كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations - صفحة 2
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations

اذهب الى الأسفل 
انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2, 3  الصفحة التالية
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 17235
التقييم : 30621
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 14 أبريل 2012, 4:46 am

تذكير بمساهمة فاتح الموضوع :

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations
Helmi A. Youssef
Hassan El-Hofy

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 M_t_m_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxiii
Editors xxv
List of Symbols xxvii
List of Acronyms . xxxiii
Chapter 1 Machining Technology .1
1.1 Introduction .1
1.2 History of Machine Tools .1
1.3 Basic Motions in Machine Tools .5
1.4 Aspects of Machining Technology .5
1.4.1 Machine Tool .6
1.4.2 Workpiece Material .9
1.4.3 Machining Productivity .9
1.4.4 Accuracy and Surface Integrity . 10
1.4.5 Product Design for Economical Machining 10
1.4.6 Environmental Impacts of Machining 10
1.5 Review Questions 10
References 10
Chapter 2 Basic Elements and Mechanisms of Machine Tools 11
2.1 Introduction . 11
2.2 Machine Tool Structures . 13
2.2.1 Light- and Heavy-weight Constructions 17
2.3 Machine Tool Guideways 18
2.3.1 Sliding Friction Guideways . 18
2.3.2 Rolling Friction Guideways . 21
2.3.3 Externally Pressurized Guideways 22
2.4 Machine Tool Spindles 23
2.4.1 Spindle Bearings .23
2.4.2 Selection of Spindle-Bearing Fit .25
2.4.3 Sliding Friction Spindle Bearing .27
2.5 Machine Tool Drives .28
2.5.1 Stepped Speed Drives 28
2.5.1.1 Belting .28
2.5.1.2 Pick-Off Gears 30
2.5.1.3 Gearboxes 30
2.5.1.4 Stepping of Speeds According to Arithmetic Progression . 31
2.5.1.5 Stepping of Speeds According to Geometric Progression 32
2.5.1.6 Kinetic Calculations of Speed Gearboxes 35
2.5.1.7 Application of Pole-Changing Induction Motors 35
2.5.1.8 Feed Gearboxes 37
2.5.1.9 Preselection of Feeds and Speeds .39viii Contents
2.5.2 Stepless Speed Drives .40
2.5.2.1 Mechanical Stepless Drives .40
2.5.2.2 Electrical Stepless Speed Drive . 42
2.5.2.3 Hydraulic Stepless Speed Drive . 43
2.6 Planetary Transmission 44
2.7 Machine Tool Motors . 45
2.8 Reversing Mechanisms . 45
2.9 Couplings and Brakes .46
2.10 Reciprocating Mechanisms 48
2.10.1 Quick-Return Mechanism .48
2.10.2 Whitworth Mechanism 50
2.10.3 Hydraulic Reciprocating Mechanism .50
2.11 Material Selection and Heat Treatment of Machine Tool Components . 51
2.11.1 Cast Iron 51
2.11.2 Steels 52
2.12 Testing of Machine Tools . 53
2.13 Maintenance of Machine Tools 55
2.13.1 Preventive Maintenance 56
2.13.2 Corrective Maintenance 56
2.13.3 Reconditioning 56
2.14 Review Questions . 57
References 57
Chapter 3 General-Purpose Machine Tools 59
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Lathe Machines and Operations . 59
3.2.1 Turning Operations 59
3.2.2 Metal Cutting Lathes .60
3.2.2.1 Universal Engine Lathes .60
3.2.2.2 Other Types of General-Purpose Metal Cutting Lathes .69
3.3 Drilling Machines and Operations .70
3.3.1 Drilling and Drilling Allied Operations .70
3.3.1.1 Drilling Operation .70
3.3.1.2 Drilling Allied Operations 71
3.3.2 General-Purpose Drilling Machines . 74
3.3.2.1 Bench-Type Sensitive Drill Presses 74
3.3.2.2 Upright Drill Presses . 74
3.3.2.3 Radial Drilling Machines . 76
3.3.2.4 Multispindle Drilling Machines 76
3.3.2.5 Horizontal Drilling Machines for Drilling Deep Holes .77
3.3.3 Tool Holding Accessories of Drilling Machines .77
3.3.4 Work-Holding Devices Used on Drilling Machines .79
3.4 Milling Machines and Operations 82
3.4.1 Milling Operations 82
3.4.1.1 Peripheral Milling .82
3.4.1.2 Face Milling 84
3.4.2 Milling Cutters 84Contents ix
3.4.3 General-Purpose Milling Machines .86
3.4.3.1 Knee-Type Milling Machines .86
3.4.3.2 Vertical Bed-Type Milling Machines 88
3.4.3.3 Planer-Type Milling Machine .88
3.4.3.4 Rotary-Table Milling Machines 89
3.4.4 Holding Cutters and Workpieces on Milling Machines .90
3.4.4.1 Cutter Mounting 90
3.4.4.2 Workpiece Fixturing . 91
3.4.5 Dividing Heads .94
3.4.5.1 Universal Dividing Heads .94
3.4.5.2 Modes of Indexing 95
3.5 Shapers, Planers, and Slotters and Their Operations 99
3.5.1 Shaping, Planing, and Slotting Processes 99
3.5.1.1 Determination of v
cm in Accordance with the Machine Mechanism 101
3.5.2 Shaper and Planer Tools 102
3.5.3 Shapers, Planers, and Slotters 103
3.5.3.1 Shapers 103
3.5.3.2 Planers . 105
3.5.3.3 Slotters . 107
3.6 Boring Machines and Operations 107
3.6.1 Boring 107
3.6.2 Boring Tools 108
3.6.2.1 Types of Boring Tools . 108
3.6.2.2 Materials of Boring Tools . 109
3.6.3 Boring Machines . 109
3.6.3.1 General-Purpose Boring Machines . 109
3.6.3.2 Jig Boring Machines . 110
3.7 Broaching Machines and Operations 111
3.7.1 Broaching 111
3.7.1.1 Advantages and Limitations of Broaching . 112
3.7.2 The Broach Tool 113
3.7.2.1 Tool Geometry and Configuration 113
3.7.2.2 Broach Material 116
3.7.2.3 Broach Sharpening 116
3.7.3 Broaching Machines 116
3.7.3.1 Horizontal Broaching Machines . 117
3.7.3.2 Vertical Broaching Machines 118
3.7.3.3 Continuous Horizontal Surface Broaching Machines 118
3.8 Grinding Machines and Operations 119
3.8.1 Grinding Process . 119
3.8.2 Grinding Wheels . 122
3.8.2.1 Manufacturing Characteristics of Grinding Wheels 122
3.8.2.2 Grinding Wheel Geometry . 127
3.8.2.3 Mounting and Balancing of Grinding Wheels and Safety Measures . 127
3.8.2.4 Turning and Dressing of Grinding Wheels . 130
3.8.3 Grinding Machines 131
3.8.3.1 Surface Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 132
3.8.3.2 External Cylindrical Grinding Machines and Related Operations 133
3.8.3.3 Internal Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 136
3.8.3.4 Centerless Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 137x Contents
3.9 Microfinishing Machines and Operations 141
3.9.1 Honing . 141
3.9.1.1 Process Capabilities 142
3.9.1.2 Machining Parameters 144
3.9.1.3 Honing Machines 145
3.9.2 Superfinishing (Microhoning) . 145
3.9.3 Lapping 147
3.9.3.1 Machining Parameters 147
3.9.3.2 Lapping Machines . 148
3.10 Review Questions 154
References 156
Chapter 4 Thread Cutting . 157
4.1 Introduction . 157
4.2 Thread Cutting 159
4.2.1 Cutting Threads on the Lathe 160
4.2.2 Thread Chasing . 163
4.2.3 Thread Tapping . 164
4.2.4 Die Threading 168
4.2.4.1 Die Threading Machines 169
4.2.4.2 Die Threading Performance 172
4.2.5 Thread Milling 172
4.2.6 Thread Broaching 175
4.3 Thread Grinding . 175
4.3.1 Center-Type Thread Grinding . 175
4.3.2 Centerless Thread Grinding 177
4.4 Review Questions 178
References 179
Chapter 5 Gear Cutting Machines and Operations . 181
5.1 Introduction . 181
5.2 Forming and Generating Methods in Gear Cutting 183
5.2.1 Gear Cutting by Forming 184
5.2.1.1 Gear Milling 184
5.2.1.2 Gear Broaching . 188
5.2.1.3 Gear Forming by a Multiple-Tool Shaping Head 189
5.2.1.4 Straight Bevel Gear Forming Methods . 190
5.2.2 Gear Cutting by Generation 190
5.2.2.1 Gear Hobbing 190
5.2.2.2 Gear Shaping with Pinion Cutter 198
5.2.2.3 Gear Shaping with Rack Cutter 202
5.2.2.4 Cutting Straight Bevel Gears by Generation 202
5.3 Selection of Gear Cutting Method 207
5.4 Gear Finishing Operations 207
5.4.1 Finishing Gears Prior to Hardening 207
5.4.1.1 Gear Shaving .207
5.4.1.2 Gear Burnishing 211
5.4.2 Finishing Gears After Hardening 212
5.4.2.1 Gear Grinding . 212
5.4.3 Gear Lapping . 214Contents xi
5.5 Review Questions and Problems . 215
References 215
Chapter 6 Turret and Capstan Lathes . 217
6.1 Introduction . 217
6.2 Difference Between Capstan and Turret Lathes . 217
6.3 Selection and Application of Capstan and Turret Lathes . 219
6.4 Principal Elements of Capstan and Turret Lathes 219
6.4.1 Headstock and Spindle Assembly .220
6.4.2 Carriage/Cross-Slide Unit . 221
6.4.3 Hexagonal Turret . 221
6.4.3.1 Manually Controlled Machines 222
6.4.3.2 Automatically Controlled Headstock Turret Lathes .222
6.4.4 Cross-Sliding Hexagonal Turret 223
6.5 Turret Tooling Setups 223
6.5.1 Job Analysis .223
6.5.2 Tooling Layout .226
6.6 Review Questions 232
References 232
Chapter 7 Automated Lathes 233
7.1 Introduction . 233
7.2 Degree of Automation and Production Capacity 234
7.3 Classification of Automated Lathes 235
7.4 Semiautomatic Lathes .237
7.4.1 Single-Spindle Semiautomatics .237
7.4.2 Multispindle Semiautomatics 239
7.5 Fully Automatic Lathes . 241
7.5.1 Single-Spindle Automatic 241
7.5.1.1 Turret Automatic Screw Machine . 241
7.5.1.2 Swiss-Type Automatic . 252
7.5.2 Horizontal Multispindle Bar and Chucking Automatics .256
7.5.2.1 Special Features of Multispindle Automatics 256
7.5.2.2 Characteristics of Parallel- and Progressive-Action
Multispindle Automatic 258
7.5.2.3 Operation Principles and Constructional Features of a
Progressive Multispindle Automatic .260
7.6 Design and Layout of Cams for Fully Automatics .266
7.6.1 Planning a Sequence of Operation and a Tooling Layout .267
7.6.2 Cam Design .268
7.7 Review Questions and Problems .283
References 284
Chapter 8 Numerical Control and Computer Numerical Control Technology .285
8.1 Introduction .285
8.2 Coordinate System 290
8.2.1 Machine Tool Axes for NC .290
8.2.2 Quadrant Notation .292
8.2.3 Point Location .292
8.2.4 Zero Point Location .293xii Contents
8.2.5 Setup Point .293
8.2.6 Absolute and Incremental Positioning .293
8.3 Machine Movements in Numerical Control Systems .294
8.4 Interpolation .296
8.5 Control of Numerical Control Machine Tools 297
8.6 Components of Numerical Control Machine Tools 299
8.7 Tooling for Numerical Control Machines 302
8.8 Numerical Control Machine Tools .305
8.9 Input Units 308
8.10 Forms of Numerical Control Instructions 310
8.11 Program Format 311
8.12 Feed and Spindle Speed Coding . 312
8.12.1 Feed Rate Coding 312
8.12.2 Spindle Speed Coding . 314
8.13 Features of Numerical Control Systems . 314
8.14 Part Programming 316
8.15 Programming Machining Centers 320
8.15.1 Planning the Program 320
8.15.2 Canned Cycles . 322
8.16 Programming Turning Centers . 328
8.16.1 Planning the Program 328
8.16.2 Canned Turning Cycles . 331
8.17 Computer-Assisted Part Programming . 334
8.17.1 Automatically Programmed Tools Language 334
8.17.2 Programming Stages . 337
8.18 CAD/CAM Approach to Part Programming 339
8.18.1 Computer-Aided Design 339
8.18.2 Computer-Aided Manufacturing . 339
8.19 Review Questions .340
References 343
Chapter 9 Hexapods and Machining Technology .345
9.1 Introduction 345
9.2 Historical Background 345
9.3 Hexapod Mechanism and Design Features 348
9.3.1 Hexapod Mechanism .348
9.3.2 Design Features .349
9.3.2.1 Hexapods of Telescopic Struts (Ingersoll System) 349
9.3.2.2 Hexapods of Ball Screw Struts (Hexel and Geodetic System) . 352
9.4 Hexapod Constructional Elements . 354
9.4.1 Strut Assembly 354
9.4.2 Sphere Drive 354
9.4.3 Bifurcated Balls . 356
9.4.4 Spindles . 357
9.4.5 Articulated Head . 359
9.4.6 Upper Platform 359
9.4.7 Control System 361
9.5 Hexapod Characteristics . 362
9.6 Manufacturing Applications .366Contents xiii
9.7 Review Questions .368
References 369
Chapter 10 Machine Tool Dynamometers 371
10.1 Introduction . 371
10.2 Design Features of Dynamometers . 371
10.2.1 Rapier Parameters for Dynamometer Design . 372
10.2.2 Main Requirements of a Good Dynamometer 373
10.3 Dynamometers Based on Displacement Measurements . 374
10.3.1 Two-Channel Cantilever (Chisholm) Dynamometer 374
10.3.2 Two-Channel-Slotted Cantilever Dynamometer . 374
10.4 Dynamometers Based on Strain Measurement . 375
10.4.1 Strain Gauges and Wheatstone Bridges 375
10.4.2 Cantilever Strain Gauge Dynamometers 377
10.4.3 Octagonal Ring Dynamometers 378
10.4.3.1 Strain Rings and Octagonal Ring Transducers . 378
10.4.3.2 Turning Dynamometer 382
10.4.3.3 Surface Plunge-Cut Grinding Dynamometer .384
10.4.3.4 Milling Dynamometers .384
10.5 Piezoelectric (Quartz) Dynamometers 384
10.5.1 Principles and Features .384
10.5.2 Typical Piezoelectric Dynamometers .386
10.6 Review Questions 389
References 390
Chapter 11 Nontraditional Machine Tools and Operations 391
11.1 Introduction . 391
11.2 Classification of Nontraditional Machining Processes .392
11.3 Jet Machines and Operations 392
11.3.1 Abrasive Jet Machining .392
11.3.1.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .392
11.3.1.2 Work Station of Abrasive Jet Machining 395
11.3.1.3 Process Capabilities 396
11.3.2 Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining) .397
11.3.2.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .397
11.3.2.2 Equipment of WJM .399
11.3.2.3 Process Capabilities 401
11.3.3 Abrasive Water Jet Machining .402
11.3.3.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .402
11.3.3.2 Abrasive Water Jet Machining Equipment .405
11.3.3.3 Process Capabilities 409
11.4 Ultrasonic Machining Equipment and Operation . 410
11.4.1 Definitions, Characteristics, and Applications 410
11.4.2 USM Equipment . 413
11.4.2.1 Oscillating System and Magnetostriction Effect 413
11.4.2.2 Tool Feeding Mechanism 418
11.4.3 Design of Acoustic Horns 419
11.4.3.1 General Differential Equation . 419
11.4.3.2 Design of the Cylindrical Stepped Acoustic Horns (A(x) = C) 421
11.4.3.3 Design of Exponential Acoustic Horns (A(x) = A0e−2hx) 421xiv Contents
11.4.4 Process Capabilities 430
11.4.4.1 Stock Removal Rate 430
11.4.4.2 Accuracy and Surface Quality 432
11.4.5 Recent Developments 433
11.5 Chemical Machining . 434
11.5.1 Chemical Milling 435
11.5.2 Photochemical Machining (Spray Etching) 441
11.6 Electrochemical Machines and Operations 445
11.6.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 445
11.6.2 Elements of Electrochemical Machining 447
11.6.2.1 Tool 447
11.6.2.2 Workpiece .449
11.6.2.3 Electrolyte 449
11.6.3 ECM Equipment .449
11.6.4 Process Capabilities 451
11.7 Electrochemical Grinding Machines and Operations 453
11.8 Electrical Discharge Machines and Operations 454
11.8.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 454
11.8.2 ED Sinking Machine . 458
11.8.3 EDM-Spark Circuits (Power Supply Circuits) 460
11.8.3.1 Resistance-Capacitance Circuit .460
11.8.3.2 Transistorized Pulse Generator Circuits .462
11.8.4 EDM-Tool Electrodes 463
11.8.5 Process Capabilities 464
11.8.6 Electrical Discharge Milling .465
11.8.7 Electrodischarge Wire Cutting 468
11.9 Electron Beam Machining Equipment and Operations 470
11.9.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 470
11.9.2 Electron Beam Machining Equipment 471
11.9.3 Process Capabilities 474
11.10 Laser Beam Machining Equipment and Operations 475
11.10.1 Process Characteristics . 475
11.10.2 Types of Lasers 477
11.10.2.1 Pyrolithic and Photolithic Lasers . 477
11.10.2.2 Industrial Lasers . 477
11.10.2.3 Laser Beam Machining Operations . 478
11.10.3 LBM Equipment . 481
11.10.4 Applications and Capabilities .483
11.11 Plasma Arc Cutting Systems and Operations .485
11.11.1 Process Characteristics .485
11.11.2 Plasma Arc Cutting Systems 486
11.11.3 Applications and Capabilities of Plasma Arc Cutting 486
11.12 Review Questions 488
References 492
Chapter 12 Environment-Friendly Machine Tools and Operations 495
12.1 Introduction . 495
12.2 Traditional Machining 498
12.2.1 Cutting Fluids . 501
12.2.1.1 Classification of Cutting Fluids . 501Contents xv
12.2.1.2 Selection of Cutting Fluids 502
12.2.1.3 Evaluation of Cutting Fluids .502
12.2.2 Hazard Ranking of Cutting Fluids .503
12.2.3 Health Hazards of Cutting Fluids .504
12.2.4 Cryogenic Cooling 504
12.2.5 Ecological Machining .505
12.3 Nontraditional Machining Processes . 510
12.3.1 Chemical Machining 510
12.3.2 Electrochemical Machining 512
12.3.3 Electrodischarge Machining . 514
12.3.3.1 Protective Measures . 516
12.3.4 Laser Beam Machining 516
12.3.5 Ultrasonic Machining . 519
12.3.5.1 Electromagnetic Field 520
12.3.5.2 Ultrasonic Waves . 520
12.3.5.3 Abrasives Slurry 520
12.3.5.4 Contact Hazards 521
12.3.5.5 Other Hazards 521
12.3.6 Abrasive Jet Machining 521
12.4 Review Questions . 523
References 524
Chapter 13 Design for Machining . 525
13.1 Introduction 525
13.1.1 General Design Rules . 525
13.2 General Design Recommendations 526
13.3 Design for Machining by Cutting . 528
13.3.1 Turning . 528
13.3.1.1 Economic Production Quantities . 529
13.3.1.2 Design Recommendations for Turning 530
13.3.1.3 Dimensional Control . 535
13.3.2 Drilling and Allied Operations . 535
13.3.2.1 Economic Production Quantities . 536
13.3.2.2 Design Recommendations for Drilling and Allied Operations . 536
13.3.2.3 Dimensional Control . 539
13.3.3 Milling 539
13.3.3.1 Design Recommendations . 539
13.3.3.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 542
13.3.4 Shaping, Planing, and Slotting 542
13.3.4.1 Design Recommendations . 542
13.3.4.2 Dimensional Control . 543
13.3.5 Broaching 544
13.3.5.1 Design Recommendations .544
13.3.5.2 Dimensional Factors 549
13.3.5.3 Recommended Tolerances . 550
13.3.6 Thread Cutting 550
13.3.6.1 Design Recommendations . 550
13.3.6.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 551
13.3.7 Gear Cutting . 552
13.3.7.1 Design Recommendations . 552
13.3.7.2 Dimensional Factors 554xvi Contents
13.4 Design for Grinding . 554
13.4.1 Surface Grinding 554
13.4.1.1 Design Recommendations . 554
13.4.1.2 Dimensional Control . 556
13.4.2 Cylindrical Grinding 556
13.4.2.1 Design Recommendations . 556
13.4.2.2 Dimensional Factors 557
13.4.3 Centerless Grinding 557
13.4.3.1 Design Recommendations . 558
13.4.3.2 Dimensional Control . 559
13.5 Design for Finishing Processes 559
13.5.1 Honing 559
13.5.2 Lapping .560
13.5.3 Superfinishing . 561
13.6 Design for Chemical and Electrochemical Machining . 561
13.6.1 Chemical Machining 561
13.6.1.1 Design Recommendations . 561
13.6.1.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 563
13.6.2 Electrochemical Machining 563
13.6.2.1 Design Recommendations .564
13.6.2.2 Dimensional Factors 566
13.6.3 Electrochemical Grinding 566
13.6.3.1 Design Recommendations .566
13.6.3.2 Dimensional Factors 567
13.7 Design for Thermal Machining . 567
13.7.1 Electrodischarge Machining . 567
13.7.1.1 Design Recommendations . 567
13.7.1.2 Dimensional Factors 568
13.7.2 Electron Beam Machining 568
13.7.3 Laser Beam Machining 569
13.8 Design for Ultrasonic Machining 570
13.9 Design for Abrasive Jet Machining . 571
13.10 Review Questions . 572
References 573
Chapter 14 Accuracy and Surface Integrity Realized by Machining Processes 575
14.1 Introduction 575
14.2 Surface Texture 575
14.3 Surface Quality and Functional Properties . 577
14.4 Surface Integrity 579
14.5 Surface Effects by Traditional Machining . 582
14.5.1 Chip Removal Processes . 582
14.5.2 Grinding 583
14.6 Surface Effects by Nontraditional Machining . 587
14.6.1 Electrochemical and Chemical Machining .590
14.6.2 Thermal Nontraditional Processes . 591
14.6.2.1 Electrodischarge Machining . 591
14.6.2.2 Laser Beam Machining .596
14.6.2.3 Electron Beam Machining 597
14.6.2.4 Plasma Beam Machining (PBM) . 598Contents xvii
14.6.2.5 Electroerosion Dissolution Machining 598
14.6.2.6 Electrochemical Discharge Grinding 598
14.6.3 Mechanical Nontraditional Processes 599
14.7 Reducing Distortion and Surface Effects in Machining 599
14.8 Review Questions . 601
References 601
Chapter 15 Automated Manufacturing System .603
15.1 Introduction 603
15.2 Manufacturing Systems .605
15.3 Flexible Automation-Flexible Manufacturing Systems .609
15.3.1 Elements of Flexible Manufacturing System . 610
15.3.2 Limitations of Flexible Manufacturing System 611
15.3.3 Features and Characteristics . 611
15.3.4 New Developments in Flexible Manufacturing System Technology . 611
15.4 Computer Integrated Manufacturing . 612
15.4.1 Computer-Aided Design . 615
15.4.2 Computer-Aided Process Planning . 616
15.4.3 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 617
15.5 Lean Production–Just-in-Time Manufacturing Systems . 617
15.5.1 Steps for Implementing the IMPS Lean Production 618
15.5.2 Just-in-Time and Just-in-Case Production 619
15.6 Adaptive Control 620
15.7 Smart Manufacturing and Artificial Intelligence 622
15.7.1 Expert Systems . 622
15.7.2 Machine Vision . 623
15.7.3 Artificial Neural Networks . 623
15.7.4 Natural-Language Systems .624
15.7.5 Fuzzy Logic (Fuzzy Models) 624
15.8 Factory of the Future .624
15.9 Concluding Remarks Related to Automated Manufacturing 625
15.10 Review Questions .625
References 626
Index
627
A
Abrasive
ac motors, 45, 300
electrodischarge grinding, 516
flow machining, 581
grain, 123, 125, 396, 570, 571
grit, 130, 432
jet machining, 3, 10, 392, 395, 521, 571
material, 554
slurry, 410–413, 415, 429, 496, 497, 500, 519, 521, 570
water jet machining, 392, 402, 405
Accuracy
levels, 554
of machined parts, 55, 298, 579
Adaptive control, 603, 620, 621, 625
Agility, 363, 369
Alloy steel, 166, 342, 391, 435, 554
Aluminum oxide, 122, 125, 554
Anodic dissolution, 392, 433, 445, 449
APT, 317, 334–338, 362, 617
Architecture, 345, 346, 367, 615
Arithmetic
average, 575, 576
progression, 31, 32
Art to part, 362, 367, 369
ASA, 185, 545
ASCII, 308, 309, 316
Aspect ratio, 433, 565, 570
Automatic
bar, 169, 236, 237, 244
full, 60
lathes, 233, 241, 243, 246, 254, 261, 284, 603
multispindle, 2, 6, 235–237, 241, 256–260,
266, 268, 270, 281, 282, 284, 529, 530
screw machine, 6, 241–245, 248, 251, 253,
265, 271, 273, 274, 276, 283, 284
semi, 243, 246, 254, 261, 266, 283, 284
single-spindle, 236, 241, 244, 261, 266,
283, 284
Swiss-type, 252–254, 270, 276, 278, 283, 284
tool changer, 303, 304, 343, 363, 610
Automatically controlled, 7, 22
Automation, 7, 11, 68, 112, 233–235, 341, 370, 603,
604, 609, 622, 624, 625
Auxiliary shaft, 242–250, 253, 283
B
Ball screw strut, 352, 354, 368
Bar work, 217, 223, 226, 228
Base line, 320
BCD, 308, 343
Bearing mounting, 24, 25
Bevel gear
forming, 190
generation, 190, 206
Bifurcated, 299, 352–354, 356–358, 369
Binary, 308, 310, 311, 341
Boring
machines, 14, 109–111, 365, 458, 536
mills, 60, 69, 70
operation, 109
tools, 108, 109
Brake, 47, 48, 469
Broach
pull, 115
push, 115
tool, 113
Broaching
external, 112
internal, 112, 115, 117, 455, 549
machine, 113, 116–119
Built up edge, 578, 582, 583
Burnishing, 115, 144, 183, 207, 211, 212, 215, 229, 526,
552, 580
C
CAD/CAM, 4, 8, 317, 339, 340, 361, 409, 613,
614, 617
Calibration, 352, 353, 356, 366, 369, 374
Camshaft, 236, 241, 243–247, 250, 254, 255, 260, 263,
265, 283, 284
Canned cycle, 316, 322, 326, 332, 343
Carbide tools, 103, 224, 302, 454, 550
Carbon steel, 23, 201, 517, 552
Carborundum, 122
Carriage, 18, 20, 62, 63, 65, 66, 69, 219, 221, 248, 262,
263, 610
Cast iron, 16, 51, 57, 361
Cathode, 434, 445, 448, 471, 472, 486, 491, 512, 616
Cemented carbides, 122, 302
Centerline average, 575
Ceramics, 9, 86, 99, 109, 119, 142, 144, 367, 391, 394,
403, 411, 412, 421, 431, 443, 476, 481, 490,
506, 514, 520, 527, 560, 568, 569
Character, 142, 311, 341
Chasers
circular, 160, 169–171
radial, 160, 170, 171
tangential, 160, 161, 171
Chasing, 69, 159, 163, 164, 168, 179
Chatter, 14, 103, 142, 145, 299, 575
Chemical
dissolution, 434, 561
etching, 434
machining, 3, 434, 510, 561–563, 581, 590
milling, 434, 435, 439, 440
processes, 392
Chip breakers, 114
Chromium, 144, 452, 504, 510, 513, 514,
516, 571
Chucking work, 219, 226–228, 232
Index628 Index
Circular interpolation, 297, 305, 307, 313, 320, 322, 325,
327, 329, 330, 340, 341, 343
CLDATA, 335, 337, 340, 362
Closed frames, 13–15
Closed loop, 297, 298, 301, 345, 620
Clutches, 46, 47, 182, 220, 247, 250
Coated tools, 321
Cobalt, 116, 302, 408, 452, 504, 563, 568, 600
Collect chuck, 220, 221, 244, 246, 248, 253, 259
Compact II, 617
Compensation
cutter diameter, 316, 319
tool length, 316, 343
tool nose radius, 329–331
Composites, 398, 403, 410, 433, 481, 568, 569
Computer
-aided design, 4, 339, 615
-aided engineering, 603
-aided inspection, 612
-aided manufacturing, 4, 339, 617
-aided process planning, 612, 616
-integrated manufacturing, 5, 603, 612
numerical control, 4, 285, 287, 281, 293, 295, 297
program, 7, 316, 317, 337, 622
Computerized part changer, 610
Constant surface speed, 329, 341
Contour machining, 367, 433
Contouring, 295, 296, 334, 340, 341, 361,
363, 367, 433
Controller, 286, 298, 355, 361, 362, 620, 623
Conventional machines, 4, 286, 287, 289, 363–365
Conversational MDI, 308
Coolant
control, 612, 335
pressure, 351
supply, 136
Copper, 28, 71, 124, 148, 164, 398, 431, 443, 448, 452,
460, 465, 470
Coring, 570
Corundum, 122
Counterboring, 59, 70–73, 76, 109, 110, 154, 294, 535
Countersinking, 59, 70–73, 76, 154, 394, 306, 387,
535, 551
Coupling, 30, 39, 47, 161, 400, 417
Cross slide, 62, 63, 65, 110, 163, 174, 217–219, 221,
223, 227, 238, 243, 248, 257, 264–268, 270,
281, 388
Cubic boron nitride, 86
Current
ac, 414
dc, 392, 489
density, 434, 449, 450, 566, 581, 590, 592, 601
efficiency, 450
Cutting
condition, 155, 509, 582
energy, 120, 485
fluid, 133, 168, 499, 506
forces, 11, 13, 14, 66, 83, 321, 371, 496, 505, 524, 527,
538, 543, 550, 551, 553, 621
of rocks, 398
operations, 207, 234, 264, 382, 496, 497, 510
orthogonal, 382, 383
rate, 409, 451, 469, 486, 567, 596
temperature, 505, 615
time, 39, 270
tool material, 503
D
Database, 362, 612, 613
dc
motors, 43, 69, 106, 354
power supply, 434, 445, 453
Deburring, 9, 124, 395, 399, 403, 446, 448, 489, 525, 549,
571, 581, 599
Deep hole drilling, 2, 74, 77, 447, 508
Degrees of freedom, 345, 349
Depth of cut, 60, 83, 99, 101, 106, 121, 133, 135, 154, 159,
160, 163, 189, 194, 229, 332, 371, 412, 488, 556,
561, 562, 599, 621
Dexterity, 366, 369
Diamond tool, 130, 131
Die
head, 160, 163, 171
self opening, 160, 170, 171, 179
sinking, 466, 514, 516, 586, 568, 602
Dielectric
fluid, 467fl
ushing, 469
liquids, 514, 516
supply, 469
Dies and molds, 594
Dimensional accuracy, 108, 143, 144, 168, 172,
412, 554, 557, 568, 571, 621
Direct numerical control, 4, 286
Dividing head, 94, 95, 98, 155
DNC, 4, 285–287, 309, 340, 341, 604
Dome, 348, 352, 354, 359, 361
Drill press, 74–76, 165, 169, 170,
536, 616
Drilling
jig, 80–82, 155, 536
operations, 315, 359, 538
tool, 7, 70, 77, 305, 586
Drilling machine
gang, 155
multispindle, 47, 76, 77
single spindle, 76
Dry cutting, 501, 502, 506–509
DXF, 339, 409
E
ECG process, 454, 489
ECM
advantages and disadvantages, 489
applications, 447, 590
equipment, 449
process, 433, 445, 447
EDM
electrodes, 455
machine, 4, 463, 489, 490, 516, 567
milling, 466
Electrical stepless speed drive, 42, 43Index 629
Electrochemical
deburring, 581
discharge grinding, 589, 598
grinding, 392, 453, 566, 581
honing, 392
machining, 3, 446, 447, 512, 561, 563, 601, 602
Electrode
material, 462–464
wear, 462, 466–468, 568
Electrodischarge
grinding, 516
machining, 3, 6, 514, 567, 591, 601, 602
Electroerosion dissolution machining, 589, 601, 602
Electrolysis, 445, 489, 513, 598
Electrolyte
feeding, 450
passivating, 590
temperature, 556
velocity, 449
Electrolyzing current, 433, 434, 445, 451
Electromagnetic field, 520
Electron beam machining, 4, 470, 471, 568, 581, 597
Electropolishing, 144, 580, 581, 590
Environmental impacts, 8, 10, 495, 499–501, 510, 515
Etch
factor, 437, 439
rate, 439–441, 443, 510
Etchant, 392, 434–442, 445, 446, 497, 510–512,
563, 601
Evaporation, 392, 579
F
Face milling, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 105, 296, 305, 324, 325,
540, 583, 586, 587
Face plate, 23, 184
Factory of the future, 624
Faraday’s laws, 445, 489
Feed gearbox, 29, 30, 37, 38, 57, 63, 75, 88, 107
Finish turning, 61, 328, 331–333
Fixed block format, 311
Fixed zero, 293, 294
Fixtures, 83, 118
Flexibility, 194, 363, 609
Flexible manufacturing systems, 609–611
Floating zero, 293
Flushing, 459, 467
Follower rest, 62, 66, 67, 115, 154
Fuzzy logic, 622, 624
G
G codes, 311, 319, 322, 329, 362
Gap
voltage, 463, 490, 566
width, 451, 590
Gear
broaching, 188–189
burnishing, 211, 215
finishing, 207
forming, 185, 189, 190, 208
grinding, 212–214
hobbing, 6, 7, 190, 193–196, 204, 205, 215
lapping, 214, 215
milling, 86, 184, 508
production, 183, 215
shaping, 183, 189, 198, 199, 201, 202, 208, 215
shaving, 207, 209–211
spur, 6, 45, 46, 96, 181, 183–185, 188–190, 192, 193,
202, 209, 211, 214, 215, 552
train, 69, 75, 98, 161, 162, 179, 191, 195–198, 243, 244
Geometric
adaptive control, 621
progression ratio, 32, 33, 63
Grain size, 122, 123, 125, 131, 137, 392, 396, 403, 432,
434, 499, 561, 571, 582, 583, 590, 599
Graphite, 16, 402, 412, 463–465, 467, 468, 470, 490, 509,
527, 567, 594, 601
Grinding
action, 135, 453
centerless, 131, 137–141, 155, 178, 557, 558
conventional, 177, 485, 566, 589
creep feed, 132
cylindrical, 2, 7, 124, 126, 133, 135–138, 155, 290,
291, 556, 573
machines, 6, 46, 119, 126, 131–133, 136, 137, 177, 214,
290, 453, 499, 573
operations, 121, 135–137, 506
plunge, 132, 133, 159, 176, 178, 556, 567
process, 119–121, 124, 130, 207, 214
surface, 124, 127
wheel, 117, 122–125, 127, 130, 131, 212, 213, 403, 453
Grooving, 148, 244, 264, 328, 329, 332, 529
Group technology, 605
Guideways
ball bearing, 22
dovetail, 18, 20
externally pressurized, 19, 22
rolling friction, 21, 22, 57
sliding friction, 18
vee, 18
H
Hardening
case, 52, 53, 214, 552
induction, 20
surface, 470, 477, 478, 481, 482
Hardness
Brinell, 51
Knoop number, 122, 13
Rockwell, 23
Headstock, 62, 69, 110, 143, 163, 218–220, 226, 242, 244,
252–255, 257, 260, 264, 277
Heat
affected zone, 141, 596, 598, 599
generation, 485
Helix angle, 70, 71, 94, 98, 173, 174, 185, 188, 191, 193,
202, 208, 209, 546, 553
High speed
machining, 504, 505, 508
steel, 167, 509
High spindle speed, 27, 262, 366630 Index
Horizontal milling, 52, 82, 84, 86, 90, 184, 579
Hot hardness, 507
Hybrid machining, 396, 602
Hydraulic
motor, 43, 44, 300, 301
pump, 44, 56, 399
tracer, 9, 65, 237, 238
Hydrogen, 440, 446, 510, 512, 583
I
Ignition lag, 463
Imperial units, 314
Incremental positioning, 293, 294, 322, 329, 340
Indexing
head, 181
trips, 185, 186
Input signal, 458
Integrated circuit, 4, 285, 341
Intensifier, 402
Interlocking cutter, 202, 203, 207
Interpolation
circular, 297, 305, 307, 313, 320, 322, 327, 329,
330, 340, 341, 343
cubic, 296, 297
linear, 296, 313, 320, 322, 327
parabolic, 297
Iron and steel, 51, 164, 512, 591, 602
J
Jet
cutting, 9, 400, 405, 492
velocity, 393, 395, 398, 409, 488
Jog, 315, 316
Just-in-time, 605, 617, 619, 620
K
Kanban, 618, 619, 626
Knurling, 59, 63, 221, 226, 233, 244, 264
Konvoid generators, 202, 204
Kopp variator, 41
L
Lapping
equalizing, 148
machines, 7, 148–153, 560, 661
operation, 207, 215
Laser beam
cutting, 481
drilling, 479
machining, 3, 10, 475, 478, 516, 518, 569, 581, 596, 597
Lathe
automatic turret, 166, 169
capstan, 170, 217, 219, 221–223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 234
dog, 66
facing, 60, 69, 70, 154
machine, 3, 15, 59, 160, 179, 298
manual turret, 166, 169
plain turning, 60, 69
vertical turret, 70
M
M codes, 322, 323, 329
Machinability
of materials, 371, 477
rating, 552
Machine tool
drives, 28, 42, 45
frame, 16, 18, 57
gearbox, 35, 210
guideways, 18, 19, 23, 57
manual, 7, 286
motors, 45, 46
spindles, 23, 24, 26, 27, 33, 298, 299
structures, 13, 15–17, 57, 299
testing of, 53
traditional, 5
Machinery, 1, 55, 212, 450, 603, 610, 616, 617, 624
Machining
allowance, 1, 159, 207, 209, 226, 371, 498, 527, 545,
565, 567
by cutting, 159, 417, 492, 498, 501, 510, 524, 528,
586, 602
centers, 4, 9, 111, 285, 306, 610, 612, 624
nontraditional, 1, 4, 5, 9, 391, 392, 490, 510, 587
productivity, 9, 171, 172, 190
traditional, 5, 7, 9, 10, 498, 582
Magic three, 314, 341
Magnetic
chuck, 121, 132, 153, 555
tape, 286, 298, 308, 309
Magnetostrictor, 417
Maintenance
corrective, 56
preventive, 53, 56, 57
Management, 362, 495, 525, 605, 608, 612–614, 617, 618
Mandrel, 55, 66, 67, 142, 191
Manufacturing
cell, 608, 609, 625
cellular, 605, 607, 625
smart, 622
Maskant, 436, 438, 439, 489, 561, 563
Material handling, 605, 610–612, 615, 617, 624, 625, 604
MDI, 308, 316
Mechanical abrasion, 392, 397, 434, 453
Mechanism
apron, 63
of material removal, 491, 587
quick return, 48–50, 57
reversing, 45, 46, 57, 165
Metallic bond, 125, 144
Micromachining, 456, 467, 470, 475, 478, 479,
481, 569
Milling
climb, 83, 155
conventional, 83, 285, 345
down, 83, 84
end, 82, 184, 541, 542Index 631
face, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 105, 296, 305, 324, 325,
540, 583, 586, 587
gear, 86, 184, 508
horizontal, 82, 84, 86, 90, 184, 579
operations, 82, 84, 86, 173, 295, 305, 312, 390, 539
vertical, 84, 85, 87, 110, 579, 583
Modal, 322, 323, 329
Moving target, 626
N
NC control, 289, 294–296, 314, 361, 482
Nickel, 414, 439, 443, 452, 476, 481, 504, 510, 514, 516,
563, 566, 568, 571, 580, 581, 591, 600
Nitric acid, 510
Norton gearbox, 29, 32, 38, 57
Neural network, 622, 623
O
Octahedral hexapod, 346, 349, 351, 363–365, 370
Octahedron, 345, 350, 351, 354
Open
frames, 13, 14
loop system, 301
Overcut, 432, 448, 451, 465, 468, 570, 571
Override, 314, 315
Oxygen, 506, 513, 594, 602
P
Parallel action, 257, 258
Parallel kinematics, 345
Parity check, 316, 341
Part programming, 316, 318, 334, 337, 339, 341
Peck drilling, 322, 324, 332
Photochemical machining, 434, 441, 443, 581
Photoresist, 438, 439, 442, 561, 563
Pick-off gears, 29, 30, 38, 57, 174, 243, 244, 270, 282
Plain milling cutters, 84
Planing, 3, 6, 7, 9, 48, 99–101, 154, 155, 542, 572
Plasma
arc, 485, 486, 488
beam machining, 3, 581, 598
channel, 485, 514
jet, 487
Plastic forming, 1
Plate jig, 80
Pocket milling, 324, 326
Point-to-point, 294
Pole-changing motor, 36, 37
Polishing, 3, 141, 144, 394, 396, 399, 400, 526, 580, 581
Precision
adjustment, 525
cutting, 408,
drilling, 470
grinding, 124, 367, 509, 556
machine tool, 23, 26
Printed circuit boards, 435
Process
accuracy, 394, 559
capabilities, 142, 391, 396
characteristics, 392, 397, 402, 445, 454, 470, 475, 485
control, 445, 604, 620, 623
parameters, 4, 391, 460–462, 501, 596
Product design, 6, 8, 10, 497, 539–542, 544, 566, 605,
612, 613, 615
Production
batch, 30, 38, 76, 603, 604, 611, 625
interchangeable, 217
lean, 617–619, 625, 626
lot, 52, 60, 76, 80, 86, 103, 153, 160, 184, 233
mass, 59, 68, 77, 80, 89, 112, 113, 119, 150, 154, 200,
212, 233, 236, 237, 256, 271, 276, 283, 287, 398,
446, 525, 557, 559, 560, 603, 605, 609
Program datum, 321
Programmable logic controller, 362
Progressive action, 236, 239, 240, 256–260
Pulleys, 41, 42, 111, 529
Pulse
current, 568, 593, 594
duration, 470, 471, 474, 475, 480, 482, 568
energy, 474, 475, 478, 480, 594, 597
frequency, 464, 474, 475, 478–480
generator, 455, 458, 460, 462–464, 468, 490
on-time, 591, 593
Punched tapes, 286, 308, 309
Q
Quality control, 604, 612, 617, 618, 625
R
Rack and pinion, 75, 101, 102, 106, 181
Rake angle, 70, 83, 100, 103, 116, 120, 169, 170
Rapid prototyping, 496
RC circuit, 460–462, 490
Reaming
allowance, 74
operation, 111, 262
Recast
layer, 435, 455, 464, 471, 479, 594, 596
structure, 464, 595
Reference plane, 323, 324
Relief angle, 71, 163
Removal rate
material, 82, 176, 302, 320, 599, 621
volumetric, 11, 465, 474, 568
Robots, 299, 453, 362, 603, 604, 611, 623–625
Roller box, 299
Rotary ultrasonic machining, 433
Rough turning cycle, 331, 333
S
Saddle, 66, 88, 110, 111, 161, 217–219, 221, 223, 232,
345, 402, 492
Sapphire, 392, 393, 398, 401, 405, 412, 433, 571
Sawing, 250, 453, 500, 508, 580, 594
Scheduling, 610, 613, 617, 619, 622–624
Scribing templates, 438, 440
Setting angle, 60, 101, 130
Shaping machine, 6, 49, 201, 215, 373
Shielded plasma, 486, 487632 Index
Short circuit, 446, 449, 458
Slotting, 7, 13, 14, 85, 86, 99–102, 154, 190, 233, 446,
533, 542–544, 571, 572
Slurry supply system, 431
Sodium chloride, 512
Sodium nitrate, 512
Spark
erosion, 6, 455
gap, 458, 463, 464, 516
machining, 492
Speed
chart, 35, 37
gearbox, 29, 35–37, 39, 62, 88, 104, 105, 110
Sphere drive, 352–357, 361
Spindle
bearing, 12, 23–28, 559
mounting, 57, 136
Spot facing, 59, 71, 73, 110, 154, 233, 306, 540
Staggered, 84, 114
Stand off distance, 392
Steady rest, 62, 66, 67, 74, 77, 154, 557
Stepless speed, 28, 40–44, 57
Stick slip effect, 19, 21, 300
Straight cut, 295, 296, 305, 340, 341, 343
Structural diagram, 35, 36
Structural steels, 52, 57
Structure
cast and fabricated, 17
welded, 16, 57
Strut assembly, 354
Superfinishing, 3, 9, 145, 146, 561, 580
Surface
effects, 569, 579, 582, 587–589
finish, 168, 592
grinding, 6, 7, 31, 120, 121, 124, 127, 132, 135, 155,
384, 390, 554, 587, 589, 591
integrity, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 455, 504, 505, 575
layer, 211, 575, 579, 580, 582–584, 586,
596, 598
texture, 6, 8, 460–462, 545, 575–578, 580,
601, 602
System
expert, 622, 623
knowledge based, 601, 622
pull, 619, 626
push, 619, 626
vision, 612
T
Tape
magnetic, 286, 298, 308, 309
paper, 298
reader, 7, 285, 287, 288, 297, 298, 316, 341
Tapping cycle, 322, 324
Telescopic struts, 349–351, 369
Texturing, 9, 457, 594, 601
Thermal
effect, 411, 485, 594
machining, 4, 9, 579, 582, 589, 596, 601
properties, 474, 582, 591, 597
Thinning of parts, 436
Thread
broaching, 175
English, 163
external, 61, 160, 163, 168, 174, 178, 224, 551
form, 157, 159, 160, 175, 176, 178, 508, 550
grinding, 6, 168, 175–179, 550, 551
internal, 59, 61, 74, 109, 110, 163, 164, 174, 175, 177,
550, 551
metric, 157, 159, 162
milling, 160, 172–175, 178, 179, 551
pitch, 65, 160, 165, 166, 176
tapered, 174, 175, 179, 529
tapping, 164, 167
Threading
conditions, 168, 172
cycle, 170, 329, 333
Three jaw chuck, 226, 556
Time
idle, 185, 225, 232, 253, 270, 283, 399
machine handling, 255
machining, 9, 10, 18, 39, 40, 189, 200, 205, 207, 209,
223, 225, 226, 260, 268, 281–283, 289, 340, 432,
433, 442, 467, 530, 555
production, 11, 39, 40, 112, 217, 224, 225, 242
Titanium, 116, 302, 367, 410, 443, 452, 476, 516, 563,
568, 580, 581, 591, 602
Tool
diameter, 317, 318, 361, 411, 432, 491, 570
electrode, 451, 455, 461, 463–466, 514, 516,
567, 568
feed rate, 59, 282, 490, 535
geometry, 101, 113, 223, 267, 270, 340, 532
holder, 104, 106, 131, 217, 222, 226–228, 230, 303,
307, 308, 358, 458
insulation, 447, 564
life, 37, 40, 116, 168, 170–172, 204, 211, 212,
302, 371, 501, 503–506, 509, 551, 563, 599,
611, 615
magazine, 303
material, 1, 11, 30, 31, 101, 154, 189, 224, 268, 270,
282, 302, 371, 391, 411, 432, 448, 463, 503, 506,
507, 516, 535, 582
offset, 303, 305, 316, 611
oscillation, 410, 430, 491
shape, 71, 445, 519
steel, 86, 123, 150, 409, 470, 563, 595, 600
wear, 109, 168, 169, 178, 314, 316, 329, 359, 371, 432,
434, 446, 451, 453, 455, 459, 460, 463, 476, 491,
504, 535, 538, 542, 550, 571, 578, 611
Tooling layout, 217, 226, 228–230, 267, 268, 277,
280, 281
Tracer device, 65
Traditional
grinding, 435
machining, 5, 7, 9, 10, 582
manufacturing, 612, 619
Trimming, 4, 394–396, 484, 562, 510
Trip-dogs, 135, 241, 247, 249, 250
Tripod, 345, 346
Truing and dressing, 122, 130, 131
Tungsten, 147, 392, 394, 395, 408, 439, 452, 463, 471, 475,
486, 487, 563, 568, 569, 571, 591, 600
Turbine blade, 363, 366, 447Index 633
Turning center, 285, 302, 307, 328, 329
Turret
head, 70, 220, 223, 226, 245–247, 250–252, 268, 273,
275
hexagonal, 217–219, 221–223, 225, 226
screw automatics, 235
slide, 217–219, 222, 242, 250, 251
square, 62, 65, 217, 218, 221, 225–227
Twist drill, 62, 70–72, 77, 79, 86, 94, 231, 256
U
Ultrasonic
assisted ECM, 433
machining, 3, 92, 393, 410, 433, 519, 750, 581
sinking, 433
vibration, 433, 434, 596, 597
Undeformed chip, 60, 599
V
Vaporization, 392, 455, 470, 471, 477, 502, 503, 516
W
Water jet, 3, 8, 392, 397, 402, 405
Wear compensation, 18, 20, 21, 108, 109, 466, 467
Welding, 1, 2, 20, 52, 364, 367, 368, 411, 470, 475, 477,
478, 481, 482
Wheel
balancing, 129, 336
bond, 120, 124
dressing, 213, 558, 589
loading, 130, 555
marking, 125
mounting, 128
single rib, 175–179
skip rib, 176, 177, 179
truing, 130, 131, 135
Wire
cutting, 468, 469, 497, 514
EDM, 489, 514, 515, 567, 568
Word address format, 311, 312
Work holding, 12, 79, 226, 289, 299, 321, 322, 542
Workpiece material, 9
Workstation, 395, 396, 476, 610
Worm wheel, 181, 190–194, 208, 315, 244


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كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالسبت 14 أبريل 2012, 4:46 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations
Helmi A. Youssef
Hassan El-Hofy

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 M_t_m_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxiii
Editors xxv
List of Symbols xxvii
List of Acronyms . xxxiii
Chapter 1 Machining Technology .1
1.1 Introduction .1
1.2 History of Machine Tools .1
1.3 Basic Motions in Machine Tools .5
1.4 Aspects of Machining Technology .5
1.4.1 Machine Tool .6
1.4.2 Workpiece Material .9
1.4.3 Machining Productivity .9
1.4.4 Accuracy and Surface Integrity . 10
1.4.5 Product Design for Economical Machining 10
1.4.6 Environmental Impacts of Machining 10
1.5 Review Questions 10
References 10
Chapter 2 Basic Elements and Mechanisms of Machine Tools 11
2.1 Introduction . 11
2.2 Machine Tool Structures . 13
2.2.1 Light- and Heavy-weight Constructions 17
2.3 Machine Tool Guideways 18
2.3.1 Sliding Friction Guideways . 18
2.3.2 Rolling Friction Guideways . 21
2.3.3 Externally Pressurized Guideways 22
2.4 Machine Tool Spindles 23
2.4.1 Spindle Bearings .23
2.4.2 Selection of Spindle-Bearing Fit .25
2.4.3 Sliding Friction Spindle Bearing .27
2.5 Machine Tool Drives .28
2.5.1 Stepped Speed Drives 28
2.5.1.1 Belting .28
2.5.1.2 Pick-Off Gears 30
2.5.1.3 Gearboxes 30
2.5.1.4 Stepping of Speeds According to Arithmetic Progression . 31
2.5.1.5 Stepping of Speeds According to Geometric Progression 32
2.5.1.6 Kinetic Calculations of Speed Gearboxes 35
2.5.1.7 Application of Pole-Changing Induction Motors 35
2.5.1.8 Feed Gearboxes 37
2.5.1.9 Preselection of Feeds and Speeds .39viii Contents
2.5.2 Stepless Speed Drives .40
2.5.2.1 Mechanical Stepless Drives .40
2.5.2.2 Electrical Stepless Speed Drive . 42
2.5.2.3 Hydraulic Stepless Speed Drive . 43
2.6 Planetary Transmission 44
2.7 Machine Tool Motors . 45
2.8 Reversing Mechanisms . 45
2.9 Couplings and Brakes .46
2.10 Reciprocating Mechanisms 48
2.10.1 Quick-Return Mechanism .48
2.10.2 Whitworth Mechanism 50
2.10.3 Hydraulic Reciprocating Mechanism .50
2.11 Material Selection and Heat Treatment of Machine Tool Components . 51
2.11.1 Cast Iron 51
2.11.2 Steels 52
2.12 Testing of Machine Tools . 53
2.13 Maintenance of Machine Tools 55
2.13.1 Preventive Maintenance 56
2.13.2 Corrective Maintenance 56
2.13.3 Reconditioning 56
2.14 Review Questions . 57
References 57
Chapter 3 General-Purpose Machine Tools 59
3.1 Introduction 59
3.2 Lathe Machines and Operations . 59
3.2.1 Turning Operations 59
3.2.2 Metal Cutting Lathes .60
3.2.2.1 Universal Engine Lathes .60
3.2.2.2 Other Types of General-Purpose Metal Cutting Lathes .69
3.3 Drilling Machines and Operations .70
3.3.1 Drilling and Drilling Allied Operations .70
3.3.1.1 Drilling Operation .70
3.3.1.2 Drilling Allied Operations 71
3.3.2 General-Purpose Drilling Machines . 74
3.3.2.1 Bench-Type Sensitive Drill Presses 74
3.3.2.2 Upright Drill Presses . 74
3.3.2.3 Radial Drilling Machines . 76
3.3.2.4 Multispindle Drilling Machines 76
3.3.2.5 Horizontal Drilling Machines for Drilling Deep Holes .77
3.3.3 Tool Holding Accessories of Drilling Machines .77
3.3.4 Work-Holding Devices Used on Drilling Machines .79
3.4 Milling Machines and Operations 82
3.4.1 Milling Operations 82
3.4.1.1 Peripheral Milling .82
3.4.1.2 Face Milling 84
3.4.2 Milling Cutters 84Contents ix
3.4.3 General-Purpose Milling Machines .86
3.4.3.1 Knee-Type Milling Machines .86
3.4.3.2 Vertical Bed-Type Milling Machines 88
3.4.3.3 Planer-Type Milling Machine .88
3.4.3.4 Rotary-Table Milling Machines 89
3.4.4 Holding Cutters and Workpieces on Milling Machines .90
3.4.4.1 Cutter Mounting 90
3.4.4.2 Workpiece Fixturing . 91
3.4.5 Dividing Heads .94
3.4.5.1 Universal Dividing Heads .94
3.4.5.2 Modes of Indexing 95
3.5 Shapers, Planers, and Slotters and Their Operations 99
3.5.1 Shaping, Planing, and Slotting Processes 99
3.5.1.1 Determination of v
cm in Accordance with the Machine Mechanism 101
3.5.2 Shaper and Planer Tools 102
3.5.3 Shapers, Planers, and Slotters 103
3.5.3.1 Shapers 103
3.5.3.2 Planers . 105
3.5.3.3 Slotters . 107
3.6 Boring Machines and Operations 107
3.6.1 Boring 107
3.6.2 Boring Tools 108
3.6.2.1 Types of Boring Tools . 108
3.6.2.2 Materials of Boring Tools . 109
3.6.3 Boring Machines . 109
3.6.3.1 General-Purpose Boring Machines . 109
3.6.3.2 Jig Boring Machines . 110
3.7 Broaching Machines and Operations 111
3.7.1 Broaching 111
3.7.1.1 Advantages and Limitations of Broaching . 112
3.7.2 The Broach Tool 113
3.7.2.1 Tool Geometry and Configuration 113
3.7.2.2 Broach Material 116
3.7.2.3 Broach Sharpening 116
3.7.3 Broaching Machines 116
3.7.3.1 Horizontal Broaching Machines . 117
3.7.3.2 Vertical Broaching Machines 118
3.7.3.3 Continuous Horizontal Surface Broaching Machines 118
3.8 Grinding Machines and Operations 119
3.8.1 Grinding Process . 119
3.8.2 Grinding Wheels . 122
3.8.2.1 Manufacturing Characteristics of Grinding Wheels 122
3.8.2.2 Grinding Wheel Geometry . 127
3.8.2.3 Mounting and Balancing of Grinding Wheels and Safety Measures . 127
3.8.2.4 Turning and Dressing of Grinding Wheels . 130
3.8.3 Grinding Machines 131
3.8.3.1 Surface Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 132
3.8.3.2 External Cylindrical Grinding Machines and Related Operations 133
3.8.3.3 Internal Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 136
3.8.3.4 Centerless Grinding Machines and Related Operations . 137x Contents
3.9 Microfinishing Machines and Operations 141
3.9.1 Honing . 141
3.9.1.1 Process Capabilities 142
3.9.1.2 Machining Parameters 144
3.9.1.3 Honing Machines 145
3.9.2 Superfinishing (Microhoning) . 145
3.9.3 Lapping 147
3.9.3.1 Machining Parameters 147
3.9.3.2 Lapping Machines . 148
3.10 Review Questions 154
References 156
Chapter 4 Thread Cutting . 157
4.1 Introduction . 157
4.2 Thread Cutting 159
4.2.1 Cutting Threads on the Lathe 160
4.2.2 Thread Chasing . 163
4.2.3 Thread Tapping . 164
4.2.4 Die Threading 168
4.2.4.1 Die Threading Machines 169
4.2.4.2 Die Threading Performance 172
4.2.5 Thread Milling 172
4.2.6 Thread Broaching 175
4.3 Thread Grinding . 175
4.3.1 Center-Type Thread Grinding . 175
4.3.2 Centerless Thread Grinding 177
4.4 Review Questions 178
References 179
Chapter 5 Gear Cutting Machines and Operations . 181
5.1 Introduction . 181
5.2 Forming and Generating Methods in Gear Cutting 183
5.2.1 Gear Cutting by Forming 184
5.2.1.1 Gear Milling 184
5.2.1.2 Gear Broaching . 188
5.2.1.3 Gear Forming by a Multiple-Tool Shaping Head 189
5.2.1.4 Straight Bevel Gear Forming Methods . 190
5.2.2 Gear Cutting by Generation 190
5.2.2.1 Gear Hobbing 190
5.2.2.2 Gear Shaping with Pinion Cutter 198
5.2.2.3 Gear Shaping with Rack Cutter 202
5.2.2.4 Cutting Straight Bevel Gears by Generation 202
5.3 Selection of Gear Cutting Method 207
5.4 Gear Finishing Operations 207
5.4.1 Finishing Gears Prior to Hardening 207
5.4.1.1 Gear Shaving .207
5.4.1.2 Gear Burnishing 211
5.4.2 Finishing Gears After Hardening 212
5.4.2.1 Gear Grinding . 212
5.4.3 Gear Lapping . 214Contents xi
5.5 Review Questions and Problems . 215
References 215
Chapter 6 Turret and Capstan Lathes . 217
6.1 Introduction . 217
6.2 Difference Between Capstan and Turret Lathes . 217
6.3 Selection and Application of Capstan and Turret Lathes . 219
6.4 Principal Elements of Capstan and Turret Lathes 219
6.4.1 Headstock and Spindle Assembly .220
6.4.2 Carriage/Cross-Slide Unit . 221
6.4.3 Hexagonal Turret . 221
6.4.3.1 Manually Controlled Machines 222
6.4.3.2 Automatically Controlled Headstock Turret Lathes .222
6.4.4 Cross-Sliding Hexagonal Turret 223
6.5 Turret Tooling Setups 223
6.5.1 Job Analysis .223
6.5.2 Tooling Layout .226
6.6 Review Questions 232
References 232
Chapter 7 Automated Lathes 233
7.1 Introduction . 233
7.2 Degree of Automation and Production Capacity 234
7.3 Classification of Automated Lathes 235
7.4 Semiautomatic Lathes .237
7.4.1 Single-Spindle Semiautomatics .237
7.4.2 Multispindle Semiautomatics 239
7.5 Fully Automatic Lathes . 241
7.5.1 Single-Spindle Automatic 241
7.5.1.1 Turret Automatic Screw Machine . 241
7.5.1.2 Swiss-Type Automatic . 252
7.5.2 Horizontal Multispindle Bar and Chucking Automatics .256
7.5.2.1 Special Features of Multispindle Automatics 256
7.5.2.2 Characteristics of Parallel- and Progressive-Action
Multispindle Automatic 258
7.5.2.3 Operation Principles and Constructional Features of a
Progressive Multispindle Automatic .260
7.6 Design and Layout of Cams for Fully Automatics .266
7.6.1 Planning a Sequence of Operation and a Tooling Layout .267
7.6.2 Cam Design .268
7.7 Review Questions and Problems .283
References 284
Chapter 8 Numerical Control and Computer Numerical Control Technology .285
8.1 Introduction .285
8.2 Coordinate System 290
8.2.1 Machine Tool Axes for NC .290
8.2.2 Quadrant Notation .292
8.2.3 Point Location .292
8.2.4 Zero Point Location .293xii Contents
8.2.5 Setup Point .293
8.2.6 Absolute and Incremental Positioning .293
8.3 Machine Movements in Numerical Control Systems .294
8.4 Interpolation .296
8.5 Control of Numerical Control Machine Tools 297
8.6 Components of Numerical Control Machine Tools 299
8.7 Tooling for Numerical Control Machines 302
8.8 Numerical Control Machine Tools .305
8.9 Input Units 308
8.10 Forms of Numerical Control Instructions 310
8.11 Program Format 311
8.12 Feed and Spindle Speed Coding . 312
8.12.1 Feed Rate Coding 312
8.12.2 Spindle Speed Coding . 314
8.13 Features of Numerical Control Systems . 314
8.14 Part Programming 316
8.15 Programming Machining Centers 320
8.15.1 Planning the Program 320
8.15.2 Canned Cycles . 322
8.16 Programming Turning Centers . 328
8.16.1 Planning the Program 328
8.16.2 Canned Turning Cycles . 331
8.17 Computer-Assisted Part Programming . 334
8.17.1 Automatically Programmed Tools Language 334
8.17.2 Programming Stages . 337
8.18 CAD/CAM Approach to Part Programming 339
8.18.1 Computer-Aided Design 339
8.18.2 Computer-Aided Manufacturing . 339
8.19 Review Questions .340
References 343
Chapter 9 Hexapods and Machining Technology .345
9.1 Introduction 345
9.2 Historical Background 345
9.3 Hexapod Mechanism and Design Features 348
9.3.1 Hexapod Mechanism .348
9.3.2 Design Features .349
9.3.2.1 Hexapods of Telescopic Struts (Ingersoll System) 349
9.3.2.2 Hexapods of Ball Screw Struts (Hexel and Geodetic System) . 352
9.4 Hexapod Constructional Elements . 354
9.4.1 Strut Assembly 354
9.4.2 Sphere Drive 354
9.4.3 Bifurcated Balls . 356
9.4.4 Spindles . 357
9.4.5 Articulated Head . 359
9.4.6 Upper Platform 359
9.4.7 Control System 361
9.5 Hexapod Characteristics . 362
9.6 Manufacturing Applications .366Contents xiii
9.7 Review Questions .368
References 369
Chapter 10 Machine Tool Dynamometers 371
10.1 Introduction . 371
10.2 Design Features of Dynamometers . 371
10.2.1 Rapier Parameters for Dynamometer Design . 372
10.2.2 Main Requirements of a Good Dynamometer 373
10.3 Dynamometers Based on Displacement Measurements . 374
10.3.1 Two-Channel Cantilever (Chisholm) Dynamometer 374
10.3.2 Two-Channel-Slotted Cantilever Dynamometer . 374
10.4 Dynamometers Based on Strain Measurement . 375
10.4.1 Strain Gauges and Wheatstone Bridges 375
10.4.2 Cantilever Strain Gauge Dynamometers 377
10.4.3 Octagonal Ring Dynamometers 378
10.4.3.1 Strain Rings and Octagonal Ring Transducers . 378
10.4.3.2 Turning Dynamometer 382
10.4.3.3 Surface Plunge-Cut Grinding Dynamometer .384
10.4.3.4 Milling Dynamometers .384
10.5 Piezoelectric (Quartz) Dynamometers 384
10.5.1 Principles and Features .384
10.5.2 Typical Piezoelectric Dynamometers .386
10.6 Review Questions 389
References 390
Chapter 11 Nontraditional Machine Tools and Operations 391
11.1 Introduction . 391
11.2 Classification of Nontraditional Machining Processes .392
11.3 Jet Machines and Operations 392
11.3.1 Abrasive Jet Machining .392
11.3.1.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .392
11.3.1.2 Work Station of Abrasive Jet Machining 395
11.3.1.3 Process Capabilities 396
11.3.2 Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining) .397
11.3.2.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .397
11.3.2.2 Equipment of WJM .399
11.3.2.3 Process Capabilities 401
11.3.3 Abrasive Water Jet Machining .402
11.3.3.1 Process Characteristics and Applications .402
11.3.3.2 Abrasive Water Jet Machining Equipment .405
11.3.3.3 Process Capabilities 409
11.4 Ultrasonic Machining Equipment and Operation . 410
11.4.1 Definitions, Characteristics, and Applications 410
11.4.2 USM Equipment . 413
11.4.2.1 Oscillating System and Magnetostriction Effect 413
11.4.2.2 Tool Feeding Mechanism 418
11.4.3 Design of Acoustic Horns 419
11.4.3.1 General Differential Equation . 419
11.4.3.2 Design of the Cylindrical Stepped Acoustic Horns (A(x) = C) 421
11.4.3.3 Design of Exponential Acoustic Horns (A(x) = A0e−2hx) 421xiv Contents
11.4.4 Process Capabilities 430
11.4.4.1 Stock Removal Rate 430
11.4.4.2 Accuracy and Surface Quality 432
11.4.5 Recent Developments 433
11.5 Chemical Machining . 434
11.5.1 Chemical Milling 435
11.5.2 Photochemical Machining (Spray Etching) 441
11.6 Electrochemical Machines and Operations 445
11.6.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 445
11.6.2 Elements of Electrochemical Machining 447
11.6.2.1 Tool 447
11.6.2.2 Workpiece .449
11.6.2.3 Electrolyte 449
11.6.3 ECM Equipment .449
11.6.4 Process Capabilities 451
11.7 Electrochemical Grinding Machines and Operations 453
11.8 Electrical Discharge Machines and Operations 454
11.8.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 454
11.8.2 ED Sinking Machine . 458
11.8.3 EDM-Spark Circuits (Power Supply Circuits) 460
11.8.3.1 Resistance-Capacitance Circuit .460
11.8.3.2 Transistorized Pulse Generator Circuits .462
11.8.4 EDM-Tool Electrodes 463
11.8.5 Process Capabilities 464
11.8.6 Electrical Discharge Milling .465
11.8.7 Electrodischarge Wire Cutting 468
11.9 Electron Beam Machining Equipment and Operations 470
11.9.1 Process Characteristics and Applications 470
11.9.2 Electron Beam Machining Equipment 471
11.9.3 Process Capabilities 474
11.10 Laser Beam Machining Equipment and Operations 475
11.10.1 Process Characteristics . 475
11.10.2 Types of Lasers 477
11.10.2.1 Pyrolithic and Photolithic Lasers . 477
11.10.2.2 Industrial Lasers . 477
11.10.2.3 Laser Beam Machining Operations . 478
11.10.3 LBM Equipment . 481
11.10.4 Applications and Capabilities .483
11.11 Plasma Arc Cutting Systems and Operations .485
11.11.1 Process Characteristics .485
11.11.2 Plasma Arc Cutting Systems 486
11.11.3 Applications and Capabilities of Plasma Arc Cutting 486
11.12 Review Questions 488
References 492
Chapter 12 Environment-Friendly Machine Tools and Operations 495
12.1 Introduction . 495
12.2 Traditional Machining 498
12.2.1 Cutting Fluids . 501
12.2.1.1 Classification of Cutting Fluids . 501Contents xv
12.2.1.2 Selection of Cutting Fluids 502
12.2.1.3 Evaluation of Cutting Fluids .502
12.2.2 Hazard Ranking of Cutting Fluids .503
12.2.3 Health Hazards of Cutting Fluids .504
12.2.4 Cryogenic Cooling 504
12.2.5 Ecological Machining .505
12.3 Nontraditional Machining Processes . 510
12.3.1 Chemical Machining 510
12.3.2 Electrochemical Machining 512
12.3.3 Electrodischarge Machining . 514
12.3.3.1 Protective Measures . 516
12.3.4 Laser Beam Machining 516
12.3.5 Ultrasonic Machining . 519
12.3.5.1 Electromagnetic Field 520
12.3.5.2 Ultrasonic Waves . 520
12.3.5.3 Abrasives Slurry 520
12.3.5.4 Contact Hazards 521
12.3.5.5 Other Hazards 521
12.3.6 Abrasive Jet Machining 521
12.4 Review Questions . 523
References 524
Chapter 13 Design for Machining . 525
13.1 Introduction 525
13.1.1 General Design Rules . 525
13.2 General Design Recommendations 526
13.3 Design for Machining by Cutting . 528
13.3.1 Turning . 528
13.3.1.1 Economic Production Quantities . 529
13.3.1.2 Design Recommendations for Turning 530
13.3.1.3 Dimensional Control . 535
13.3.2 Drilling and Allied Operations . 535
13.3.2.1 Economic Production Quantities . 536
13.3.2.2 Design Recommendations for Drilling and Allied Operations . 536
13.3.2.3 Dimensional Control . 539
13.3.3 Milling 539
13.3.3.1 Design Recommendations . 539
13.3.3.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 542
13.3.4 Shaping, Planing, and Slotting 542
13.3.4.1 Design Recommendations . 542
13.3.4.2 Dimensional Control . 543
13.3.5 Broaching 544
13.3.5.1 Design Recommendations .544
13.3.5.2 Dimensional Factors 549
13.3.5.3 Recommended Tolerances . 550
13.3.6 Thread Cutting 550
13.3.6.1 Design Recommendations . 550
13.3.6.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 551
13.3.7 Gear Cutting . 552
13.3.7.1 Design Recommendations . 552
13.3.7.2 Dimensional Factors 554xvi Contents
13.4 Design for Grinding . 554
13.4.1 Surface Grinding 554
13.4.1.1 Design Recommendations . 554
13.4.1.2 Dimensional Control . 556
13.4.2 Cylindrical Grinding 556
13.4.2.1 Design Recommendations . 556
13.4.2.2 Dimensional Factors 557
13.4.3 Centerless Grinding 557
13.4.3.1 Design Recommendations . 558
13.4.3.2 Dimensional Control . 559
13.5 Design for Finishing Processes 559
13.5.1 Honing 559
13.5.2 Lapping .560
13.5.3 Superfinishing . 561
13.6 Design for Chemical and Electrochemical Machining . 561
13.6.1 Chemical Machining 561
13.6.1.1 Design Recommendations . 561
13.6.1.2 Dimensional Factors and Tolerances . 563
13.6.2 Electrochemical Machining 563
13.6.2.1 Design Recommendations .564
13.6.2.2 Dimensional Factors 566
13.6.3 Electrochemical Grinding 566
13.6.3.1 Design Recommendations .566
13.6.3.2 Dimensional Factors 567
13.7 Design for Thermal Machining . 567
13.7.1 Electrodischarge Machining . 567
13.7.1.1 Design Recommendations . 567
13.7.1.2 Dimensional Factors 568
13.7.2 Electron Beam Machining 568
13.7.3 Laser Beam Machining 569
13.8 Design for Ultrasonic Machining 570
13.9 Design for Abrasive Jet Machining . 571
13.10 Review Questions . 572
References 573
Chapter 14 Accuracy and Surface Integrity Realized by Machining Processes 575
14.1 Introduction 575
14.2 Surface Texture 575
14.3 Surface Quality and Functional Properties . 577
14.4 Surface Integrity 579
14.5 Surface Effects by Traditional Machining . 582
14.5.1 Chip Removal Processes . 582
14.5.2 Grinding 583
14.6 Surface Effects by Nontraditional Machining . 587
14.6.1 Electrochemical and Chemical Machining .590
14.6.2 Thermal Nontraditional Processes . 591
14.6.2.1 Electrodischarge Machining . 591
14.6.2.2 Laser Beam Machining .596
14.6.2.3 Electron Beam Machining 597
14.6.2.4 Plasma Beam Machining (PBM) . 598Contents xvii
14.6.2.5 Electroerosion Dissolution Machining 598
14.6.2.6 Electrochemical Discharge Grinding 598
14.6.3 Mechanical Nontraditional Processes 599
14.7 Reducing Distortion and Surface Effects in Machining 599
14.8 Review Questions . 601
References 601
Chapter 15 Automated Manufacturing System .603
15.1 Introduction 603
15.2 Manufacturing Systems .605
15.3 Flexible Automation-Flexible Manufacturing Systems .609
15.3.1 Elements of Flexible Manufacturing System . 610
15.3.2 Limitations of Flexible Manufacturing System 611
15.3.3 Features and Characteristics . 611
15.3.4 New Developments in Flexible Manufacturing System Technology . 611
15.4 Computer Integrated Manufacturing . 612
15.4.1 Computer-Aided Design . 615
15.4.2 Computer-Aided Process Planning . 616
15.4.3 Computer-Aided Manufacturing 617
15.5 Lean Production–Just-in-Time Manufacturing Systems . 617
15.5.1 Steps for Implementing the IMPS Lean Production 618
15.5.2 Just-in-Time and Just-in-Case Production 619
15.6 Adaptive Control 620
15.7 Smart Manufacturing and Artificial Intelligence 622
15.7.1 Expert Systems . 622
15.7.2 Machine Vision . 623
15.7.3 Artificial Neural Networks . 623
15.7.4 Natural-Language Systems .624
15.7.5 Fuzzy Logic (Fuzzy Models) 624
15.8 Factory of the Future .624
15.9 Concluding Remarks Related to Automated Manufacturing 625
15.10 Review Questions .625
References 626
Index
627
A
Abrasive
ac motors, 45, 300
electrodischarge grinding, 516
flow machining, 581
grain, 123, 125, 396, 570, 571
grit, 130, 432
jet machining, 3, 10, 392, 395, 521, 571
material, 554
slurry, 410–413, 415, 429, 496, 497, 500, 519, 521, 570
water jet machining, 392, 402, 405
Accuracy
levels, 554
of machined parts, 55, 298, 579
Adaptive control, 603, 620, 621, 625
Agility, 363, 369
Alloy steel, 166, 342, 391, 435, 554
Aluminum oxide, 122, 125, 554
Anodic dissolution, 392, 433, 445, 449
APT, 317, 334–338, 362, 617
Architecture, 345, 346, 367, 615
Arithmetic
average, 575, 576
progression, 31, 32
Art to part, 362, 367, 369
ASA, 185, 545
ASCII, 308, 309, 316
Aspect ratio, 433, 565, 570
Automatic
bar, 169, 236, 237, 244
full, 60
lathes, 233, 241, 243, 246, 254, 261, 284, 603
multispindle, 2, 6, 235–237, 241, 256–260,
266, 268, 270, 281, 282, 284, 529, 530
screw machine, 6, 241–245, 248, 251, 253,
265, 271, 273, 274, 276, 283, 284
semi, 243, 246, 254, 261, 266, 283, 284
single-spindle, 236, 241, 244, 261, 266,
283, 284
Swiss-type, 252–254, 270, 276, 278, 283, 284
tool changer, 303, 304, 343, 363, 610
Automatically controlled, 7, 22
Automation, 7, 11, 68, 112, 233–235, 341, 370, 603,
604, 609, 622, 624, 625
Auxiliary shaft, 242–250, 253, 283
B
Ball screw strut, 352, 354, 368
Bar work, 217, 223, 226, 228
Base line, 320
BCD, 308, 343
Bearing mounting, 24, 25
Bevel gear
forming, 190
generation, 190, 206
Bifurcated, 299, 352–354, 356–358, 369
Binary, 308, 310, 311, 341
Boring
machines, 14, 109–111, 365, 458, 536
mills, 60, 69, 70
operation, 109
tools, 108, 109
Brake, 47, 48, 469
Broach
pull, 115
push, 115
tool, 113
Broaching
external, 112
internal, 112, 115, 117, 455, 549
machine, 113, 116–119
Built up edge, 578, 582, 583
Burnishing, 115, 144, 183, 207, 211, 212, 215, 229, 526,
552, 580
C
CAD/CAM, 4, 8, 317, 339, 340, 361, 409, 613,
614, 617
Calibration, 352, 353, 356, 366, 369, 374
Camshaft, 236, 241, 243–247, 250, 254, 255, 260, 263,
265, 283, 284
Canned cycle, 316, 322, 326, 332, 343
Carbide tools, 103, 224, 302, 454, 550
Carbon steel, 23, 201, 517, 552
Carborundum, 122
Carriage, 18, 20, 62, 63, 65, 66, 69, 219, 221, 248, 262,
263, 610
Cast iron, 16, 51, 57, 361
Cathode, 434, 445, 448, 471, 472, 486, 491, 512, 616
Cemented carbides, 122, 302
Centerline average, 575
Ceramics, 9, 86, 99, 109, 119, 142, 144, 367, 391, 394,
403, 411, 412, 421, 431, 443, 476, 481, 490,
506, 514, 520, 527, 560, 568, 569
Character, 142, 311, 341
Chasers
circular, 160, 169–171
radial, 160, 170, 171
tangential, 160, 161, 171
Chasing, 69, 159, 163, 164, 168, 179
Chatter, 14, 103, 142, 145, 299, 575
Chemical
dissolution, 434, 561
etching, 434
machining, 3, 434, 510, 561–563, 581, 590
milling, 434, 435, 439, 440
processes, 392
Chip breakers, 114
Chromium, 144, 452, 504, 510, 513, 514,
516, 571
Chucking work, 219, 226–228, 232
Index628 Index
Circular interpolation, 297, 305, 307, 313, 320, 322, 325,
327, 329, 330, 340, 341, 343
CLDATA, 335, 337, 340, 362
Closed frames, 13–15
Closed loop, 297, 298, 301, 345, 620
Clutches, 46, 47, 182, 220, 247, 250
Coated tools, 321
Cobalt, 116, 302, 408, 452, 504, 563, 568, 600
Collect chuck, 220, 221, 244, 246, 248, 253, 259
Compact II, 617
Compensation
cutter diameter, 316, 319
tool length, 316, 343
tool nose radius, 329–331
Composites, 398, 403, 410, 433, 481, 568, 569
Computer
-aided design, 4, 339, 615
-aided engineering, 603
-aided inspection, 612
-aided manufacturing, 4, 339, 617
-aided process planning, 612, 616
-integrated manufacturing, 5, 603, 612
numerical control, 4, 285, 287, 281, 293, 295, 297
program, 7, 316, 317, 337, 622
Computerized part changer, 610
Constant surface speed, 329, 341
Contour machining, 367, 433
Contouring, 295, 296, 334, 340, 341, 361,
363, 367, 433
Controller, 286, 298, 355, 361, 362, 620, 623
Conventional machines, 4, 286, 287, 289, 363–365
Conversational MDI, 308
Coolant
control, 612, 335
pressure, 351
supply, 136
Copper, 28, 71, 124, 148, 164, 398, 431, 443, 448, 452,
460, 465, 470
Coring, 570
Corundum, 122
Counterboring, 59, 70–73, 76, 109, 110, 154, 294, 535
Countersinking, 59, 70–73, 76, 154, 394, 306, 387,
535, 551
Coupling, 30, 39, 47, 161, 400, 417
Cross slide, 62, 63, 65, 110, 163, 174, 217–219, 221,
223, 227, 238, 243, 248, 257, 264–268, 270,
281, 388
Cubic boron nitride, 86
Current
ac, 414
dc, 392, 489
density, 434, 449, 450, 566, 581, 590, 592, 601
efficiency, 450
Cutting
condition, 155, 509, 582
energy, 120, 485
fluid, 133, 168, 499, 506
forces, 11, 13, 14, 66, 83, 321, 371, 496, 505, 524, 527,
538, 543, 550, 551, 553, 621
of rocks, 398
operations, 207, 234, 264, 382, 496, 497, 510
orthogonal, 382, 383
rate, 409, 451, 469, 486, 567, 596
temperature, 505, 615
time, 39, 270
tool material, 503
D
Database, 362, 612, 613
dc
motors, 43, 69, 106, 354
power supply, 434, 445, 453
Deburring, 9, 124, 395, 399, 403, 446, 448, 489, 525, 549,
571, 581, 599
Deep hole drilling, 2, 74, 77, 447, 508
Degrees of freedom, 345, 349
Depth of cut, 60, 83, 99, 101, 106, 121, 133, 135, 154, 159,
160, 163, 189, 194, 229, 332, 371, 412, 488, 556,
561, 562, 599, 621
Dexterity, 366, 369
Diamond tool, 130, 131
Die
head, 160, 163, 171
self opening, 160, 170, 171, 179
sinking, 466, 514, 516, 586, 568, 602
Dielectric
fluid, 467fl
ushing, 469
liquids, 514, 516
supply, 469
Dies and molds, 594
Dimensional accuracy, 108, 143, 144, 168, 172,
412, 554, 557, 568, 571, 621
Direct numerical control, 4, 286
Dividing head, 94, 95, 98, 155
DNC, 4, 285–287, 309, 340, 341, 604
Dome, 348, 352, 354, 359, 361
Drill press, 74–76, 165, 169, 170,
536, 616
Drilling
jig, 80–82, 155, 536
operations, 315, 359, 538
tool, 7, 70, 77, 305, 586
Drilling machine
gang, 155
multispindle, 47, 76, 77
single spindle, 76
Dry cutting, 501, 502, 506–509
DXF, 339, 409
E
ECG process, 454, 489
ECM
advantages and disadvantages, 489
applications, 447, 590
equipment, 449
process, 433, 445, 447
EDM
electrodes, 455
machine, 4, 463, 489, 490, 516, 567
milling, 466
Electrical stepless speed drive, 42, 43Index 629
Electrochemical
deburring, 581
discharge grinding, 589, 598
grinding, 392, 453, 566, 581
honing, 392
machining, 3, 446, 447, 512, 561, 563, 601, 602
Electrode
material, 462–464
wear, 462, 466–468, 568
Electrodischarge
grinding, 516
machining, 3, 6, 514, 567, 591, 601, 602
Electroerosion dissolution machining, 589, 601, 602
Electrolysis, 445, 489, 513, 598
Electrolyte
feeding, 450
passivating, 590
temperature, 556
velocity, 449
Electrolyzing current, 433, 434, 445, 451
Electromagnetic field, 520
Electron beam machining, 4, 470, 471, 568, 581, 597
Electropolishing, 144, 580, 581, 590
Environmental impacts, 8, 10, 495, 499–501, 510, 515
Etch
factor, 437, 439
rate, 439–441, 443, 510
Etchant, 392, 434–442, 445, 446, 497, 510–512,
563, 601
Evaporation, 392, 579
F
Face milling, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 105, 296, 305, 324, 325,
540, 583, 586, 587
Face plate, 23, 184
Factory of the future, 624
Faraday’s laws, 445, 489
Feed gearbox, 29, 30, 37, 38, 57, 63, 75, 88, 107
Finish turning, 61, 328, 331–333
Fixed block format, 311
Fixed zero, 293, 294
Fixtures, 83, 118
Flexibility, 194, 363, 609
Flexible manufacturing systems, 609–611
Floating zero, 293
Flushing, 459, 467
Follower rest, 62, 66, 67, 115, 154
Fuzzy logic, 622, 624
G
G codes, 311, 319, 322, 329, 362
Gap
voltage, 463, 490, 566
width, 451, 590
Gear
broaching, 188–189
burnishing, 211, 215
finishing, 207
forming, 185, 189, 190, 208
grinding, 212–214
hobbing, 6, 7, 190, 193–196, 204, 205, 215
lapping, 214, 215
milling, 86, 184, 508
production, 183, 215
shaping, 183, 189, 198, 199, 201, 202, 208, 215
shaving, 207, 209–211
spur, 6, 45, 46, 96, 181, 183–185, 188–190, 192, 193,
202, 209, 211, 214, 215, 552
train, 69, 75, 98, 161, 162, 179, 191, 195–198, 243, 244
Geometric
adaptive control, 621
progression ratio, 32, 33, 63
Grain size, 122, 123, 125, 131, 137, 392, 396, 403, 432,
434, 499, 561, 571, 582, 583, 590, 599
Graphite, 16, 402, 412, 463–465, 467, 468, 470, 490, 509,
527, 567, 594, 601
Grinding
action, 135, 453
centerless, 131, 137–141, 155, 178, 557, 558
conventional, 177, 485, 566, 589
creep feed, 132
cylindrical, 2, 7, 124, 126, 133, 135–138, 155, 290,
291, 556, 573
machines, 6, 46, 119, 126, 131–133, 136, 137, 177, 214,
290, 453, 499, 573
operations, 121, 135–137, 506
plunge, 132, 133, 159, 176, 178, 556, 567
process, 119–121, 124, 130, 207, 214
surface, 124, 127
wheel, 117, 122–125, 127, 130, 131, 212, 213, 403, 453
Grooving, 148, 244, 264, 328, 329, 332, 529
Group technology, 605
Guideways
ball bearing, 22
dovetail, 18, 20
externally pressurized, 19, 22
rolling friction, 21, 22, 57
sliding friction, 18
vee, 18
H
Hardening
case, 52, 53, 214, 552
induction, 20
surface, 470, 477, 478, 481, 482
Hardness
Brinell, 51
Knoop number, 122, 13
Rockwell, 23
Headstock, 62, 69, 110, 143, 163, 218–220, 226, 242, 244,
252–255, 257, 260, 264, 277
Heat
affected zone, 141, 596, 598, 599
generation, 485
Helix angle, 70, 71, 94, 98, 173, 174, 185, 188, 191, 193,
202, 208, 209, 546, 553
High speed
machining, 504, 505, 508
steel, 167, 509
High spindle speed, 27, 262, 366630 Index
Horizontal milling, 52, 82, 84, 86, 90, 184, 579
Hot hardness, 507
Hybrid machining, 396, 602
Hydraulic
motor, 43, 44, 300, 301
pump, 44, 56, 399
tracer, 9, 65, 237, 238
Hydrogen, 440, 446, 510, 512, 583
I
Ignition lag, 463
Imperial units, 314
Incremental positioning, 293, 294, 322, 329, 340
Indexing
head, 181
trips, 185, 186
Input signal, 458
Integrated circuit, 4, 285, 341
Intensifier, 402
Interlocking cutter, 202, 203, 207
Interpolation
circular, 297, 305, 307, 313, 320, 322, 327, 329,
330, 340, 341, 343
cubic, 296, 297
linear, 296, 313, 320, 322, 327
parabolic, 297
Iron and steel, 51, 164, 512, 591, 602
J
Jet
cutting, 9, 400, 405, 492
velocity, 393, 395, 398, 409, 488
Jog, 315, 316
Just-in-time, 605, 617, 619, 620
K
Kanban, 618, 619, 626
Knurling, 59, 63, 221, 226, 233, 244, 264
Konvoid generators, 202, 204
Kopp variator, 41
L
Lapping
equalizing, 148
machines, 7, 148–153, 560, 661
operation, 207, 215
Laser beam
cutting, 481
drilling, 479
machining, 3, 10, 475, 478, 516, 518, 569, 581, 596, 597
Lathe
automatic turret, 166, 169
capstan, 170, 217, 219, 221–223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 234
dog, 66
facing, 60, 69, 70, 154
machine, 3, 15, 59, 160, 179, 298
manual turret, 166, 169
plain turning, 60, 69
vertical turret, 70
M
M codes, 322, 323, 329
Machinability
of materials, 371, 477
rating, 552
Machine tool
drives, 28, 42, 45
frame, 16, 18, 57
gearbox, 35, 210
guideways, 18, 19, 23, 57
manual, 7, 286
motors, 45, 46
spindles, 23, 24, 26, 27, 33, 298, 299
structures, 13, 15–17, 57, 299
testing of, 53
traditional, 5
Machinery, 1, 55, 212, 450, 603, 610, 616, 617, 624
Machining
allowance, 1, 159, 207, 209, 226, 371, 498, 527, 545,
565, 567
by cutting, 159, 417, 492, 498, 501, 510, 524, 528,
586, 602
centers, 4, 9, 111, 285, 306, 610, 612, 624
nontraditional, 1, 4, 5, 9, 391, 392, 490, 510, 587
productivity, 9, 171, 172, 190
traditional, 5, 7, 9, 10, 498, 582
Magic three, 314, 341
Magnetic
chuck, 121, 132, 153, 555
tape, 286, 298, 308, 309
Magnetostrictor, 417
Maintenance
corrective, 56
preventive, 53, 56, 57
Management, 362, 495, 525, 605, 608, 612–614, 617, 618
Mandrel, 55, 66, 67, 142, 191
Manufacturing
cell, 608, 609, 625
cellular, 605, 607, 625
smart, 622
Maskant, 436, 438, 439, 489, 561, 563
Material handling, 605, 610–612, 615, 617, 624, 625, 604
MDI, 308, 316
Mechanical abrasion, 392, 397, 434, 453
Mechanism
apron, 63
of material removal, 491, 587
quick return, 48–50, 57
reversing, 45, 46, 57, 165
Metallic bond, 125, 144
Micromachining, 456, 467, 470, 475, 478, 479,
481, 569
Milling
climb, 83, 155
conventional, 83, 285, 345
down, 83, 84
end, 82, 184, 541, 542Index 631
face, 82, 84, 86, 90, 91, 105, 296, 305, 324, 325,
540, 583, 586, 587
gear, 86, 184, 508
horizontal, 82, 84, 86, 90, 184, 579
operations, 82, 84, 86, 173, 295, 305, 312, 390, 539
vertical, 84, 85, 87, 110, 579, 583
Modal, 322, 323, 329
Moving target, 626
N
NC control, 289, 294–296, 314, 361, 482
Nickel, 414, 439, 443, 452, 476, 481, 504, 510, 514, 516,
563, 566, 568, 571, 580, 581, 591, 600
Nitric acid, 510
Norton gearbox, 29, 32, 38, 57
Neural network, 622, 623
O
Octahedral hexapod, 346, 349, 351, 363–365, 370
Octahedron, 345, 350, 351, 354
Open
frames, 13, 14
loop system, 301
Overcut, 432, 448, 451, 465, 468, 570, 571
Override, 314, 315
Oxygen, 506, 513, 594, 602
P
Parallel action, 257, 258
Parallel kinematics, 345
Parity check, 316, 341
Part programming, 316, 318, 334, 337, 339, 341
Peck drilling, 322, 324, 332
Photochemical machining, 434, 441, 443, 581
Photoresist, 438, 439, 442, 561, 563
Pick-off gears, 29, 30, 38, 57, 174, 243, 244, 270, 282
Plain milling cutters, 84
Planing, 3, 6, 7, 9, 48, 99–101, 154, 155, 542, 572
Plasma
arc, 485, 486, 488
beam machining, 3, 581, 598
channel, 485, 514
jet, 487
Plastic forming, 1
Plate jig, 80
Pocket milling, 324, 326
Point-to-point, 294
Pole-changing motor, 36, 37
Polishing, 3, 141, 144, 394, 396, 399, 400, 526, 580, 581
Precision
adjustment, 525
cutting, 408,
drilling, 470
grinding, 124, 367, 509, 556
machine tool, 23, 26
Printed circuit boards, 435
Process
accuracy, 394, 559
capabilities, 142, 391, 396
characteristics, 392, 397, 402, 445, 454, 470, 475, 485
control, 445, 604, 620, 623
parameters, 4, 391, 460–462, 501, 596
Product design, 6, 8, 10, 497, 539–542, 544, 566, 605,
612, 613, 615
Production
batch, 30, 38, 76, 603, 604, 611, 625
interchangeable, 217
lean, 617–619, 625, 626
lot, 52, 60, 76, 80, 86, 103, 153, 160, 184, 233
mass, 59, 68, 77, 80, 89, 112, 113, 119, 150, 154, 200,
212, 233, 236, 237, 256, 271, 276, 283, 287, 398,
446, 525, 557, 559, 560, 603, 605, 609
Program datum, 321
Programmable logic controller, 362
Progressive action, 236, 239, 240, 256–260
Pulleys, 41, 42, 111, 529
Pulse
current, 568, 593, 594
duration, 470, 471, 474, 475, 480, 482, 568
energy, 474, 475, 478, 480, 594, 597
frequency, 464, 474, 475, 478–480
generator, 455, 458, 460, 462–464, 468, 490
on-time, 591, 593
Punched tapes, 286, 308, 309
Q
Quality control, 604, 612, 617, 618, 625
R
Rack and pinion, 75, 101, 102, 106, 181
Rake angle, 70, 83, 100, 103, 116, 120, 169, 170
Rapid prototyping, 496
RC circuit, 460–462, 490
Reaming
allowance, 74
operation, 111, 262
Recast
layer, 435, 455, 464, 471, 479, 594, 596
structure, 464, 595
Reference plane, 323, 324
Relief angle, 71, 163
Removal rate
material, 82, 176, 302, 320, 599, 621
volumetric, 11, 465, 474, 568
Robots, 299, 453, 362, 603, 604, 611, 623–625
Roller box, 299
Rotary ultrasonic machining, 433
Rough turning cycle, 331, 333
S
Saddle, 66, 88, 110, 111, 161, 217–219, 221, 223, 232,
345, 402, 492
Sapphire, 392, 393, 398, 401, 405, 412, 433, 571
Sawing, 250, 453, 500, 508, 580, 594
Scheduling, 610, 613, 617, 619, 622–624
Scribing templates, 438, 440
Setting angle, 60, 101, 130
Shaping machine, 6, 49, 201, 215, 373
Shielded plasma, 486, 487632 Index
Short circuit, 446, 449, 458
Slotting, 7, 13, 14, 85, 86, 99–102, 154, 190, 233, 446,
533, 542–544, 571, 572
Slurry supply system, 431
Sodium chloride, 512
Sodium nitrate, 512
Spark
erosion, 6, 455
gap, 458, 463, 464, 516
machining, 492
Speed
chart, 35, 37
gearbox, 29, 35–37, 39, 62, 88, 104, 105, 110
Sphere drive, 352–357, 361
Spindle
bearing, 12, 23–28, 559
mounting, 57, 136
Spot facing, 59, 71, 73, 110, 154, 233, 306, 540
Staggered, 84, 114
Stand off distance, 392
Steady rest, 62, 66, 67, 74, 77, 154, 557
Stepless speed, 28, 40–44, 57
Stick slip effect, 19, 21, 300
Straight cut, 295, 296, 305, 340, 341, 343
Structural diagram, 35, 36
Structural steels, 52, 57
Structure
cast and fabricated, 17
welded, 16, 57
Strut assembly, 354
Superfinishing, 3, 9, 145, 146, 561, 580
Surface
effects, 569, 579, 582, 587–589
finish, 168, 592
grinding, 6, 7, 31, 120, 121, 124, 127, 132, 135, 155,
384, 390, 554, 587, 589, 591
integrity, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 455, 504, 505, 575
layer, 211, 575, 579, 580, 582–584, 586,
596, 598
texture, 6, 8, 460–462, 545, 575–578, 580,
601, 602
System
expert, 622, 623
knowledge based, 601, 622
pull, 619, 626
push, 619, 626
vision, 612
T
Tape
magnetic, 286, 298, 308, 309
paper, 298
reader, 7, 285, 287, 288, 297, 298, 316, 341
Tapping cycle, 322, 324
Telescopic struts, 349–351, 369
Texturing, 9, 457, 594, 601
Thermal
effect, 411, 485, 594
machining, 4, 9, 579, 582, 589, 596, 601
properties, 474, 582, 591, 597
Thinning of parts, 436
Thread
broaching, 175
English, 163
external, 61, 160, 163, 168, 174, 178, 224, 551
form, 157, 159, 160, 175, 176, 178, 508, 550
grinding, 6, 168, 175–179, 550, 551
internal, 59, 61, 74, 109, 110, 163, 164, 174, 175, 177,
550, 551
metric, 157, 159, 162
milling, 160, 172–175, 178, 179, 551
pitch, 65, 160, 165, 166, 176
tapered, 174, 175, 179, 529
tapping, 164, 167
Threading
conditions, 168, 172
cycle, 170, 329, 333
Three jaw chuck, 226, 556
Time
idle, 185, 225, 232, 253, 270, 283, 399
machine handling, 255
machining, 9, 10, 18, 39, 40, 189, 200, 205, 207, 209,
223, 225, 226, 260, 268, 281–283, 289, 340, 432,
433, 442, 467, 530, 555
production, 11, 39, 40, 112, 217, 224, 225, 242
Titanium, 116, 302, 367, 410, 443, 452, 476, 516, 563,
568, 580, 581, 591, 602
Tool
diameter, 317, 318, 361, 411, 432, 491, 570
electrode, 451, 455, 461, 463–466, 514, 516,
567, 568
feed rate, 59, 282, 490, 535
geometry, 101, 113, 223, 267, 270, 340, 532
holder, 104, 106, 131, 217, 222, 226–228, 230, 303,
307, 308, 358, 458
insulation, 447, 564
life, 37, 40, 116, 168, 170–172, 204, 211, 212,
302, 371, 501, 503–506, 509, 551, 563, 599,
611, 615
magazine, 303
material, 1, 11, 30, 31, 101, 154, 189, 224, 268, 270,
282, 302, 371, 391, 411, 432, 448, 463, 503, 506,
507, 516, 535, 582
offset, 303, 305, 316, 611
oscillation, 410, 430, 491
shape, 71, 445, 519
steel, 86, 123, 150, 409, 470, 563, 595, 600
wear, 109, 168, 169, 178, 314, 316, 329, 359, 371, 432,
434, 446, 451, 453, 455, 459, 460, 463, 476, 491,
504, 535, 538, 542, 550, 571, 578, 611
Tooling layout, 217, 226, 228–230, 267, 268, 277,
280, 281
Tracer device, 65
Traditional
grinding, 435
machining, 5, 7, 9, 10, 582
manufacturing, 612, 619
Trimming, 4, 394–396, 484, 562, 510
Trip-dogs, 135, 241, 247, 249, 250
Tripod, 345, 346
Truing and dressing, 122, 130, 131
Tungsten, 147, 392, 394, 395, 408, 439, 452, 463, 471, 475,
486, 487, 563, 568, 569, 571, 591, 600
Turbine blade, 363, 366, 447Index 633
Turning center, 285, 302, 307, 328, 329
Turret
head, 70, 220, 223, 226, 245–247, 250–252, 268, 273,
275
hexagonal, 217–219, 221–223, 225, 226
screw automatics, 235
slide, 217–219, 222, 242, 250, 251
square, 62, 65, 217, 218, 221, 225–227
Twist drill, 62, 70–72, 77, 79, 86, 94, 231, 256
U
Ultrasonic
assisted ECM, 433
machining, 3, 92, 393, 410, 433, 519, 750, 581
sinking, 433
vibration, 433, 434, 596, 597
Undeformed chip, 60, 599
V
Vaporization, 392, 455, 470, 471, 477, 502, 503, 516
W
Water jet, 3, 8, 392, 397, 402, 405
Wear compensation, 18, 20, 21, 108, 109, 466, 467
Welding, 1, 2, 20, 52, 364, 367, 368, 411, 470, 475, 477,
478, 481, 482
Wheel
balancing, 129, 336
bond, 120, 124
dressing, 213, 558, 589
loading, 130, 555
marking, 125
mounting, 128
single rib, 175–179
skip rib, 176, 177, 179
truing, 130, 131, 135
Wire
cutting, 468, 469, 497, 514
EDM, 489, 514, 515, 567, 568
Word address format, 311, 312
Work holding, 12, 79, 226, 289, 299, 321, 322, 542
Workpiece material, 9
Workstation, 395, 396, 476, 610
Worm wheel, 181, 190–194, 208, 315, 244


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اسراء 13
مهندس فعال
مهندس فعال


عدد المساهمات : 216
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/12/2011

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 20 أبريل 2012, 9:56 pm

:ذذذ:

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Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى


عدد المساهمات : 17235
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالجمعة 20 أبريل 2012, 10:09 pm

@اسراء 13 كتب:

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 939360


كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 259976 كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 259976 كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 259976


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
wagdyebrahem
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار
wagdyebrahem

عدد المساهمات : 14
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تاريخ التسجيل : 23/04/2012
العمر : 31
الدولة : egypt
العمل : mechanical eng
الجامعة : menofia unv

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأحد 23 سبتمبر 2012, 8:48 pm

الرابط لا يعمل يا بشمهندس

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 17235
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأحد 23 سبتمبر 2012, 9:07 pm

@wagdyebrahem كتب:
الرابط لا يعمل يا بشمهندس


تم تعديل الرابط

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
hamada193
مهندس تحت الاختبار
مهندس تحت الاختبار
hamada193

عدد المساهمات : 11
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تاريخ التسجيل : 31/10/2012
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الدولة : مصر
العمل : طالب
الجامعة : هندسه الاسكنددريه

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأحد 08 ديسمبر 2013, 2:11 am

جزاك الله كل خير

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 17235
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالأحد 08 ديسمبر 2013, 9:15 am

@hamada193 كتب:
جزاك الله كل خير



جزانا الله وإياك خيراً

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
ماهر88
مهندس فعال
مهندس فعال
ماهر88

عدد المساهمات : 160
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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/02/2013
العمر : 43
الدولة : العراق
العمل : تدريسي
الجامعة : البصره

كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations    كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations  - صفحة 2 Emptyالثلاثاء 10 ديسمبر 2013, 6:31 pm

مشكور وجزاك الله خير

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب Machining Technology - Machine Tools and Operations
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 3 من اصل 3انتقل الى الصفحة : الصفحة السابقة  1, 2, 3  الصفحة التالية

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