of
the fluid, 153 154
influence of the heat capacity/
storage capacity, 150 152
influence of the heat transition
coefficient and the heat
conductivity, 152
pressure-controlled, 115
systems technology requirements
for, 154
volume flow controlled, 115
Weak Boundary Layer Model, 167
Weak boundary layer theory, 6
WIT. See Water injection technology
(WIT)
Wittmann Battenfeld injectionmolding machines, 96 97
Wood as filling material, 223 224
Y
Young’s modulus, 70


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