كتاب Metal Forming Handbook
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 كتاب Metal Forming Handbook

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Metal Forming Handbook

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Metal Forming Handbook
SCHULER GmbH
Bahnhofstr. 41
Germany
Contents
Index of formula symbols . XV
1 Introduction 1
2 Basic principles of metal forming 5
2.1 Methods of forming and cutting technology . 5
2.1.1 Summary . 5
2.1.2 Forming 6
2.1.3 Dividing 19
2.1.4 Combinations of processes in manufacturing . 22
2.2 Basic terms . 25
2.2.1 Flow condition and flow curve . 25
2.2.2 Deformation and material flow 26
2.2.3 Force and work . 28
2.2.4 Formability 30
2.2.5 Units of measurement . 31
Bibliography . 32
3 Fundamentals of press design 33
3.1 Press types and press construction 33
3.1.1 Press frame 34
3.1.2 Slide drive . 37
3.1.3 Drive systems for deep drawing presses 41
3.1.4 Draw cushions . 44
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 19983.2 Mechanical presses 49
3.2.1 Determination of characteristic data . 49
3.2.2 Types of drive system . 54
3.2.3 Drive motor and flywheel 60
3.2.4 Clutch and brake 61
3.2.5 Longitudinal and transverse shaft drive . 63
3.2.6 Gear drives . 65
3.2.7 Press crown assembly . 66
3.2.8 Slide and blank holder 66
3.2.9 Pneumatic system 70
3.2.10 Hydraulic system . 71
3.2.11 Lubrication . 72
3.3 Hydraulic presses . 73
3.3.1 Drive system 73
3.3.2 Hydraulic oil 77
3.3.3 Parallelism of the slide 80
3.3.4 Stroke limitation and damping . 82
3.3.5 Slide locking 83
3.4 Changing dies 86
3.4.1 Die handling 86
3.4.2 Die clamping devices . 91
3.5 Press control systems 94
3.5.1 Functions of the control system . 94
3.5.2 Electrical components of presses 94
3.5.3 Operating and visualization system 95
3.5.4 Structure of electrical control systems 97
3.5.5 Functional structure of the control system 99
3.5.6 Major electronic control components 99
3.5.7 Architecture and hardware configuration . 101
3.5.8 Architecture of the PLC software 101
3.5.9 Future outlook 102
3.6 Press safety and certification 106
3.6.1 Accident prevention 106
3.6.2 Legislation 107
3.6.3 European safety requirements 107
3.6.4 CE marking . 111
X Metal Forming Handbook
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 19983.6.5 Measures to be undertaken by the user . 115
3.6.6 Safety requirements in the USA . 117
3.7 Casting components for presses . 120
Bibliography . 122
4 Sheet metal forming and blanking 123
4.1 Principles of die manufacture . 123
4.1.1 Classification of dies 123
4.1.2 Die development 128
4.1.3 Die materials 142
4.1.4 Casting of dies . 142
4.1.5 Try-out equipment . 148
4.1.6 Transfer simulators . 154
4.2 Deep drawing and stretch drawing . 156
4.2.1 Forming process . 156
4.2.2 Materials for sheet metal forming . 174
4.2.3 Friction, wear and lubrication during
sheet metal forming 179
4.2.4 Hydro-mechanical deep drawing 185
4.2.5 Active hydro-mechanical drawing . 188
4.3 Coil lines 194
4.4 Sheet metal forming lines 198
4.4.1 Universal presses . 198
4.4.2 Production lines for the manufacture of
flat radiator plates . 208
4.4.3 Lines for side member manufacture 210
4.4.4 Destackers and blank turnover stations 217
4.4.5 Press lines 222
4.4.6 Transfer presses for small and
medium sized parts . 229
4.4.7 Large-panel tri-axis transfer presses 234
4.4.8 Crossbar transfer presses . 243
4.4.9 Presses for plastics 250
4.4.10 Stacking units for finished parts . 252
4.4.11 Control systems for large-panel transfer presses 254
Contents XI
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 19984.5 Blanking processes 268
4.6 Shearing lines 284
4.6.1 Slitting lines 284
4.6.2 Blanking lines . 286
4.6.3 High-speed blanking lines . 291
4.6.4 Lines for the production of
electric motor laminations . 296
4.6.5 Production and processing of tailored blanks 310
4.6.6 Perforating presses . 314
4.6.7 Control systems for blanking presses . 320
4.7 Fine blanking . 330
4.7.1 Fine blanking process . 330
4.7.2 Fine blanking materials, forces, quality
characteristics and part variety 338
4.7.3 Fine blanking tools . 351
4.7.4 Fine blanking presses and lines . 359
4.8 Bending . 366
4.8.1 Bending process . 366
4.8.2 Roll forming and variety of sections 373
4.8.3 Roller straightening 383
4.9 Organization of stamping plants 389
4.9.1 Design . 389
4.9.2 Layout . 391
4.9.3 Quality assurance through quality control 398
Bibliography . 403
5 Hydroforming 405
5.1 General 405
5.2 Process technology and example applications . 405
5.2.1 Process technology . 405
5.2.2 Types of hydroformed components 408
5.2.3 Fields of application 410
XII Metal Forming Handbook
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 19985.3 Component development . 413
5.3.1 User-oriented project management 413
5.3.2 Feasibility studies 414
5.3.3 Component design . 416
5.4 Die engineering . 420
5.4.1 Die layout . 420
5.4.2 Lubricants 422
5.5 Materials and preforms for
producing hydroformed components 423
5.5.1 Materials and heat treatment . 423
5.5.2 Preforms and preparation 424
5.6 Presses for hydroforming . 426
5.7 General considerations . 429
5.7.1 Production technology issues . 429
5.7.2 Technical and economic considerations 431
Bibliography . 432
6 Solid forming (Forging) 433
6.1 General 433
6.2 Benefits of solid forming . 441
6.2.1 Economic aspects 441
6.2.2 Workpiece properties 443
6.3 Materials, billet production and surface treatment . 450
6.3.1 Materials 450
6.3.2 Billet or slug preparation . 454
6.3.3 Surface treatment . 459
6.4 Formed part and process plan . 464
6.4.1 The formed part 464
6.4.2 Process plan . 467
6.5 Force and work requirement 469
6.5.1 Forward rod extrusion . 469
6.5.2 Forward tube extrusion 474
Contents XIII
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 19986.5.3 Backward cup extrusion and centering . 474
6.5.4 Reducing (open die forward extrusion) 475
6.5.5 Ironing . 476
6.5.6 Upsetting . 476
6.5.7 Lateral extrusion . 477
6.6 Part transfer 478
6.6.1 Loading station 479
6.6.2 Transfer study . 481
6.7 Die design . 485
6.7.1 Die holders . 488
6.7.2 Die and punch design 491
6.7.3 Die and punch materials 496
6.7.4 Die closing systems
(multiple-action dies) . 502
6.8 Presses used for solid forming 505
6.8.1 Choice of press 505
6.8.2 Mechanical presses . 507
6.8.3 Hydraulic presses 514
6.8.4 Supplementary equipment 517
6.8.5 Special features of hot and warm forming lines 520
6.8.6 Sizing and coining presses . 522
6.8.7 Minting and coin blanking lines 526
Bibliography . 541
Index 543
XIV Metal Forming Handbook
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998Index of formula symbols
a rib angle, bending angle, °
clearance angle, °
die opening angle, °
corner angle for blanking °
a
1 required bending angle °
a
2 desired bending angle °
b draw ratio,
corner angle when bending °
btot total draw ratio
bmax maximum draw ratio
« elongation, starting measurement
«
A relative cross section change %
h efficiency
hA degree of utilization of the sheet metal,
utilization force
hF forming efficiency factor
m coefficient of friction
V volumetric flow 1/s
s stress N/mm2
s
m mean stress N/mm2
s
max largest stress N/mm2
smd mean comparative stress N/mm2
s
min smallest stress N/mm2
s
N normal contact stress N/mm2
s
r radial stress N/mm2
·
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998s
t tangential stress N/mm2
s
v comparative stress, effective stress N/mm2
s
z critical buckling stress N/mm2
s
1 greatest principle stress N/mm2
s
2 mean principle stress N/mm2
s
3 smallest principle stress N/mm2
t
R frictional shear stress N/mm2
w degree of deformation, strain,
logarithmic/true strain
w strain rate, deformation rate, deformation speed
wB fracture strain
w
g principle deformation
w1,w2,w3 deformation in main directions
A surface mm2
a blanking plate measurement, rim width, mm
leg length during bending, slot width mm
A
0 initial surface, surface of blank cross section mm2
a
1 blanking punch dimension mm
A
1 surface of blank cross section, end surface mm2
A
5, A80 ultimate elongation %
A
G ejector surface, surface area under pressure by
the ejector mm2
a
R space between the rows mm
A
S sheared surface mm2
A
St cross section of the punch, mm2
surface area of hole punch mm2
A
Z blank surface, area of the blank mm2
b web width, leg length during bending, mm
strip width, section width mm
B deflection mm
b
A shell-shaped tear width mm
b
E die roll width mm
b
S strip width mm
c material coefficient
D blank diameter, plate diameter, mm
mandrel diameter mm
XVI Metal Forming Handbook
·
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998d inner diameter, hole diameter, mm
(perforating) punch diameter mm
d’ inside diameter of bottom die mm
d
0 blank diameter, initial billet diameter mm
d
1 diameter of the draw punch in the first drawing mm
operation, punch diameter, end diameter mm
d
2 upper cup diameter, outside diameter mm
d
3 outside flange diameter mm
e off-center position of force application mm
E elasticity module N/mm2
F force kN
f
1, f2, f3 offset factors
F
A ejection force kN
F
B blank holder force kN
F
b bending force kN
F
G counterforce kN
F
Ga ejection force kN
F
Ges total machine force kN
F
N normal force kN
F
N0 rated press force, nominal load kN
F
R radial tension force, friction force, vee-ring force kN
F
Ra stripping force kN
F
Re reaction force kN
F
S blanking force for punch with flat ground kN
work surface, shearing force kN
F
ST slide force kN
F
t tangential compression force kN
F
U pressing force, forming force, kN
maximum drawing force kN
g gravitational acceleration m/s2
h forming path, drawing stroke, distance, height, mm
punch displacement; mm
lubrication gap mm
H plate thickness mm
h
0 initial billet height, height of blank mm
Index of formular symbols XVII
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998h
1 final height of a body after compression mm
h
1’ intermediate height, height of the truncated cone mm
h
2 cup height mm
h
E die roll height mm
h
G flash height mm
h
R, HR height of vee-ring mm
h
S1 smooth cut section in case of fracture %
h
S2 minimal smooth cut section in case of
shell-shaped fracture %
i side cutter scrap mm
k correction factor
k
2a correction coefficient (angle)
k
f flow stress N/mm2
k
f0 flow stress at the start of the forming process N/mm2
k
f1 flow stress towards the end of the forming process N/mm2
k
fm mean stability factor N/mm2
k
h correction coefficient (height)
k
R springback factor
k
S shearing resistance, shearing strength, N/mm2
relative blanking force N/mm2
k
w deformation resistance N/mm2
k
wm mean deformation resistance N/mm2
l rib length mm
L strip length, mandrel length mm
l
a rim length mm
l
e web length, strip length mm
l
R length of vee-ring mm
l
S length of sheared contour cut mm
m mass, kg
module of a gear
M
x eccentric moment of load around the x axis kNm
M
y eccentric moment of load around the y axis kNm
P performance, drive power W, kW
p pressure N/mm2
pB specific blank holder pressure N/mm2
XVIII Metal Forming Handbook
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998pG average compressive stress on the counterpunch N/mm2
pi internal pressure N/mm2
pj compressive stress at the wall of the bottom die N/mm2
pm mean (hydraustatic) pressure N/mm2
pSt average compressive stress on the punch, N/mm2
average forming pressure N/mm2
qG specific counterforce, counterpressure N/mm2
r radius mm
R corner radius mm
r
a external radius of an inside contour mm
Ra
external radius of an outside contour mm
R
eL lower yield strength N/mm2
R
p0,2 compression limit N/mm2
r
i inside bending radius, mm
internal radius of an inside contour mm
Ri
internal radius of an outside contour mm
r
i1 inside radius at the die mm
r
i2 inside radius at the workpiece mm
Rm
tensile strength of the material N/mm2
Rt
surface roughness mm
Rw
roller radius mm
Rz
surface roughness mm
s sheet metal thickness, wall thickness, mm
blank thickness mm
s
R position of the center of force (xs- und ys:
coordinates of the force), center of gravity mm
t pitch mm
t
w roller pitch mm
u blanking clearance mm
U speed/stroking speed, 1/min
cut contour circumferences, punch perimeter mm
v counterbalance value during bending, mm
compensation factor mm
V feed step, mm
volume mm3
Index of formular symbols XIX
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998V
0 starting volume, overall volume, part volume mm3
V
1 intermediate volume, compensation value mm3
V
1’ intermediate volume, compensation value mm3
V
2 intermediate volume, compensation value mm3
V
d volume displaced during deformation mm3
W deformation/forming work Nm, kNm
J, kJ
w die width mm
Wb
bending work Nm
Wd
drawing work on double-action presses, Nm, kNm
draw energy of a double-action press Nm, kNm
We
drawing work on single-action presses, Nm, kNm
draw energy of a single-action press Nm, kNm
w
id referenced deformation work, specific forming work Nmm/mm3
WN
nominal work for continuous stroking Nm, kNm
WS
blanking work, blanking energy, shearing work Nm, kNm
x correction factor
x
s location of the resulting blanking force
in the x direction mm
ys location of the resulting blanking force
in the y direction mm
z no. of teeth of a gear, no. of workpieces
z
w roller feed value mm
XX Metal Forming Handbook
Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler


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