كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition

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كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition   كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition Emptyالإثنين 02 يناير 2012, 12:50 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
An Integrated Approach
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering
The University of Utah
David G. Rethwisch
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The University of Iowa

كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering 5th Edition F_o_m_18
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
List of Symbols Xxiii
. Introduction
Learning Objectives
. Historical Perspective
. Materials Science and Engineering
. Why Study Materials Science and Engineering?
Case Study—Liberty Ship Failures
. Classification of Materials
Case Study—Carbonated Beverage
Containers
. Advanced Materials
. Modern Materials’ Needs
Summary
References
Questions
. Atomic Structure and Interatomic
Bonding
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
. Fundamental Concepts
. Electrons in Atoms
. The Periodic Table
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS
. Bonding Forces and Energies
. Primary Interatomic Bonds
. Secondary Bonding or van der Waals
Bonding
Materials of Importance—Water (Its
Volume Expansion upon Freezing)
. Mixed Bonding
. Molecules
. Bonding Type-Material Classification
Correlations
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Structures of Metals and Ceramics
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
. Fundamental Concepts
. Unit Cells
. Metallic Crystal Structures
. Density Computations—Metals
. Ceramic Crystal Structures
. Density Computations—Ceramics
. Silicate Ceramics
. Carbon
. Polymorphism and Allotropy
. Crystal Systems
Material of Importance—Tin (Its
Allotropic Transformation)
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND
PLANES
. Point Coordinates
. Crystallographic Directions
. Crystallographic Planes
. Linear and Planar Densities
. Close-Packed Crystal Structures
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE
MATERIALS
. Single Crystals
. Polycrystalline Materials
. Anisotropy
. X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of
Crystal Structures
. Noncrystalline Solids
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References xvi • Contents
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Polymer Structures
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Hydrocarbon Molecules
. Polymer Molecules
. The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules
. Molecular Weight
. Molecular Shape
. Molecular Structure
. Molecular Configurations
. Thermoplastic and Thermosetting
Polymers
. Copolymers
. Polymer Crystallinity
. Polymer Crystals
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Imperfections in Solids
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
POINT DEFECTS
. Point Defects in Metals
. Point Defects in Ceramics
. Impurities in Solids
. Point Defects in Polymers
. Specification of Composition
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS
. Dislocations—Linear Defects
. Interfacial Defects
. Bulk or Volume Defects
. Atomic Vibrations
Materials of Importance—Catalysts (and
Surface Defects)
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION
. Basic Concepts of Microscopy
. Microscopic Techniques
. Grain-Size Determination
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Diffusion
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Diffusion Mechanisms
. Fick’s First Law
. Fick’s Second Law—Nonsteady-State
Diffusion
. Factors that Influence Diffusion
. Diffusion in Semiconducting
Materials
Materials of Importance—Aluminum for
Integrated Circuit Interconnects
. Other Diffusion Paths
. Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric
Materials
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Mechanical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Concepts of Stress and Strain
ELASTIC DEFORMATION
. Stress–Strain Behavior
. Anelasticity
. Elastic Properties of Materials
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS
. Tensile Properties
. True Stress and Strain
. Elastic Recovery after Plastic
Deformation
. Compressive, Shear, and Torsional
Deformations
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—CERAMICS
. Flexural Strength Contents • xvii
. Elastic Behavior
. Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical
Properties of Ceramics
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—POLYMERS
. Stress–Strain Behavior
. Macroscopic Deformation
. Viscoelastic Deformation
HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL
PROPERTY CONSIDERATIONS
. Hardness
. Hardness of Ceramic Materials
. Tear Strength and Hardness of
Polymers
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY
FACTORS
. Variability of Material Properties
. Design/Safety Factors
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Deformation and Strengthening
Mechanisms
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS
. Historical
. Basic Concepts of Dislocations
. Characteristics of Dislocations
. Slip Systems
. Slip in Single Crystals
. Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline
Metals
. Deformation by Twinning
MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN
METALS
. Strengthening by Grain Size
Reduction
. Solid-Solution Strengthening
. Strain Hardening
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN
GROWTH
. Recovery
. Recrystallization
. Grain Growth
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC
MATERIALS
. Crystalline Ceramics
. Noncrystalline Ceramics
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR
STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS
. Deformation of Semicrystalline
Polymers
. Factors that Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline
Polymers
Materials of Importance—Shrink-Wrap
Polymer Films
. Deformation of Elastomers
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Failure
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
FRACTURE
. Fundamentals of Fracture
. Ductile Fracture
. Brittle Fracture
. Principles of Fracture Mechanics
. Brittle Fracture of Ceramics
. Fracture of Polymers
. Fracture Toughness Testing
FATIGUE
. Cyclic Stresses
. The S–N Curve
. Fatigue in Polymeric Materials
. Crack Initiation and Propagation
. Factors that Affect Fatigue Life
. Environmental Effects
CREEP
. Generalized Creep Behavior
. Stress and Temperature Effects
. Data Extrapolation Methods
. Alloys for High-Temperature Use xviii • Contents
. Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric
Materials
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Phase Diagrams
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS
. Solubility Limit
. Phases
. Microstructure
. Phase Equilibria
. One-Component (or Unary)
Phase Diagrams
BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS
. Binary Isomorphous Systems
. Interpretation of Phase Diagrams
. Development of Microstructure in
Isomorphous Alloys
. Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous
Alloys
. Binary Eutectic Systems
. Development of Microstructure in Eutectic
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Lead-Free
Solders
. Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate
Phases or Compounds
. Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions
. Congruent Phase Transformations
. Ceramic Phase Diagrams
. Ternary Phase Diagrams
. The Gibbs Phase Rule
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM
. The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe C) Phase
Diagram
. Development of Microstructure in Iron–
Carbon Alloys
. The Influence of Other Alloying
Elements
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Phase Transformations
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS
. Basic Concepts
. The Kinetics of Phase
Transformations
. Metastable Versus Equilibrium
States
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES
IN IRON–CARBON ALLOYS
. Isothermal Transformation Diagrams
. Continuous-Cooling Transformation
Diagrams
. Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon
Alloys
. Tempered Martensite
. Review of Phase Transformations and
Mechanical Properties for Iron–Carbon
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Shape-Memory
Alloys
PRECIPITATION HARDENING
. Heat Treatments
. Mechanism of Hardening
. Miscellaneous Considerations
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS
TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS
. Crystallization
. Melting
. The Glass Transition
. Melting and Glass Transition
Temperatures
. Factors that Influence Melting and Glass
Transition Temperatures
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems Contents • xix
. Electrical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION
. Ohm’s Law
. Electrical Conductivity
. Electronic and Ionic Conduction
. Energy Band Structures in Solids
. Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic
Bonding Models
. Electron Mobility
. Electrical Resistivity of Metals
. Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
Alloys
Materials of Importance—Aluminum
Electrical Wires
SEMICONDUCTIVITY
. Intrinsic Semiconduction
. Extrinsic Semiconduction
. The Temperature Dependence of Carrier
Concentration
. Factors that Affect Carrier Mobility
. The Hall Effect
. Semiconductor Devices
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS
AND IN POLYMERS
. Conduction in Ionic Materials
. Electrical Properties of Polymers
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR
. Capacitance
. Field Vectors and Polarization
. Types of Polarization
. Frequency Dependence of
the Dielectric Constant
. Dielectric Strength
. Dielectric Materials
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MATERIALS
. Ferroelectricity
. Piezoelectricity
Material of Importance—Piezoelectric
Ceramic Ink-Jet Printer Heads
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Types and Applications
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS
. Ferrous Alloys
. Nonferrous Alloys
Materials of Importance—Metal Alloys
Used for Euro Coins
TYPES OF CERAMICS
. Glasses
. Glass-Ceramics
. Clay Products
. Refractories
. Abrasives
. Cements
. Carbons
. Advanced Ceramics
TYPES OF POLYMERS
. Plastics
Materials of Importance—Phenolic Billiard
Balls
. Elastomers
. Fibers
. Miscellaneous Applications
. Advanced Polymeric Materials
Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Questions
Fundamentals of Engineering
Questions
. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
FABRICATION OF METALS
. Forming Operations
. Casting
. Miscellaneous Techniques
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS
. Annealing Processes
. Heat Treatment of Steels xx • Contents
FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS
. Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and
Glass-Ceramics
. Fabrication and Processing of Clay
Products
. Powder Pressing
. Tape Casting
SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS
. Polymerization
. Polymer Additives
. Forming Techniques for Plastics
. Fabrication of Elastomers
. Fabrication of Fibers and Films
Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Composites
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
. Large–Particle Composites
. Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
. Influence of Fiber Length
. Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration
. The Fiber Phase
. The Matrix Phase
. Polymer-Matrix Composites
. Metal-Matrix Composites
. Ceramic-Matrix Composites
. Carbon–Carbon Composites
. Hybrid Composites
. Processing of Fiber-Reinforced
Composites
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES
. Laminar Composites
. Sandwich Panels
Case Study—Use of Composites in the
Boeing Dreamliner
. Nanocomposites
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Corrosion and Degradation
of Materials
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
CORROSION OF METALS
. Electrochemical Considerations
. Corrosion Rates
. Prediction of Corrosion Rates
. Passivity
. Environmental Effects
. Forms of Corrosion
. Corrosion Environments
. Corrosion Prevention
. Oxidation
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS
. Swelling and Dissolution
. Bond Rupture
. Weathering
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Thermal Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Heat Capacity
. Thermal Expansion
Materials of Importance—Invar and Other
Low-Expansion Alloys
. Thermal Conductivity
. Thermal Stresses
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems Contents • xxi
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Magnetic Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
. Basic Concepts
. Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism
. Ferromagnetism
. Antiferromagnetism and
Ferrimagnetism
. The Influence of Temperature on
Magnetic Behavior
. Domains and Hysteresis
. Magnetic Anisotropy
. Soft Magnetic Materials
Materials of Importance—An Iron–Silicon
Alloy that Is Used in Transformer
Cores
. Hard Magnetic Materials
. Magnetic Storage
. Superconductivity
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Optical Properties
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
BASIC CONCEPTS
. Electromagnetic Radiation
. Light Interactions with Solids
. Atomic and Electronic Interactions
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS
. Refraction
. Reflection
. Absorption
. Transmission
. Color
. Opacity and Translucency
in Insulators
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA
. Luminescence
. Photoconductivity
Materials of Importance—Light-Emitting
Diodes
. Lasers
. Optical Fibers in Communications
Summary
Equation Summary
List of Symbols
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problem
Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and
Problems
. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering
Learning Objectives
. Introduction
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
. Component Design
. Materials
. Manufacturing Techniques
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL
CONSIDERATIONS
. Recycling Issues in Materials Science and
Engineering
Materials of Importance—Biodegradable
and Biorenewable Polymers/
Plastics
Summary
References
Design Questions
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI)
Appendix B Properties of Selected
Engineering Materials
B. : Density
B. : Modulus of Elasticity
B. : Poisson’s Ratio
B. : Strength and Ductility
B. : Plane Strain Fracture Toughness
B. : Linear Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion
B. : Thermal Conductivity
B. : Specific Heat
B. : Electrical Resistivity
B. : Metal Alloy Compositions xxii • Contents
Appendix C Costs and Relative
Costs for Selected Engineering
Materials
Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for
Common Polymers
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
Materials
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
Mechanical Engineering Online
Module
Learning Objectives
M. Introduction
FRACTURE
M. Principles of Fracture Mechanics
M. Flaw Detection Using Nondestructive
Testing Techniques
M. Fracture Toughness Testing
FATIGUE
M. Crack Initiation and Propagation
M. Crack Propagation Rate
AUTOMOBILE VALVE SPRING (CASE STUDY)
M. Mechanics of Spring Deformation
M. Valve Spring Design and Material
Requirements
FAILURE OF AN AUTOMOBILE REAR AXLE
(CASE STUDY)
M. Introduction
M. Testing Procedure and Results
M. Discussion
MATERIALS SELECTION FOR A TORSIONALLY
STRESSED CYLINDRICAL SHAFT (CASE STUDY)
M. Strength Considerations—Torsionally
Stressed Shaft
M. Other Property Considerations and the
Final Decision
Summary
Equation Summary
Important Terms and Concepts
References
Questions and Problems
Design Problems
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index (Module)
Library of Case Studies
Case Study CS —Materials Selection for a
Torsionally Stressed Cylindrical Shaft
Case Study CS —Automobile Valve Spring
Case Study CS —Failure of an Automobile
Rear Axle
Case Study CS —Artificial Total Hip
Replacement
Case Study CS —Intraocular Lens Implants
Case Study CS —Chemical Protective
ClothingContents
Index
Page numbers in italics refer to the glossary.Index •
Angle computation between two
crystallographic directions,
Angle-ply, laminar composite,
Anions, ,
Anisotropy, – ,
of elastic modulus, ,
magnetic, –
Annealing, , – ,
ferrous alloys, –
glass,
Annealing point, glass, ,
Annealing twins,
Anodes, ,
area effect, galvanic corrosion,
sacrificial, ,
Antiferromagnetism, ,
temperature dependence,
Aramid:
cost as a fiber,
fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, –
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
properties as fiber,
repeat unit structure, ,
Argon, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Argon-ion lasers,
Aromatic hydrocarbons (chain groups),
,
Arrhenius equation,
Artifi cial aging, ,
Asphaltic concrete,
ASTM standards,
Atactic configuration, ,
Athermal transformation, ,
Atomic bonding, see Bonding
Atomic mass,
Atomic mass unit (amu), ,
Atomic models:
Bohr, , ,
wave-mechanical, – ,
Atomic number, ,
Atomic packing factor, ,
Atomic point defects, – , –
Atomic radii, of selected metals,
Atomic structure, –
Atomic vibrations, , ,
Atomic weight, ,
metal alloys, equations for,
Atom percent, ,
Austenite, ,
shape-memory phase transformations,

transformations, –
summary, –
Austenitic stainless steels, ,
Austenitizing, ,
Automobiles, rusted and stainless
steel,
Automobile transmission,
Auxetic materials,
Average value,
Avogadro’s number,
Avrami equation, ,
AX crystal structures, –
A
mXp crystal structures,
Azimuthal quantum number,
B
Bainite, – , , ,
ductility vs. transformation
temperature,
hardness vs. transformation
temperature,
mechanical properties,
Bakelite, see Phenol-formaldehyde
(Bakelite)
Balsa wood, sandwich panels,
Band gap, –
Band gap energy,
determination of,
selected semiconductors,
Bands, see Energy bands
Barcol hardness,
Barium ferrite (as magnetic storage
medium),
Barium titanate:
crystal structure, , –
as dielectric,
as ferroelectric, –
as piezoelectric,
Base (transistor), –
Basic refractories,
Basic slags,
Bauxite ore,
Beachmarks (fatigue), –
Bend strength, . See also Flexural
strength
Beryllium-copper alloys,
Beverage containers, ,
corrosion of,
diffusion rate of CO through,

stages of production,
Bifunctional repeat units, ,
Billiard balls, ,
Bimetallic strips,
Binary eutectic alloys, –
tensile strength,
Binary isomorphous alloys, –
mechanical properties,
microstructure development,
equilibrium cooling, –
microstructure development,
nonequilibrium cooling, –
Biodegradable beverage can,
Biodegradable polymers/plastics,

Biomass,
Biomaterials,
Biorenewable polymers/plastics,

Bioresorbability,
Block copolymers, , ,
Blowing, of glass,
Blow molding, plastics,
Body-centered cubic structure,
– ,
Burgers vector for,
interstitial sites, tetrahedral and
octahedral, – , ,
slip systems,
twinning in,
Boeing (Dreamliner), case study,

Bohr atomic model, , ,
Bohr magneton, ,
Boltzmann’s constant, ,
Bonding:
carbon-carbon,
cementitious,
covalent, – , ,
hybrid sp,
hybrid sp , –
in graphite,
hybrid sp , –
in diamond,
hybridization in carbon, –
hydrogen, , ,
ionic, – , – ,
metallic, – ,
van der Waals, see van der Waals
bonding
Bonding energy, ,
and melting temperature for selected
materials,
Bonding forces, –
Bonding tetrahedron,
Bond rupture, in polymers, –
Bone, as composite,
Borazon,
Boron carbide:
hardness,
Boron:
boron-doped silicon
semiconductors,
fiber-reinforced composites,
,
properties as a fiber,
Borosilicate glass:
composition,
electrical conductivity,
viscosity,
Borsic fi ber-reinforced composites,
Bosons,
Bottom-up science,
Bragg’s law, – ,
Branched polymers, , • Index
Brass, , ,
annealing behavior,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical conductivity,
fatigue behavior,
phase diagram, ,
Poisson’s ratio,
recrystallization temperature,
stress corrosion,
stress-strain behavior,
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Brazing, ,
Breakdown, dielectric, ,
Bridge, suspension,
Brinell hardness tests, , –
Brittle fracture, – , , ,
– ,
ceramics, –
Brittle materials, thermal shock,

Bronze, , ,
photomicrograph, coring,
Bronze age,
Buckminsterfullerene,
Buckyball,
Burgers vector, ,
for FCC, BCC, and HCP,
magnitude computation,
Butadiene:
degradation resistance,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
repeat unit structure, ,
Butane, –
C
Cadmium sulfide:
color,
electrical characteristics,
Cadmium telluride, electrical
characteristics,
Calcination, ,
Calcite,
Calcium fl uoride, bonding energy and
melting temperature,
Calendering,
Capacitance, – ,
Capacitors, –
Carbon:
vs. graphite, ,
graphitic,
nano,
polymorphism,
pyrolytic,
turbostractic,
Carbon black, as reinforcement in
rubbers, ,
Carbon-carbon composites, ,
Carbon diffusion, in steels, ,
Carbon dioxide (pressure-temperature
phase diagram),
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, – ,
Carbon fibers, –
in composites, , –
properties as fiber,
structure,
Carbon monoxide emissions,
Carbon nanotubes,
applications,
in nanocomposites,
properties,
Carborundum, . See also Silicon
carbide.
Carburizing, , ,
Case-hardened gear,
Case hardening, , ,
Case studies:
carbonated beverage containers,
Liberty ship failures, –
Cast alloys,
Casting techniques:
metals, –
plastics,
slip, –
tape, –
Cast irons, , , – ,
annealing,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
graphite formation in,
heat treatment effect on
microstructure,
phase diagram, ,
stress-strain behavior (gray),
Catalysts,
Catalytic converters (automobiles),
,
Cathodes, ,
Cathodic protection, , – ,
Cations, ,
Cemented carbide, –
Cementite, – ,
decomposition, ,
proeutectoid, –
in white iron, ,
Cementitious bond,
Cements, , – ,
Ceramic-matrix composites,
– ,
Ceramics, – , . See also Glass
advanced, –
application-classifi cation scheme,
brittle fracture, –
coeffi cientof thermal expansion
values, , –
color,
corrosion,
costs, –
crystal structures, –
summary,
defects, –
defined, –
density computation, –
density values,
elastic modulus values, ,

electrical conductivity values for
selected,
electrical resistivity values, –
fabrication techniques
classification,
fl exural strength values, , –
fractography of, –
fracture toughness values, ,
impurities in, –
indices of refraction,
as electrical insulators, ,
magnetic, –
mechanical properties of, –
in MEMS,
phase diagrams, –
piezoelectric, ,
plastic deformation,
Poisson’s ratio values, ,
porosity, – , –
porosity, infl uence on properties,

silicates, –
specifi c heat values, ,
as superconductors,
thermal conductivity values, ,
thermal properties, , ,
– ,
traditional,
traditional vs. new,
translucency and opacity,
Cercor (glass-ceramic),
Cermets, ,
Cesium chloride structure,
Chain-folded model, ,
Chain-reaction polymerization, see
Addition polymerization
Chain stiffening/stiffness, ,
Charge carriers:
majority vs. minority,
temperature dependence, –
Charpy impact test, – ,
Chevron markings, –
Chips, semiconductor,
Chlorine, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Chloroprene, repeat unit structure,
,
Chloroprene rubber:
characteristics and applications,
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
cis, ,
Clay, characteristics, Index •
Clay products, ,
drying and fi ring, , –
fabrication, –
Cleavage (brittle fracture),
Clinker,
Close-packed ceramic crystal structures,

Close-packed metal crystal structures,

Coarse pearlite, – , ,
Coatings (polymer),
Cobalt:
atomic radius and crystal structure,
Curie temperature,
as ferromagnetic material,
magnetization curves
(single crystal),
Coercivity (coercive force), ,
Cold work, percent,
Cold working, . See also Strain
hardening
Collector, –
Color,
metals,
nonmetals, –
Colorants, ,
Compacted graphite iron, , ,
Compliance, creep,
Component, , ,
Composites:
aramid fiber-reinforced polymer,

carbon-carbon, ,
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer,

ceramic-matrix, –
classifi cation scheme,
costs,
defi nition, ,
dispersion-strengthened,
elastic behavior:
longitudinal, –
transverse, –
fiber-reinforced, see Fiber-reinforced
composites
glass fiber-reinforced polymer,

hybrid, – ,
laminar, , , – ,
large-particle, –
metal-matrix, –
particle-reinforced, –
production processes, –
properties, glass-, carbon-,
aramid-fi ber reinforced,
recycling of, –
rule of mixtures expressions, , ,
, ,
strength:
longitudinal,
transverse,
stress-strain behavior, –
structural, –
Composition,
conversion equations, –
specifi cation of, –
Compressibility,
Compression molding, plastics,
Compression tests,
Compressive deformation, ,
Computers:
semiconductors in, –
magnetic drives in, –
Concentration, , . See also
Composition
Concentration cells,
Concentration gradient, ,
Concentration polarization,
– ,
Concentration profile, ,
Concrete, – ,
electrical conductivity,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
Condensation polymerization, ,
Conducting polymers, –
Conduction:
electronic,
ionic, ,
Conduction band, ,
Conductivity, see Electrical conductivity;
Thermal conductivity
Confi guration, molecular, –
Conformation, molecular,
Congruent phase transformations,
– ,
Constitutional diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Continuous casting,
Continuous-cooling transformation
diagrams, – ,
steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
for glass-ceramic,
Continuous fibers,
Conventional hard magnetic
materials,
Conversion factors, magnetic units,
Cooling rate, of cylindrical rounds,
Coordinates, point, –
Coordination numbers, , ,
– ,
Copolymers, , – ,
styrenic block, –
Copper:
atomic radius and crystal structure,
elastic and shear moduli,
electrical conductivity,
OFHC,
Poisson’s ratio,
recrystallization, ,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Copper alloys, –
properties and applications of,
Copper-aluminum phase diagram,
,
Copper-beryllium alloys, ,
phase diagram,
Copper-nickel alloys:
ductility vs. composition, ,
electrical conductivity,
phase diagram, –
tensile strength vs. composition,
,
yield strength vs. composition,
Copper-silver phase diagram, ,
Copper-zinc alloys,
electrical resistivity vs.
composition,
Coring,
CorningWare (glass-ceramic),
Corrosion,
of beverage cans,
ceramic materials,
electrochemistry of, –
environmental effects,
environments, –
forms of, –
galvanic series, ,
overview of,
passivity, – ,
rates, –
prediction of, –
Corrosion fatigue, ,
Corrosion inhibitors,
Corrosion penetration rate, – ,
Corrosion prevention, –
Corundum, . See also Aluminum
oxide
crystal structure, front cover,
Cost of various materials, –
Coulombic force, ,
Covalency, degree of,
Covalent bonding, – , , ,
Crack confi gurations, in ceramics,
Crack critical velocity,
Crack formation,
in ceramics,
fatigue and,
glass,
Crack propagation, . See also
Fracture mechanics
in brittle fracture, –
in ceramics, –
in ductile fracture, –
fatigue and, –
Cracks:
stable vs. unstable, • Index
Crack surface displacement modes,
Crazing,
Creep, – ,
ceramics,
infl uence of temperature and stress
on, –
mechanisms,
in polymers, ,
stages of, – ,
steady-state rate,
viscoelastic,
Creep compliance,
Creep modulus,
Creep rupture tests,
data extrapolation, –
Crevice corrosion, – ,
Cristobalite, , ,
Critical cooling rate:
ferrous alloys, –
glass-ceramics,
Critical crack length (equation)
leak-before-break,
Critical fi ber length, –
Critical resolved shear stress, ,
as related to dislocation density,
Critical stress (fracture),
Critical temperature, superconductivity,
,
Critical velocity (crack), ,
Crosslinking, , ,
elastomers,
infl uence on viscoelastic behavior,
,
thermosetting polymers,
Cross-ply, laminar composite,
Crystalline materials, , ,
defects, –
single crystals, ,
Crystallinity, polymers, – ,
infl uence on mechanical properties,

Crystallites, ,
Crystallization, polymers, –
Crystallographic directions, –
easy and hard magnetization,
families,
hexagonal crystals, –
Crystallographic planes, –
atomic arrangements, –
close-packed, ceramics, –
close-packed, metals, –
diffraction by, –
families,
hexagonal crystals, –
Crystallographic point coordinates,

Crystal structures, – , . See also
Body-centered cubic structure;
Close-packed crystal structures;
Face-centered cubic structure;
Hexagonal close-packed structure
ceramics, –
close-packed, ceramics, –
close-packed, metals, –
determination by x-ray diffraction,

selected metals,
types, ceramics, – , –
types, metals, – , –
Crystallization (ceramics), ,
,
Crystal systems, – ,
Cubic crystal system,
Cubic ferrites, –
Cunife, ,
Cup-and-cone fracture,
Curie temperature, ,
ferroelectric,
ferromagnetic,
Curing, plastics,
Current density,
Cyclic stresses, –
D
Damping capacity, steel vs. cast
iron,
Data scatter, –
Debye temperature,
Decarburization,
Defects, see also Dislocations
atomic vibrations and,
dependence of properties on,
in ceramics, – ,
interfacial, –
point, – ,
in polymers,
surface,
volume,
Defect structure, ,
Deformation:
elastic, see Elastic deformation
elastomers,
plastic, see Plastic deformation
Deformation mechanism maps
(creep),
Deformation mechanisms
(semicrystalline polymers),
elastic deformation,
plastic deformation, –
Degradation of polymers, – ,
Degree of polymerization, ,
Degrees of freedom,
Delayed fracture, –
Density:
computation for ceramics, –
computation for metal alloys,
computation for metals,
computation for polymers,
of dislocations,
linear atomic, –
planar atomic, –
polymers (values for), –
ranges for material types
(bar chart),
relation to percent crystallinity for
polymers,
values for various materials,

Desiccants,
Design, component,
Design examples:
cold work and recrystallization,

conductivity of a p-type
semiconductor, –
cubic mixed-ferrite magnet, –
creep rupture lifetime for an S-
steel,
materials specification, pressurized
cylindrical tank, –
nonsteady-state diffusion, –
pressurized cylindrical tube, –
steel shaft, alloy/heat treatment of,

tensile-testing apparatus, –
tubular composite shaft, –
Design factor,
Design stress, ,
Dezincifi cation, of brass,
Diamagnetism, – ,
Diamond, , –
as abrasive,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
cost,
hardness,
properties and applications, –
thermal conductivity value, ,
Diamond cubic structure,
Die casting,
Dielectric breakdown, ,
Dielectric constant, ,
frequency dependence, –
relationship to refractive index,
selected ceramics and polymers,
Dielectric displacement, ,
Dielectric loss,
Dielectric materials, – , ,
Dielectric strength, ,
selected ceramics and polymers,
Diffraction (x-ray), – ,
Diffraction angle,
Diffractometers,
Diffusion, – ,
drive-in,
grain growth and, ,
in ionic materials, –
in integrated circuit interconnects,

in Si of Cu, Au, Ag, and Al,
interstitial, – ,
mechanisms, – Index •
and microstructure development,
– ,
nonsteady-state, – ,
in polymers, –
predeposition, semiconductors,
in semiconductors, –
short-circuit,
steady-state, – ,
vacancy, – , ,
Diffusion coefficient, ,
data (tabulation), various metal
systems,
relation to ionic mobility,
temperature dependence, –
Diffusion couples, ,
Diffusion flux, ,
for polymers,
Diffusivity, thermal,
Digital camera,
Digitization of information/signals,
,
Dimethyl ether,
Dimethylsiloxane, , , , . See
also Silicones; Silicone rubber
melting and glass transition
temperatures,
Dimethyl terephthalate (structure),
Diode, ,
Diode lasers,
Dipole moment,
Dipoles:
electric, ,
induced,
magnetic, –
permanent,
Directional solidification,
Directions, see Crystallographic
directions
Discontinuous fibers,
Dislocation density, , , ,
Dislocation line, , , ,
Dislocation motion, –
caterpillar locomotion analogy,
in ceramics,
at grain boundaries, –
infl uence on strength,
recovery and,
Dislocations, – ,
in ceramics, , ,
characteristics of, –
interactions,
multiplication,
at phase boundaries, ,
pile-ups,
plastic deformation and, , –
in polymers, ,
strain fields, –
Dispersed phase, ,
definition,
geometry,
Dispersion (optical),
white light through a prism,
Dispersion-strengthened composites,
,
Disposal of materials, –
Domain growth, –
iron single crystal,
Domains (magnetic), , , ,
photograph of,
Domain walls,
Donors, ,
Doping, , ,
Double bonds,
Drain casting, –
Drawing:
glass,
infl uence on polymer properties,

metals, ,
polymer fibers, ,
Dreamliner (Boeing ), case study,

Drift velocity, electron,
Drive-in diffusion,
Driving force, ,
electrochemical reactions,
grain growth,
recrystallization,
sintering,
steady-state diffusion,
Dry corrosion,
Dry ice,
Drying, clay products, –
Ductile fracture, – , – ,
Ductile iron, , ,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
Ductile-to-brittle transition,
– ,
failure of Liberty ships, –
polymers,
and temper embrittlement,
Ductility, – ,
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation
temperature,
fi ne and coarse pearlite,
precipitation hardened aluminum
alloy,
selected materials, , –
spheroidite,
temperedmartensite,
Durometer hardness, ,
E
Economics, materials selection:
considerations in materials
engineering, –
pressurized cylindrical tube, –
tubular composite shaft, –
Eddy currents,
Edge dislocations, , – , .
See also Dislocations
interactions, –
EEPROM memory,
E-glass, ,
Elastic deformation, – ,
Elastic modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Elastic (strain) recovery, , ,
Elastomers, , – , – ,
,
in composites,
deformation,
thermoplastic, –
trade names, properties, and
applications,
Electrical conduction:
in insulators and semiconductors,

in metals,
Electrical conductivity, , ,
ranges for material types
(bar chart),
selected ceramics and polymers,
selected metals,
selected semiconductors,
temperature variation (Ge),
values for electrical wires,
Electrical resistivity, , . See also
Electrical conductivity
metals:
infl uence of impurities,
infl uence of plastic deformation,
,
infl uence of temperature, –
values for various materials,

Electrical wires, aluminum and copper,

Electric dipole moment,
Electric dipoles, see Dipoles
Electric fi eld, , ,
Electrochemical cells, –
Electrochemical reactions, –
Electrodeposition,
Electrode potentials, –
values of,
Electroluminescence, ,
in polymers,
Electrolytes, ,
Electromagnetic radiation, –
interactions with atoms/electrons,

Electromagnetic spectrum, –
Electron band structure, see Energy
bands
Electron cloud,
Electron configurations, – ,
elements,
periodic table and, –
stable,
Diffusion (Continued) • Index
Electronegativity, , ,
infl uence on solid solubility,
values for the elements,
Electroneutrality, ,
Electron gas,
Electron orbital shapes, –
Electronic conduction, ,
Electronic polarization, , , ,
Electron microscopy, –
Electron mobility,
infl uence of dopant content on,
infl uence of temperature on, –
selected semiconductors,
Electron orbitals,
Electron probability distribution, ,
Electrons,
conduction process, , –
role, diffusion in ionic materials,
energy bands, see Energy bands
energy levels, –
free, see Free electrons
scattering, – ,
in semiconductors, –
temperature variation of
concentration, –
spin, , –
valence,
Electron states,
Electron transitions, –
metals, –
nonmetals, –
Electron volt, ,
Electronic waste,
Electropositivity, ,
Electrorheological fluids,
Elongation, percent,
selected materials, , –
selected metals,
selected polymers,
Embrittlement:
hydrogen, –
temper,
Embryo, phase particle, –
Emery,
Emf series, – ,
Emitter,
Emulsifiers,
Endurance limit, . See also
Fatigue limit
Energy:
activation, see Activation energy
bonding, – ,
current concerns about, , –
free, , , – ,
grain boundary,
to magnetize ferromagnetic material,

photon,
surface,
vacancy formation,
Energy band gap, see Band gap
Energy bands, –
structures for metals, insulators, and
semiconductors,
Energy levels (states), – , –
Engineered materials, ,
Energy product, magnetic, –
Engineering stress/strain, ,
Entropy, , ,
Environmental considerations and
materials, –
Epoxies:
degradation resistance,
polymer-matrix composites,
repeat unit structure,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Equilibrium:
defi nition of,
phase, – ,
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phase diagrams
Erosion-corrosion, – ,
Error bars,
Error function, Gaussian,
Etching,
Ethane,
Ethers,
Ethylene,
polymerization, –
Ethylene glycol (structure),
Euro coins, alloys used for,
Eutectic isotherm,
Eutectic phase, ,
Eutectic reactions, , ,
iron-iron carbide system,
Eutectic structure, ,
Eutectic systems:
binary, –
microstructure development,
, –
Eutectoid, shift of position,
Eutectoid ferrite,
Eutectoid reactions, ,
iron-iron carbide system,
kinetics, –
Eutectoid steel, microstructure changes/
development, –
Exchange current density,
Excited states, ,
Exhaustion, in extrinsic
semiconductors,
Expansion, thermal, see Thermal
expansion
Extrinsic semiconductors, – ,
electron concentration vs.
temperature,
exhaustion,
saturation,
Extrusion,
clay products,
metals,
polymers,
F
Fabrication:
ceramics, –
clay products, –
fi ber-reinforced composites, –
metals, –
Face-centered cubic structure,
– ,
anion stacking (ceramics), –
Burgers vector for,
close packed planes (metals), –
interstitial sites, tetrahedral and
octahedral, – , ,
slip systems, –
Factor of safety,
Failure, mechanical, see Creep; Fatigue;
Fracture
Faraday constant,
Fatigue, – ,
corrosion,
crack initiation and propagation,

cyclic stresses, –
environmental effects, –
low- and high-cycle,
polymers, –
probability curves,
thermal,
Fatigue damage, commercial
aircraft,
Fatigue life, ,
factors that affect, –
Fatigue limit, , ,
Fatigue S-N curves, –
for metals,
for polymers,
Fatigue strength, , ,
Fatigue testing, –
Feldspar,
Fermi energy, , , ,
Ferrimagnetism, – ,
temperature dependence,
Ferrite (α), – ,
eutectoid/proeutectoid, – ,
from decomposition of cementite,
Ferrites (magnetic ceramics),
– ,
Curie temperature,
as magnetic storage,
Ferritic stainless steels, ,
Ferroelectricity, – ,
Ferroelectric materials, –
Ferromagnetic domain walls,
Ferromagnetism, – ,
temperature dependence,
Ferrous alloys, . See also Cast irons;
Iron; Steels
annealing, –
classifi cation, ,
continuous-cooling transformation
diagrams, – Index •
costs, –
hypereutectoid, – ,
hypoeutectoid, – ,
isothermal transformation diagrams,

microstructures, –
mechanical properties of, – ,

Fiber effi ciency parameter, ,
Fiberglass,
Fiberglass-reinforced composites,

Fiber-reinforced composites,
– ,
continuous and aligned, –
discontinuous and aligned,
discontinuous and randomly oriented,

fi ber length effect, –
fi ber orientation/concentration effect,

fi ber phase, –
longitudinal loading, – ,

matrix phase,
processing, –
reinforcement efficiency,
transverse loading, – ,
Fibers, – ,
carbon:
graphitic,
structure,
turbostratic,
coeffi cientof thermal expansion
values,
in composites,
continuous vs. discontinuous,

fi ber phase, –
length effect, –
orientation and concentration,

costs,
density values,
elastic modulus values, ,
electrical resistivity values,
optical, –
polymer, –
properties of selected,
specifi c heat values,
spinning of,
tensile strength values, ,
thermal conductivity values,
Fick’s fi rst law, , ,
for polymers,
Fick’s second law, – , ,
solutions to, , ,
Fictive temperature,
Filament winding, –
Fillers, ,
Films:
polymer,
shrink-wrap (polymer),
Fine pearlite, , , – , ,
,
Firing, , – ,
Flame retardants, ,
Flash memory, ,
Flash memory cards,
Flexural defl ection, equation for,
Flexural strength, – ,
infl uence of porosity on, ceramics,

values for selected ceramics, ,

Float process (sheet glass),
Fluorescence, ,
Fluorite structure,
Fluorocarbons,
trade names, characteristics, and
applications,
Flux (clay products), ,
Foams, ,
Forces:
bonding, –
coulombic, ,
Forging, , ,
Formaldehyde,
Forming operations (metals), –
Forsterite,
Forward bias, , ,
Fractographic investigations:
ceramics, –
metals,
Fractographs:
cup-and-cone fracture
surfaces,
fatigue striations,
glass rod,
intergranular fracture,
transgranular fracture,
Fracture, see also Brittle fracture;
Ductile fracture; Impact
fracture testing
delayed, –
fundamentals of,
of Liberty ships, –
polymers, –
types, – , –
Fracture mechanics, ,
applied to ceramics, –
polymers,
use in design, –
Fracture profiles,
Fracture strength, . See also Flexural
strength
ceramics, –
distribution of,
infl uence of porosity, –
infl uence of specimen size, ,

Fracture surface, ceramics, –
Fracture toughness, , – ,
ceramic-matrix composites,

ranges for material types
(bar chart),
testing,
values for selected materials,
, –
Free electrons, ,
contributions to heat capacity,
role in heat conduction,
Free energy, , – ,
activation, ,
volume,
Freeze-out region,
Frenkel defects, , ,
equilibrium number,
Full annealing, , ,
Fullerenes,
applications,
properties,
Functionality (polymers), ,
Furnace heating elements,
Fused silica,
characteristics, ,
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
fl exural strength,
index of refraction,
modulus of elasticity,
thermal properties,
G
Gadolinium, ,
Gallium arsenide:
cost,
electrical characteristics, ,
for lasers,
for light-emitting diodes, ,
Gallium phosphide:
electrical characteristics,
for light-emitting diodes,
Galvanic corrosion, – ,
Galvanic couples,
Galvanic series, , ,
Galvanized steel, ,
Garnets,
Garnet single crystal,
Gas constant, ,
Gating system,
Gauge length, ,
Gaussian error function,
Gears (transmission),
Gecko lizard,
Geometric isomerism, –
Germanium:
electrical characteristics, , ,
Gibbs phase rule, – ,
Gilding metal,
Ferrous alloys (Continued) • Index
Glass:
annealing, ,
blowing,
classification,
color,
commercial, compositions and
characteristics,
corrosion resistance,
cost, –
dielectric properties,
electrical conductivity,
fl exural strength, ,
forming techniques, –
fracture surface
(photomicrograph),
hardness,
heat treatment, –
melting point,
modulus of elasticity, ,
optical flint,
plane strain fracture toughness,
,
refractive index,
sheet forming (fl oat process),
soda-lime, composition,
softening point,
strain point,
stress-strain behavior,
surface crack propagation,
tempering, – ,
thermal properties,
viscous properties,
working point, ,
Glass-ceramics, – ,
composition (Pyroceram),
continuous-cooling transformation
diagram,
fabricating and heat treating,

fl exural strength, ,
modulus of elasticity, ,
optical transparency, conditions
for,
properties and applications,
Glass fibers,
fiberglass-reinforced composites,
– ,
forming,
properties as fiber,
Glass transition, polymers,
Glass transition temperature, , ,
,
factors that affect, polymers,
values for selected polymers, ,
Glucydur, low-expansion alloy used in
wristwatches,
Gold,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
electrical conductivity,
slip systems,
thermal properties,
Graft copolymers, , ,
Grain boundaries, , – ,
Grain boundary energy,
Grain growth, – ,
Grains,
definition,
distortion during plastic deformation,

Grain size,
dependence on time, –
determination of, –
linear intercept method for
determination of, ,
mechanical properties and, –
reduction, and strengthening of
metals, –
refinement by annealing,
Grain size number (ASTM),
Graphene, –
applications,
in nanocomposites,
properties,
Graphite, –
applications,
in cast irons,
compared to carbon, ,
cost,
from decomposition of cementite,
electrical conductivity,
properties,
properties as whisker,
as a refractory,
structure of,
Gray cast iron, – ,
compositions, mechanical properties,
and applications,
Green ceramic bodies, ,
Green design,
Ground state, , ,
Growth, phase particle, ,
– ,
rate, –
temperature dependence of rate,
Gutta percha,
H
Hackle region, –
Half-cells, standard,
Half-reactions,
Hall coefficient,
Hall effect, – ,
Hall-Petch equation,
Hall voltage,
Halogens,
Hard disk drives, –
Hardenability, – ,
Hardenability band, ,
Hardenability curves, –
Hard magnetic materials, – ,
properties,
Hardness,
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation
temperature,
ceramics, –
comparison of scales,
conversion diagram,
correlation with tensile strength,

fi ne and coarse pearlite,
spheroidite,
pearlite, martensite, tempered
martensite,
polymers,
tempered martensite, ,
Hardness tests, –
summary of tests,
Hard sphere model,
Head-to-head configuration,
Head-to-tail configuration,
Heat affected zone,
Heat capacity, – ,
temperature dependence,
vibrational contribution,
Heat flux,
Heat of fusion, latent,
Heat transfer:
mechanism, , –
nonsteady-state,
Heat treatable, defi nition of,
Heat treatments, . See
also Annealing; Phase
transformations
dislocation density reduction,
glass, –
hydrogen embrittlement, –
intergranular corrosion and, –
polymer morphology,
polymer properties,
for precipitation hardening, –
recovery, recrystallization, and grain
growth during, –
steel, –
Henry (magnetic unit),
Hertz,
Heterogeneous nucleation, , –
Hexagonal close-packed structure,
– , ,
anion stacking (ceramics),
Burgers vector for,
close-packed planes (metals), –
slip systems,
twinning in, –
unit cell volume,
Hexagonal crystal system,
direction indices, –
planar indices, –
Hexagonal ferrites,
Hexamethylene diamine, ,
Hexane,
High-carbon steels,
High-cycle fatigue, Index •
High polymers, ,
High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels,
,
High-temperature superconductors,
Holes, , ,
role, diffusion in ionic materials,
mobility:
infl uence of dopant concentration
on,
infl uence of temperature on,
values for selected
semiconductors,
temperature dependence of
concentration (Si, Ge),
Homogeneous nucleation, –
Homopolymers, ,
Honeycomb structure,
use in Boeing Dreamliner,
Hooke’s law, ,
Hoop stress (equation for cylinder),
Hot pressing,
Hot working, , , . See also
Heat treatments
HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy) steels,
,
Hume-Rothery rules,
Hund’s rule,
Hybrid composites, – ,
Hybridized bonding, in carbon, –
Hydration, of cement,
Hydrocarbons, –
Hydrogen:
diffusive purifi cation, ,
reduction, ,
Hydrogen bonding, , ,
water expansion upon freezing,
Hydrogen chloride, ,
Hydrogen electrode,
Hydrogen embrittlement, – ,
Hydrogen fl uoride, ,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
Hydrogen induced cracking,
Hydrogen stress cracking,
Hydroplastic forming, ,
Hydroplasticity,
Hydrostatic powder pressing,
Hypereutectoid alloys, – ,
Hypoeutectoid alloys, – ,
Hysteresis (magnetic), –
Hysteresis, ferromagnetic,
soft and hard magnetic materials,
, –
I
Ice, , , , ,
Iceberg,
Impact energy, ,
fi ne pearlite,
temperature dependence:
high-strength materials,
low-strength FCC and HCP
metals,
low-strength steels, ,
Impact fracture testing, –
Impact strength, polymers,
Imperfections. See Defects; Dislocations
Impurities:
in ceramics, –
diffusion,
electrical resistivity,
in metals, –
thermal conductivity,
Incongruent phase transformation,
Index of refraction, – ,
selected materials,
Indices, Miller, ,
Indium antimonide,
bonding energy and melting
temperature,
electrical characteristics,
Indium phosphide,
electrical characteristics,
in light-emitting diodes,
Induced dipoles,
Inert gases, ,
Inhibitors, ,
Initial permeability,
Injection molding, ,
Ink-jet printer heads, piezoelectric
ceramics in, –
Insulators (electrical), . See also
Dielectric materials
ceramics and polymers as, ,
color,
defined,
electron band structure,
translucency and opacity, –
Integrated circuits, – ,
interconnects, –
scanning electron micrograph,
,
Interatomic bonding, –
Interatomic separation,
Interconnects, integrated circuits,

Interdiffusion, ,
Interfacial defects, –
Interfacial energies,
for heterogeneous nucleation,
Intergranular corrosion, – ,
Intergranular fracture, , ,
Intermediate solid solutions, ,
,
Intermetallic compounds, – , ,
,
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO),
Interplanar spacing:
cubic crystals, –
orthorhombic crystals,
Interstitial diffusion, – ,
Interstitial impurity defects,
Interstitials:
in ceramics, –
in polymers,
self-, ,
Interstitial sites, FCC and BCC, – ,
,
Interstitial solid solutions, ,
Intrinsic carrier concentration,
temperature dependence for Si and
Ge,
Intrinsic conductivity, –
Intrinsic semiconductors, – ,
Invar, Material of Importance, –
thermal properties,
Invariant point,
Inverse lever rule, . See Lever rule
Inverse spinel structure, –
Ion cores,
Ionic bonding, – ,
in ceramics,
forces and energies, –
Ionic character (percent), – ,
Ionic conduction, , ,
Ionic polarization, ,
Ionic radii, – ,
Iridium,
Iron, see also Ferrous alloys; Steels
atomic radius and crystal structure,
Curie temperature,
electrical conductivity,
ferrite (α), , , ,
as ferromagnetic material,
magnetic properties,
magnetization curves
(single crystal),
polymorphism,
recrystallization temperature,
rolling texture,
slip systems,
stress-strain behavior (at three
temperatures),
thermal properties,
yield and tensile strengths,
ductility,
Iron age,
Iron-carbon alloys, see Ferrous alloys
Iron-iron carbide alloys, –
Iron-silicon alloy, magnetic
properties,
Material of Importance (use in
transformer cores),
Isobutane,
Isobutylene,
Isomerism, ,
geometric, –
stereoisomerism, –
Isomorphous systems, ,
binary, see Binary isomorphous alloys
Isoprene, • Index
ISO (International Organization for
Standardization),
Isostatic powder pressing,
Isostrain, in fiber-reinforced
composites,
Isostress, in fiber-reinforced
composites,
Isotactic confi guration, , ,
Isothermal,
Isothermal transformation diagrams,
– ,
alloy steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
. wt% C steel,
Isotopes, ,
Isotropic materials, ,
Izod impact test, – ,
J
Jominy end-quench test, – ,
Junction depth, diffusion,
Junction transistors, – ,
K
Kaolinite clay, – ,
Kevlar, see Aramid
Kinetics, – ,
crystallization of polymers, –
oxidation, –
phase transformations, –
Knoop hardness, ,
Kovar:
as low-expansion alloy, –
thermal properties,
Krypton, bonding energy and melting
temperature,
L
Ladder polymer,
Lamellae (polymers),
Laminar composites, – ,
angle-ply,
carbon fiber-epoxy, Boeing
Dreamliner, –
cross-ply,
multidirectional,
unidirectional,
Large-particle composites, – ,
Larson-Miller parameter, –
plots of, ,
Lasers, – ,
semiconductor, – ,
types, characteristics, and
applications,
Laser beam welding,
Latent heat of fusion,
Latex,
Lattice parameters, ,
Lattices, ,
Lattice strains, – , – ,
,
Lattice waves,
Laue photograph, ,
Layered silicates, –
Lay-up, in prepreg processing,
Lead,
atomic radius and crystal structure,
diffraction pattern,
recrystallization temperature,
superconducting critical
temperature,
Lead-free solders,
Lead oxide, crystal structure,
Lead-tin phase diagram, , –
Lead titanate,
Lead zirconate,
Lead-zirconate-titanate, ,
Leak-before-break design,
Leathery region, polymers, –
LEDs, see Light-emitting diodes
Lever rule, – ,
Life cycle analysis/assessment,
Light:
absorption, –
reflection,
refraction, –
scattering, –
transmission,
Light-emitting diodes,
organic, –
polymer, –
semiconductor,
Lime,
Linear atomic density,
Linear coeffi cient of thermal expansion,
, – , , ,
values for selected materials,
, –
Linear corrosion rate,
Linear defects, –
Linear polymers, ,
Liquid crystal polymers, – ,
Liquidus line, , , ,
Liquidus temperatures:
solders,
Cu-Au system,
Lithium fl uoride, bonding energy and
melting temperature,
Lodestone (magnetite), ,
Logarithmic corrosion rate,
Longitudinal direction, – ,
Longitudinal loading, composites,
– , –
Lost-foam casting,
Lost-wax casting,
Low-angle grain boundaries, see
Small-angle grain boundaries
Low-carbon steels, –
Low-cycle fatigue,
Lower critical temperature (ferrous
alloys), – ,
Lower yield point, ,
Low-expansion alloys, –
in wristwatches,
Luminescence, ,
M
Macromolecules, ,
Magnesia, see Magnesium oxide
Magnesium:
automobile wheel,
diffraction pattern,
elastic and shear moduli,
Poisson’s ratio,
single crystal (cleaved),
slip systems,
Magnesium alloys, ,
Magnesium fluoride, optical
properties


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