كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians

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كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians    كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians  Emptyالإثنين 2 يناير 2012 - 11:52

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Materials for Engineers and Technicians
Fourth Edition
Raymond A. Higgins
BSc (Birm), C.Eng., FIM

كتاب Materials for Engineers and Technicians  M_f_e_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface
1 Engineering materials
2 Properties of materials
3 Mechanical testing
4 The crystal structure of metals
5 Casting process
Introduction
The requirements
The materials
Structure of materials
Processes
The materials society
Introduction
Properties
Costs
Data sources
Introduction
The tensile test
Hardness tests
Impact tests
Creep
Fatigue
Other mechanical tests
Factor of safety
Introduction
From gas to solid
Metal crystals
Impurities in cast metals
The influence of cooling rates on crystal size
Introduction
Ingot casting
Sand-casting
Die-casting
Centrifugal casting
Investment-casting
Full-mould process
Semi-solid metal processing
The choice of casting process
60vi Contents
6 Mechanical deformation of metals
Introduction
Slip
Annealing
Cold-working processes
Hot-working processes
Grain flow and fibre
Metallurgical furnaces
7 The mechanical shaping of metals
8 Alloys
Introduction
Hot-working processes
Cold-working processes
Powder metallurgy
Machining metals
Introduction
Eutectics
Solid solutions
Intermetallic compounds
Summary: alloys
9 Equilibrium diagrams
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Obtaining equilibrium diagrams
9.3 Types of equilibrium diagram
9.4 Precipitation from a solid solution
9.5 Ternary equilibrium diagrams
10 Practical microscopy
11 Iron and steel
Introduction
Selecting and mounting a specimen
Grinding and polishing the specimen
Etching the specimen
The metallurgical microscope
The electron microscope
Introduction
Smelting
Steel-making
Composition of steel
The structure of plain-carbon steels
Heat-treatment of steel
Brittle fracture in steels
12 The heat-treatment of plain-carbon steels
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Principles of hardening
12.3 The hardening process
12.4 Tempering
12.5 Isothermal heat-treatments
12.6 Hardenability
157Contents vii
12.7 The Jominy test
12.8 Heat treatment furnaces
13 Alloy steels
The surface hardening of steels
Cast iron
Copper and its alloys
Aluminium and its alloys
Introduction
Constructional steels
Tool and die steels
Stainless steels
Heat-resisting steels
Magnet alloys
The principal effects of the main alloying <
Introduction
Case-hardening
Heat-treatment after carburising
Case-hardening steels
Nitriding
Ionitriding
Flame-hardening
Induction-hardening
Summary of surface-hardening processes
Introduction
Composition of cast irons
The influence of cooling rate on the propei
'Growth' in cast irons
Ordinary cast irons
High-duty cast irons
Malleable cast irons
Alloy cast irons
Which iron?
Introduction
The extraction of copper
Properties of copper
Copper and alloys
The brasses
Tin bronzes
Aluminium bronzes
Copper-nickel alloys
Other copper alloys
Introduction
Extraction of aluminium
Properties of aluminium
Aluminium alloys
Wrought alloys which are not heat-treated
Cast alloys which are not heat-treated
Wrought alloys which are heat-treated
224viii Contents
17.8 Cast alloys which are heat-treated
18 Other non-ferrous metals and alloys
18.1 Introduction
Nickel and its alloys
Titanium and its alloys
Magnesium-base alloys
Zinc-base alloys
Bearing metals
Other metals
19 Plastics materials and rubbers
20 Properties of plastics
21 Ceramics
22 Glasses
23 Composite materials
Introduction
Types of plastics
Thermoplastics
Thermoplastic materials
Thermosets
Thermoset materials
Elastomers
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Crystal and glass states
20.3 Mechanical properties
20.4 Additives
20.5 Shaping plastics
Introduction
Silicate-based ceramics
Asbestos
Clay products
Engineering ceramics
Properties of ceramics
Cement
Semiconductors
Introduction
Composition and structure of glass
Glass-transition temperature
Glass manufacture
The properties of glass
Glasses and their uses
Metallic glasses
Introduction
Particle-hardened composites
Dispersion-hardened materials
Mortar and concrete
Tarmacadam
318Contentsix
24 Fibre-reinforced composite materials
25 Methods of joining materials
Introduction
Unidirectional composites
Fibres
Matrix materials
Mechanical properties
Fibre-composite manufacture
Uses of fibre-reinforced composites
Reinforced wood
Reinforced concrete
Introduction
Adhesives
Soldering and brazing
Welding
Arc-welding processes
Electric resistance welding
Thermo-chemical welding
Radiation welding
Solid-state welding
25.10 Structure of welds 347
25.11 Welding of plastics 348
26 Causes of failure 350
26.1 Introduction 350
26.2 Causes of failure 350
26.3 Non-destructive testing 354
26.4 Degradation of metals by oxidation 360
26.5 Degradation of metals by electrolytic corrosion 360
26.6 The protection of metal surfaces 367
26.7 Stability of plastics 370
26.8 Preservation of timber 372
26.9 Service life 374
27 Choice of materials and processes 375
27.1 Introduction 375
27.2 Selection of materials 377
27.3 Service requirements 377
27.4 Choice of shaping process 387
Appendix: Properties of engineering materials 390
Index 392This Page is Intentionall
Index
ABS, 248,252
Acrylics, 259
Acrylonitrile-butadiene
rubber, 271
-styrene, see ABS
Adhesives, 334
Age-hardening, 225
Alkyd resins, 265
Allotropy, 9
Alloys
binary, 103
term defined, 4, 93, 101
Alumina, 296,301
Aluminium
alloys, 218
cast alloys, 220,228
coding, 219
-copper alloys, 224
-copper equilibrium diagram,
116,234
crystals in, 47
duralumin, 224
extraction, 216
first produced, 3
heat treatment, 224
-magnesium-manganese
alloys, 221
modification, 221
oxide, 296
properties, 217
purification, 217
-silicon alloys, 220
-silicon equilibrium diagram,
222
sintered powder, 316
-tin alloys, 241
wrought alloys, 220, 224
Y-alloy, 228
American Society for Metals, 22
American Society for Testing
Materials, 23
Annealing
bright, 75
castings, 142
cold-worked steel, 144
mechanism, 66
spheroidisation, 143
Anode, 361
Anti-static agents, 281
Araldite, 335
Aramid fibre composites, 324
Asbestos, 282,289,291
Atomic number, 7
Atoms
building blocks of, 6
defined, 6
electron structure of, 7
shells, 7
Austempering, 157
Austenite, 136
Babbitt metals, 239
Bainite, 149
Bakelite, 4,244,262
Basic oxygen steel making, 132
Bauxite, 216
Bearing
aluminium-tin alloys, 241
copper-based metals, 241
metals, 239
sintered-bronze, 89
white metals, 239, 382
Beer containers, 13
Bend tests, 40
Beryllium-aluminium alloys,
229
Bessemer process, 132
Bicycle materials, 375
Bismuth-cadmium
equilibrium diagram, 110
solution, 94
-tin equilibrium diagram,
118
Blockboard, 330
Body-centred cubic, 44
BOF, 133
Bolt, stages in manufacture, 71
Boron
carbide, 299
fibre composites, 324Index 393
Boron, continued
nitride, 299
BOS, 133
Brasses, 203
Brazing, 337
Brinelltest, 28
British Standards Association,
19
Brittle
fracture of steel, 146
material, 14
Bronze Age, 3
Bronzes
aluminium, 203,211
beryllium, 203,214
coinage, 211
copper-tin, 203, 207
gunmetal, 203,211
leaded, 211,241
manganese, 205
phosphor, 203,211
sintered, 241
Buckyball, 11
Butadiene rubber, 270
Butyl rubber, 271
Cadmium-bismuth
equilibrium diagram, 110
solution, 94
Calendering, 283
Car bodywork, 4
Carbon fibre composites, 323
Carbonitriding, 186
Carburising
gas, 182
heat treatment after, 182
liquid, 181
pack, 180
process, 180
Carpet analogy of slip, 64
Case hardening, 179, 184
Casting
choice of process, 60
described, 52
ingot crystals, 50
polymers, 287
Cast iron
Age, 3, 190
alloy, 199
blackheart malleable, 198
CG, 198
compacted-graphite, 198
composition, 190
ductile, 197
effect of cooling rate, 193
engineering, 195
fluid, 196
grey, 191
growth in, 194
high-duty, 196
important material, 190
malleable, 198
nodular, 197
ordinary, 195
pearlitic malleable, 199
SG, 197
spheroidal-graphite, 197
white, 191
whiteheart malleable, 198
Cathode, 361
Cellulose
acetate, 255, 279
acetate-butyrate, 255
Cellulose-base plastics, 255
Cement, 301
Cemented carbides, 89, 295
Cementite, 134
Centrifugal casting
described, 56
uses, 56
Ceramics
chain-type, 289
defined, 5,289
engineering, 295
groups, 289
properties, 5, 299
sheet-type, 290
silicate-based, 289
Cermits, 315
Charpy impact test, 35
Chill crystals, 50
Chipboard, 331
Cladding, 363,369
Clay, 290,291,293
Close-packed hexagonal, 44
Cluster mill, 81
Coining, 85
Cold-pressing, 83
Cold-working
effect on grain size, 68
processes, 68, 80
uses, 69
Colourants, 282
Columnar crystals, 50
Composites
defined, 5394 Materials for Engineers and Technicians
Composites, continued
fibre, 319
manufacture, 327
particle, 314,315
uses, 329
Compression
defined, 13
tests, 40
Concrete
reinforced, 332
structure, 317
Continuous casting, 52
Cope, 53
Copolymer, 248
Copper
alloys, 203
-aluminium equilibrium
diagram, 116
arsenical, 215
based bearing metals, 241
-beryllium equilibrium
diagram, 214
-cadmium alloy, 215
-chromium alloy, 214
-chromium equilibrium
diagram, 214
coding, 21
deoxidised, 203
extraction, 201
-nickel equilibrium
diagram, 107
OFHS, 202
oxygen-free high
conductivity, 202
properties, 202
-tellurium alloy, 215
-tin equilibrium diagram,
207
tough-pitch, 202
-zinc equilibrium diagram,
203
Coring, 95, 109
Corrosion
crevice, 366
electrolytic, 360
failure, 352
protection against, 367
resistance values, 18,384
stress, 366
Corrugated cardboard, 331
Cost
per unit strength, 18
per unit stiffness, 18
relative, 19,385
Covalent bond, 8
Coventry cathedral, cross, 60
Cowper stoves, 131
Creep, 36,279,300,351,381
Critical cooling rate, 149, 150,
151
Crystal
size, 49
structure, 7
Cupro-nickels, 203, 213
Cyanide hardening, 181
Data sources, 19
Dendrite, 45
Devitrification, 309
Diamond, 10,298
Die-casting
cold-chamber machine, 54
defined, 54
gravity, 55
permanent-mould, 55
pressure, 54
uses, 56
Die steels, 168
Diffusion, 99
Dislocations, 63
Drag, 53
Drawing
defined, 80
deep, 82
processes, 81
Dry-cyaniding, 186
Ductility, 14, 358
Durability, 18
Duralumin, 224
Durometer, 278
Elastic
limit, 24
behaviour, 23,62
Elastomers
defined, 5,245
engineering, 270
structure, 268
vulcanisation 269
Electric conductivity, 385
Electric-arc steel making, 133
Electrochemical series, 362
Electrolyte, 361
Electron, 6
Electrophoresis, 368
Electroplating, 369Index 395
Electrovalent bond, 6
Element, defined, 6
Embossing, 86
Endurance limit, 37
Epoxy resins, 266
Equilibrium diagrams
alumina-silica, 301
aluminium-copper, 116,224
aluminium-silicon, 222
cadmium-bismuth, 110
chromium, 214
copper-beryllium, 214
copper-tin, 207
copper-zinc, 204
iron-carbon, 135
nickel-copper, 107
obtaining, 103
ternary, 117
tin-lead, 106, 112
types of, 106
Erichsen cupping test, 39
Etching microscope specimens
etchants, 125
process, 124
Ethylene-propylene rubber, 271
Eutectics, 93, 102
Eutectoid, 137
Expansivity, linear
defined, 16
failure from, 352
values, 17
Extrusion
process, 79
impact, 86
plastics, 284
Face-centred cubic, 44
Factor of safety, 42
Failure, causes of, 350
Fatigue
case study, 38
described, 37,351
fracture surfaces, 38
limit, 37
resistance, 381
Ferrite, 136
Ferromagnetic, 175
Ferrous alloys, term, 5
Fibre
described, 71
macro-examination, 72
Fillers, 281
Film blowing, 286
Fireclay, 293
Flame-hardening, 187
Flame retardants, 282
Float process, 310
Flow-turning, 84
Fluorocarbons, 253
Forging
drop, 77
hot-pressing, 77
processes, 77
Four-high mill, 81
Friction
coefficient, 383
lubrication, 382
modifiers, 282
Fullerene, 11
Full mould casting
described, 59
uses, 59
Furnaces, metallurgical
atmospheres, 75
basic oxygen, 133
batch, 76
blast, 130
continuous, 76
described, 73
electric-arc, 134
endothermic atmospheres,
75
exothermic atmospheres, 75
heat treatment, 161
Fracture surfaces, 352
Free-cutting, 91
Galvanic series, 362
Galvanising, 364
Glass
blowing, 311
ceramics, 309, 312
composition, 306
fibre composites, 323
manufacture, 309
metallic, 312
properties, 311
structure, 306
transition temperature, 274,
308
uses, 312
Gold, 242
Grain
defined, 49
flow, 71
growth, 67396 Materials for Engineers and Technicians
Graphite, 10
Gunmetals, 203
Hancock, Thomas, 244
Hardenability, 157
Hardening
steel, 147, 153
surface of steel, 179
Hardness
defined, 15
tests, 27,278
Heat capacity
defined, 16
specific, 16
values of, 17
High-speed steel, 169
Hooker process, 87
Hooke's law, 23
Hot-working
defined, 70
fibre, 71
grain flow, 71
processes, 71,77
uses, 71
Hydroplastic forming, 294
Impact tests, 33, 279
Induction-hardening, 188
Industrial revolution, 1, 3
Ingot casting, 52
Insolubility, 93
Intermetallic compounds, 101,
102
International Organisation for
Standardisation, 19
Investment casting
applications, 58
described, 57
Ionic bond, 6
Ion implantation, 187
Ionitriding, 187
Ions, 7
Iron
Age, 3
-carbon equilibrium diagram,
135
cast, 190
ores, 131
smelting, 130
Isothermal heat-treatment, 155
Izod impact test, 34
Joining materials, 334
Jominytest, 159
Kaolinite, 293
Kevlar, 324
Knoop hardness, 300
Lead-tin
alloys, 103
equilibrium diagram, 106,
112
L-D process, 132
Leonardo da Vinci, 229
Lever rule, 108, 111, 113, 136
Light Alloys Age, 3
Liquidus, 105, 107
Lithium fluoride crystal, 7
Lost foam process, 60
Lost wax process, 57
Machining, 90
Magnesite, 295
Magnesium
alloys, 237
extraction, 237
oxide, 295
Magnet
alloys, 175
hard material, 177
hysteresis, 176
soft material, 177
Malleability, 15
Martempering, 155
Martensite, 148
Materials in general
classification, 4
history, 3
properties, 2, 13
selection, 2, 377
society, 12
Melamine formaldehyde, 264
Mer, 247
Metal
bonds, 8
crystal structure, 43
matrix composites, 326, 329
properties, 4
Mica, 290
Microscope
care, 128
electron, 129
importance, 119
metallurgical, 125
specimen etching, 124Index 397
Microscope, continued
specimen grinding, 121
specimen mounting, 119
specimen polishing, 122
specimen selection, 119
using, 127
Milk bottles, 12
Modification, 221
Modulus of elasticity
defined, 14, 23
specific, 379
values, 14, 379
Moh scale, 27
Monomer, 247
Mortar, 317
Mott, Prof, 64
Moulding
blow, 285
compression, 284
injection, 284
press, 328
resin-transfer, 329
sand, 53
slush, 287
stretch-blow, 285
transfer, 285
Nail, old, 1
Neutron, 6
Nickel
-copper equilibrium
diagram, 107
corrosion resistant alloys,
231
electrical resistance alloys,
231
high-temperature alloys, 231
low expansion alloys, 232
properties, 230
silvers, 203, 213
-titanium alloys, 233
Niclad, 230
Nitriding, 184
Nitrile rubbers, 271
Non-destructive testing
acid pickling, 356
gamma rays, 357
magnetic dust, 355
penetrant methods, 354
surface cracks, 354
ultrasonic, 359
X-rays, 357
Non-ferrous alloys, term, 5
Nylon, 256
Normalising, 141
Overstressing, 350
Oxidation
degradation, 360
protection, 369
Painting, 367,383
Particleboard, 330
Pascal, unit, 13
Patenting, 157
Pattern, 53
Pearlite, 137
Percentage elongation
defined, 14,25
values, 15
Peritectic reaction, 136
Perspex, 259
Phase, 101
Phenol formaldehyde, 262
Pierce-Smith converter, 201
Pipe, 52
Plasma nitriding, 187
Plastic behaviour, 24, 62
Plasticisers, 248
Plastics, also see Polymers
Age, 4
weathering, 370
welding, 348
Plexiglass, 259
Plumber, 103
Plumbum, 103
Plywood, 330
Poltrusion, 328
Polyacetals, 258
Polyamides, 256
Polycarbonate, 258
Polychloroprene rubber, 271
Polyesters, 257,265
Polyether ether ketone, 260
Polyethylene
discovery, 4
high-density, 250
low-density, 250
molecular chain, 9, 247, 250
properties, 5, 250
terephthalate, 257
-vinyl acetate, 252
Polyimides, 260, 266
Polyisoprene, 268,270
Polymerisation, 247, 249
Polymers, also see Plastics398 Materials for Engineers and Technicians
Polymers, continued
additives, 281
composition, 246
covalently bonded carbon, 9
crystal state, 273
defined, 5
expanded, 282
foamed, 282
glass transition temperature,
274
melting point, 273
properties, 5, 246, 273, 275
raw materials, 245
shaping, 283
tensile testing, 276
types, 244
Vicat softening temperature,
275
Polymethyl methacrylate, 259
Polymorphism, 9, 45, 135, 141,
235
Polyoxymethylene, 258
Polypropylene, 252
Polypropylene-ethylene
copolymer, 252
Polystyrene, 252,282
Polysulphide rubber, 272
Polysulphones, 260
Polytetrafluoroethylene, 253
Polyurethane, 265, 282
Polyvinyl acetate, 251
Polyvinyl acetate/chloride
copolymers, 248, 251
Polyvinyl chloride
acetate, 248
development, 4, 251
properties, 251
Powder metallurgy
described, 88
uses, 88
Precipitation
from liquid solution, 114
from solid solution, 115
hardening, 226
Printed-circuit-boards, 203
Processes
choice, 12, 387
classification, 12
Proof stress, 24
Properties of materials, 2
Proton, 6
PTFE, 253
Pyrex, 312
Quench
-cracking, 152
media, 152
of steels, 147
Rapid solidication processing,
51
Recrystallisation, 66
Refractoriness, 300, 382
Remanence, 176
Resistivity
defined, 15
values, 16
Rockwell hardness test, 31, 278
Rolling
cold, 80
hot, 78
Rubber, 244, 268, 270, 371
Ruling section, 158
Rusting, 365, 383
Sacrificial protection, 364, 370
Salts, 7
Sand-casting
described, 53
uses, 54
SAP, 316
Schoop process, 368
Secant modulus, 277
Segregation, 48
Selection of material, 2
Semiconductor, 16, 303
Semi-solid metal casting, 60
Service
life, 374
requirements, 377
'Shape memory' alloys, 207,
233
Sherardising, 368
Shore
hardness, 278
scleroscope, 32
Sialons, 297
Silicates, 289
Silicone nitride, 297
Silicones, 267,272
Sintered-bronze bearings, 89
Slip
bands, 63
carpet analogy, 64
casting, 293
described, 62
S/N curves, 37Index 399
Solder
materials, 336
plumber's, 104
tinman's, 104,336
Solidus, 105, 107
Solution
defined, 93
interstitial solid, 99
solid, 95, 100, 101
substitution solid, 97
treatment, 225
Sorbite, 154
Spinning, 83
Stainless steel, 171
Standard, 19
Steel
Age, 3
alloy, 162
boron, 167
brittle fracture, 146
chromium, 164
coding, 20
composition, 134
constructional, 163
dead-mild, 134
eutectoid, 140
heat-resisting, 175
heat-treatment, 140, 147
high-carbon, 134
high speed, 169
high-strength low-alloy, 162
hyper-eutectoid, 139
hypo-eutectoid, 139
making, 132
manganese, 166
maraging, 167
medium-carbon, 134
micro-alloyed, 162
mild, 4, 134
nickel, 163
nickel-chromium, 164
nickel-chromiummolybdenum, 165
nitralloy, 185
plain-carbon, 134, 135, 147,
155
surface hardening, 179
stainless, 171
tool and die, 168
Stiffness, 14,378
Stone Age, 3
Strain, defined, 13
Strength
defined, 13,24
specific, 379
values, 14, 378
Stress
concentration factor, 350
cracking, 372
defined, 13
engineering, 24
relief, 66
Stretch-forming, 84
Styrene-butadiene
rubber, 270
-styrene rubber, 272
Talc, 290
Tarmacadam, 318
Tempering
colours, 155
process, 153
Tensile test
force-extension diagrams, 23
machines, 22
test-pieces, 26
Tension, defined, 13
Terylene, 257
Thermal conductivity
defined, 17
values of, 17
Thermal cycling, 352
Thermoplastics
defined, 5,245
high-temperature, 260
materials, 249
properties, 5
structure, 247
Thermosets
defined, 5,245
properties, 5
materials, 262
structure, 261
Time-temperaturetransformation curves,
149
Tin,
-lead alloys, 103
-lead equilibrium diagram,
106, 112
plate, 363
polymorphic, 10
Titanium
alpha alloys, 235
alpha-beta alloys, 235
beta alloys, 235400 Materials for Engineers and Technicians
Titanium, continued
diboride, 299
discovery, 234
near alpha alloys, 235
properties, 234
structure, 235
uses, 235
Tool materials
cemented carbides, 89
steels, 168
Torsion tests, 41
Toughness, 15, 380
Transition temperature, 146
Troostite, 154
TTT diagrams, 149
Tufnol, 322
Twinning, 65
Urea formaldehyde, 263
Vacuum-forming, 286
Valency, 10
Van der Waals forces, 9
Vicat softening temperature,
275
Vickers pyramid hardness test,
30
Vinyl plastics, 249
Viscoelastic, 277
Vulcanisation, 269
Wasa, 372
Wear resistance, 33, 383
Weld
decay, 174
structure, 347
Welding
arc, 338
bronze, 345
butt, 343
CO2 process, 340
cold-pressure, 346
electric-resistance, 342
electro-slag, 343
explosive, 346
flash, 343
friction, 346
gas-shielded arc, 339
induction, 344
laser, 346
metallic arc, 338
MIG, 340
oxyacetylene, 344
plasma-arc, 341
plastics, 348
projection, 342
radiation, 346
seam, 342
solid-state, 346
spot, 342
submerged arc, 339
thermit, 345
thermo-chemical, 344
TIG, 339
White bearing metals, 239
Widmanstatten structure, 143,
205
Wood
as composite, 5, 319
fungus attack, 373
insect pests, 373
laminated, 330
preservation, 372
reinforced, 330
Work hardening, 63, 65
Yield point, 24
Young's modulus, see Modulus
of elasticity
Zinc
die casting, 238
high strength alloys, 238
Zirconia, 298


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