كتاب Reliability Centered Maintenance - Implementation Made Simple Neil Bloom
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 كتاب Reliability Centered Maintenance - Implementation Made Simple Neil Bloom

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Reliability Centered Maintenance - Implementation Made Simple
Neil Bloom

كتاب Reliability Centered Maintenance - Implementation Made Simple  Neil Bloom  R_c_m_11
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Identify system functions, features and consequences
Hidden failure modes in plant and equipment
Run-to-Failure componentsand limitations
Understanding systems analysis
Contents
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xix
Chapter 1 Introduction to RCM 1
1.1 Uncovering the Fuzziness and Mystique of RCM 4
1.2 The Background of RCM 9
1.3 A No-Nonsense Approach to RCM 11
1.4 RCM as a Major Factor in the Bottom Line 12
Chapter 2 Why RCM Has Historically Been So Difficult to Implement 15
2.1 Consultants 15
2.2 A White Elephant 16
2.3 Reasons for Failure 18
2.3.1 Loss of In-House Control 18
2.3.2 An Incorrect Mix of Personnel Performing the Analysis 19
2.3.3 Unnecessary and Costly Administrative Burdens 20
2.3.4 Fundamental RCM Concepts Not Understood 21
2.3.5 Confusion Determining System Functions 21
2.3.6 Confusion Concerning System Boundaries and Interfaces 21
2.3.7 Divergent Expectations 23
2.3.8 Confusion Regarding Convention 24
2.3.9 Misunderstanding “Hidden” Failures and Redundancy 24
2.3.10 Misunderstanding Run-to-Failure 25
2.3.11 Inappropriate Component Classifications 25
2.3.12 Instruments Were Not Included as Part of the RCM Analysis 26
Chapter 3 Fundamental RCM Concepts Explained,
Some for the Very First Time:The Next Plateau 27
3.1 The Three Phases of an RCM-Based Preventive Maintenance Program 30
3.2 The Three Cornerstones of RCM 32
3.3 Hidden Failures, Redundancy, and Critical Components 34
3.4 Testing Hidden Systems 45
For more information about this title, click here3.5 The Missing Link: Potentially Critical Components 46
3.6 Commitment Components 50
3.7 Economic Components 51
3.8 The “Canon Law” of Run-to-Failure Components 52
3.9 The Integration of Preventive and Corrective Maintenance and the
Distinction Between Potentially Critical and Run-to-Failure
Components 57
3.9.1 An RTF CM versus a Critical CM: Which Takes Priority
for Getting Worked First? 59
3.10 The Anatomy of a Disaster 61
3.11 A Deeper Look at Critical Components, Potentially Critical
Components, and Hidden Failures—How They All Fit Together 65
3.12 Finding the Anomalies 68
3.13 Failures Found During Operator Rounds 70
3.14 Redundant, Standby, and Backup Functions 70
3.15 Typical Examples of Component Classifications 73
3.16 Component Classification Hierarchy 73
3.17 The Defensive Strategies of a PM Program 75
3.18 Eliminating the Requirement for Identifying Boundaries
and Interfaces 75
3.19 Functions and Functional Failures Are Identified
at the Component Level, Not the System and Subsystem Level 77
3.20 The Quest for the Consequence of Failure 79
3.21 The COFA versus the FMEA 81
3.22 How Do You Know When Your Plant Is Reliable? 83
3.23 Chapter Summary 85
Chapter 4 RCM Implementation: Preparation and Tools 89
4.1 Preparation 90
4.2 The Sequential Elements Needed for the Analysis 91
4.2.1 A Simple but Comprehensive Alphanumeric
Equipment I.D. Database 91
4.2.2 Informational Resources 93
4.2.3 Establishing Convention 94
4.2.4 Specialized Workstations and Software 94
4.2.5 The COFA Excel Spreadsheet versus the FMEA 95
4.2.6 The PM Task Worksheet 100
4.2.7 The Economic Evaluation Worksheet 102
4.3 Chapter Summary 105
Chapter 5 RCM Made Simple: Implementation Process 107
5.1 Define Your Asset Reliability Strategy 109
5.2 Understanding the RCM COFA Logic Tree, the Potentially
Critical Guideline, and the Economically Significant Guideline 112
5.3 Completing the COFA Worksheet in Conjunction with the
COFA Logic Tree, the Potentially Critical Guideline,
and the Economically Significant Guideline 120
5.3.1 Describe the Component Functions 121
viii ContentsContents ix
5.3.2 Describe the Functional Failures 123
5.3.3 Describe the Dominant Component Failure Modes
for Each Functional Failure 124
5.3.4 Is the Occurrence of the Failure Mode Evident? 124
5.3.5 Describe the System Effect for Each Failure Mode 126
5.3.6 Describe the Consequence of Failure Based
on the Asset Reliability Criteria You Selected 129
5.3.7 Define the Component Classification 129
5.4 RCM Serves as a Translation of the Design Objectives 131
5.5 Companion Equipment 133
5.6 The SAE Standard: Document JA1011 134
5.7 A Real-Life Analysis: Averting a Potentially Devastating Plant
Consequence 135
5.8 Why Streamlined RCM Methods Are Not Recommended 141
5.8.1 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) 142
5.8.2 Reliability-Based Maintenance (RBM) 142
5.8.3 Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA)
Based Maintenance 142
5.8.4 80/20 Rule 142
5.9 Chapter Summary 143
5.10 RCM Made “Difficult” 147
5.10.1 Determine System Boundaries 148
5.10.2 Determine Subsystem Boundaries 148
5.10.3 Determine Interfaces 149
5.10.4 Determine Functions 149
5.10.5 Determine the Functional Failures 150
5.10.6 Determine Which Equipment Is Responsible
for the Functional Failures 150
Chapter 6 The PM Task Selection Process 153
6.1 Understanding Preventive Maintenance Task Terminology 154
6.2 Condition-Directed,Time-Directed, and Failure-Finding Tasks 154
6.3 The PM Task Worksheet 157
6.4 The PM Task Selection Logic Tree 158
6.5 Why a Condition-Directed Task Is Preferred 161
6.6 Determining the PM Task Frequency and Interval 162
6.6.1 The Optimum Time to Establish a Reliability Program 165
6.7 Is a Design Change Recommended? 166
6.8 Completing a Typical PM Task Worksheet 167
6.9 Institute Technical Restraints 168
6.10 A Sampling Strategy 169
6.11 Common Mode Failures 171
6.12 Different Predictive Maintenance (PdM) Techniques 172
6.12.1 Vibration Monitoring and Analysis 172
6.12.2 Acoustic Monitoring 173
6.12.3 Thermography or Infrared Monitoring 173
6.12.4 Oil Sampling and Analysis 173
6.12.5 X-ray or Radiography Inspection 173
6.12.6 Magnetic Particle Inspection 1746.12.7 Eddy Current Testing 174
6.12.8 Ultrasonic Testing 174
6.12.9 Liquid Penetrant 174
6.12.10 Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) 174
6.12.11 Boroscope Inspections 174
6.12.12 Diagnostics for Motor-Operated Valves 175
6.12.13 Diagnostics for Air-Operated Valves 175
6.13 Chapter Summary 175
Chapter 7 RCM for Instruments 181
7.1 Instrument Categories 182
7.2 Instrument Design Tolerance Criteria 183
7.3 The Instrument Logic Tree 185
7.3.1 Block 1: Is the Instrument a Functional Instrument? 185
7.3.2 Block 2: Instrument Is Analyzed in the COFA Worksheet
and the PM Task Selection Worksheet. 185
7.3.3 Block 3: Can the Instrument Reading Result
in an Operator Having to Initiate Some Kind of Action? 185
7.3.4 Block 4: A PM Is Required. Calibration Criteria
and Periodicity Guidance Are as Follows. 186
7.3.5 Block 5: Were the Last Three Successive Calibrations
Within Vendor Tolerance Criteria? 186
7.3.6 Block 6: Periodicity Extension Is Allowed. 187
7.3.7 Block 7: Reduce Periodicity or Implement a Design Change. 187
7.3.8 Block 8: Is the Instrument Redundant? 187
7.3.9 Block 9: Is an Indication Comparison Applicable? 187
7.3.10 Block 10: Is the Consequence of Excessive Drift
(to the Point of Instrument Failure) Acceptable? 188
7.3.11 Block 11: A Calibration PM Is Optional. 189
7.3.12 Block 12: A PM Is Required. Calibration Criteria
and Periodicity Guidance Are as Follows. 189
7.3.13 Block 13: Were the Last Two Successive Calibrations
Within a +/−2.5 Percent Accuracy Tolerance? 189
7.3.14 Block 14: Periodicity Extension Is Allowed. 189
7.3.15 Block 15: Were the Last Two Successive Calibrations
Within a +/−5.0 Percent Accuracy Tolerance? 189
7.3.16 Block 16: Periodicity Extension Is Not Allowed. 190
7.3.17 Block 17: Reduce Periodicity or Implement a Design Change. 190
7.4 Chapter Summary 190
Chapter 8 The RCM Living Program 193
8.1 A Model for an RCM Living Program 194
8.1.1 The Craft Feedback Evaluation Element 196
8.1.2 The Corrective Maintenance (CM) Evaluation Element 203
8.1.3 The “Other Inputs” Element 205
8.1.3.1 Root-Cause Evaluations 206
8.1.3.2 Vendor Bulletins 206
8.1.3.3 Regulatory Bulletins 207
8.1.3.4 Industry Failure Data 207
8.1.3.5 Engineering Evaluations 208
x Contents8.1.3.6 Plant Design Changes 208
8.1.3.7 New Commitments 208
8.1.4 Monitoring and Trending 209
8.1.5 The RCM Analysis Element 209
8.1.6 Equipment Database 210
8.1.7 The PM Audit 210
8.2 Chapter Summary 212
Chapter 9 An RCM Monitoring and Trending Strategy 217
9.1 What Is Reliability and How Do You Measure It? 218
9.2 Monitoring Reliability Is Like Monitoring the Human Body 220
9.3 Caution: Avoid Analysis Paralysis Performance Monitoring 220
9.4 The Aggregate Metrics 222
9.4.1 Unplanned Plant or Facility Trips 223
9.4.2 Capacity Factor 224
9.4.3 Unplanned Operator Actions 224
9.4.4 Unplanned Power Reductions 225
9.4.5 Production Delays 225
9.4.6 Enforcement Actions 226
9.4.7 Litigation Occurrences 226
9.4.8 Citations and Violations 227
9.4.9 Root-Cause Evaluations 227
9.4.10 Injuries 228
9.4.11 Rate of Written CMs 228
9.4.12 Overdue CM Backlog 229
9.4.13 Overdue PM Backlog 229
9.5 Weighting Factors 230
9.6 Performance Calculations 231
9.7 Performance Graph 235
9.8 Performance Graph by System 237
9.9 A Final Caution 239
9.10 Benchmarking 239
9.11 More About Expected Performance Rates 241
9.12 Avoid Reliability Complacency 241
9.13 How to Maintain Your Reliability Performance 242
9.14 Chapter Summary 246
Chapter 10 RCM Implementation Made Simple—Epilogue 249
10.1 RCM as a Plant Culture 249
10.2 A Step-by-Step Review of the Process 251
10.2.1 Select an RCM Point of Contact 251
10.2.2 Review the Reasons for RCM Program Failures 255
10.2.3 Understand the Concepts 255
10.2.4 Define Your Asset Reliability Criteria 255
10.2.5 Establish Your Alphanumeric Equipment Database 256
10.2.6 Analyze Each Component Function in the COFA Logic Tree 256
10.2.7 Analyze Each Component Function in the
Potentially Critical Guideline 257
Contents xi10.2.8 Analyze Each Component Function in the
Economically Significant Guideline 257
10.2.9 Enter All Data in the COFA Worksheet 258
10.2.10 Classify Each Component 258
10.2.11 Analyze All Classified Components Except Run-to-Failure
Components in the PM Task Selection Logic Tree 258
10.2.12 Document All Tasks and Periodicities on the PM
Task Worksheet 258
10.2.13 Analyze Instruments in the Instrument Logic Tree 259
10.2.14 Develop Your RCM Living Program 259
10.2.15 Establish Monitoring and Trending Program Metrics 260
10.2.16 Establish Your Expected Performance Rate 260
10.2.17 Establish Your Actual Performance Rate 261
10.2.18 Establish Your Trend Graphs 261
10.2.19 Maintain Continued Vigilance Over Your Program 261
10.3 Taking Command of Your Own Ship 262
Glossary 265
Bibliography 285
Index 287
Index
Age, relationship to failure, 162–163,
178
Aggregate metrics, 10, 217–223,
239–240, 260–261
as part of performance graphs, 237
weighting factors for, 230
“Applicable and effective,” 30, 67,
80–82, 117, 158–160
instrument-related, 182
versus nonapplicable and effective,
169
in phase 2 of RCM, 131
and PM Worksheet, 100
when it cannot be defined, 112
Asset reliability criteria, 30, 50, 80–82,
100, 209, 255–256
defining, 107, 109–119, 129–132, 139,
144
as part of aggregate metrics, 225
as part of COFA, 157
as part of PM Task Worksheet, 157
typical examples of, 111
(See also Qualifying conditions)
Backup components and functions (see
Standby components and functions)
Bathtub curve, 161–162, 244
Benchmarking, 239
Boundaries, 3, 256, 262
associated with RCM made “difficult,” 147–149
confusion concerning, 21–22
eliminating requirement for, 75–78,
98–99
unnecessary, 28, 34, 92
Cannon law for run-to-failure, 4, 25, 27,
52–58, 68–70, 86, 255
definition of, 54–55
Causes of failure, 79, 87, 94, 102, 116,
153–154, 158–162, 167–168, 256
(See also Credible failure cause;
Piece parts)
Classifications (see Component classifications)
COFA, 87, 107–108, 146–147, 208–210,
214, 255–259
compared to SAE Standard, 134
defined, 4, 28
as first stage of RCM filter, 119–120
versus FMEA, 81–82, 95
for instruments, 182, 185, 190
integrated with PM task selection
logic, 153, 157, 169
for plant design changes, 208
reason for, 82, 90–100
understanding of, 112–115, 119–140
COFA Logic Tree, 82, 124, 137–139,
146, 256–258
diagram of, 113
as first stage of RCM filter, 119–121
understanding of, 112–115, 119–140
(See also COFA)
COFA worksheet, 82, 97, 100, 105, 108,
121–132, 137, 146, 157, 258
for instruments, 185
for plant design changes, 208
understanding of, 112–115
(See also COFA; COFA Logic Tree)
Commitment components, 26, 50–55,
74–75, 82, 86, 146, 160, 178,
257–258
in living RCM program, 204–210
in PM strategy, 50–51, 74, 100, 112
related to implementation process,
112–119
related to instruments, 186
as third stage of RCM filter, 119
Common mode failures, 43, 171, 187
Companion equipment, 133
Component(s), 6–7, 17–18, 21–22
alphanumeric database of, 91–92
analyzing, 77–78, 93
assigned at specific I.D. number, 93
classifications of, 73–74
default, 67
grouping of, 34
Copyright © 2006 by the McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.Component(s) (Cont.):
inappropriate classifications of,
25–26
as sole level of importance, 22
staying at level of, 34, 42, 45
subtle classification differences of, 40
synonymous with equipment, 78–79
(See also Commitment components;
Critical components; Economic components; Potentially critical components; Run-to-failure components)
Component classifications, 56, 72–74,
110, 113, 129, 131
examples of, 72–73
hierarchy of, 73–74
Concepts of RCM, 3–4, 8, 13–14, 18,
55–56, 68–69, 85–86, 255
for averting disaster, 61–65
explained for first time, 27–34
if misunderstood, 21
pertaining to hidden failures and
redundancy, 24–28
as preparation for RCM implementation, 105
Condition-directed task, 154–156,
159–162, 172, 175–176, 205, 212,
258
(See also Bathtub curve; Failurefinding task; Time-directed task)
Confusion surrounding RCM, 17, 46,
82, 262
regarding convention, 24, 94, 154
regarding system boundaries and
interfaces, 21
regarding system functions, 70
regarding traditional renditions of
RCM, 114
Consequence of failure, 4–6, 27–28, 85,
87, 115, 255–256
anomalies and, 68
and asset reliability criteria, 100, 129
in bigger picture, 59–61
depending on how function is written, 67
economics of, 27
final destination of, 82
independent of component pedigree,
81
for instruments, 182, 190
potential result of, 37–39, 48
quest for, 21, 79
as ultimate objective of PM program,
57
Consequence of failure analysis
(COFA) (see COFA)
Consultants, 3, 11, 13, 15–16, 95, 251,
255, 262
Convention terminology, 24, 91, 105, 269
for failure modes, 94
for instruments, 181
for PM tasks, 154
Cornerstones of RCM, 3, 32
Corrective maintenance (CM), 8, 24–25,
39, 53–61, 81, 114, 157, 186
as integral part of run-to-failure, 27,
45, 53–61, 68–69, 86
as part of living RCM program,
195–196, 200, 203–204, 210, 213
as part of monitoring and trending,
229, 244
Craft feedback, 10, 196–202, 210, 213,
259
Credible failure cause, 160, 167–168
versus noncredible failure cause, 116
Critical components, 17, 26, 34–35,
39–40, 52, 69, 85, 255–257
beginning logic process by defining,
113–119
deeper look at, 65
as first stage of RCM filter, 119
as part of component hierarchy,
73–74
as part of defensive PM program
strategy, 75
and sampling strategy, 169–170
Demand mode of operation, 33, 36,
45–46, 67, 126, 155
(See also Normal mode of operation)
Design change, 43, 64, 86, 112, 134,
141, 208, 224, 245
and craft feedback element, 198
for critical and potentially critical
components, 119
depending on applicable and effective
task, 160
for instruments, 184–191
recommendation criteria for,
166–168, 204
Disasters, 2, 141
Divergent expectations, 23
Dominant failure mode, 98–99,
167–168
defined, 116, 146
described for each functional failure,
124–130, 138
288 IndexEconomic components, 51, 75, 82–83,
86, 102, 160, 178, 258
in economic evaluation worksheet,
113
as fourth stage of RCM filter, 119
included in equipment database, 210
Economically significant guideline,
112–120, 146, 153, 204, 257–258
illustrated, 114
instrument-related, 182, 190
as part of RCM filter, 119
Equipment (see Component)
Evident failures, 10, 29, 33–55, 63–70,
82, 85–86, 258
as first question to RCM COFA decision logic, 115–118
as part of COFA worksheet, 124–132
Evident indication (see Evident failures)
Facility, 12, 129
synonymous with plant, 272
(See also Types of facilities)
Failure:
age-related (see Age, relationship to
failure)
causes of (see Credible failure cause)
effect of (see COFA; Consequence of
failure)
evident (see Evident failures)
hidden (see Hidden failures)
Failure-finding task, 43, 46, 154–156,
160, 167, 178, 258
(See also Condition-directed task;
Time-directed task)
Failure modes (see Dominant failure
mode; Hidden failure mode)
Failure modes and effects analysis
(FMEA):
versus COFA, 81–82, 87
versus COFA spreadsheet, 95–100
as part of RCM made “difficult,”
147–148
Frequency and interval (see Periodicity)
Functions, 12, 45, 87, 91, 93, 121, 138,
145, 256–258
described, 121, 123–125
grouping not allowed for, 34, 202
not required at system level, 22, 28
related to companion equipment,
133
specified at component level, 34,
76–82, 98–99
Functions (Cont.):
(See also Confusion surrounding
RCM, regarding system functions;
Standby functions)
Functional failures, 77, 80, 91, 99, 110,
123–124, 150, 258
(See also Functions)
Health of plant, 217–231, 247
Hidden failure mode, 66
(See also Hidden failures)
Hidden failures, 3–4, 24–25, 66, 255
applicability to failure-finding tasks,
155, 178
deeper look at, 65
as first question to RCM COFA decision logic, 115–118
not part of RTF philosophy, 52–55,
64–65
related to missing link, 46–50, 85
understanding more about, 27–42
Hidden functions, 274
(See also Hidden failures)
Hidden systems, 25
(See also Evident failures; Hidden
failures; Hidden functions;
Standby functions; Testing hidden
systems)
Immediate effect, 25, 39, 46–49, 57
(See also Critical components)
Initiating events, 47–50, 68, 75, 85, 155,
160
and Potentially Critical Guideline,
114, 118, 139, 257
Instrument logic tree, 182–183, 259
(See also Instruments)
Instruments, 14, 26, 87, 181–191, 259
Interfaces (see Boundaries)
In-house control, 7, 16–19, 95, 109
Living RCM program, 10, 13–14, 79,
165, 193–215, 259–260
analysis element, 209
corrective maintenance element, 203
craft feedback element (see Craft
feedback)
engineering evaluations, 208
equipment database, 210
industry failure data, 207
monitoring and trending, 208
new commitments, 208
other inputs, 205
Index 289Living RCM program (Cont.):
plant design changes, 208
PM audit, 210
regulatory bulletins, 207
root-cause evaluations, 206
vendor bulletins, 206
Living RCM program model, illustrated, 195
Misunderstanding:
of hidden failures, 24
of redundancy, 70
of run-to-failure, 25
Missing link, 18, 46, 64–65, 85, 255
(See also Potentially critical components)
Monitoring and trending, 10, 195–196,
217–245, 260–261
of equipment versus facility, 209
Multiple failures, 4, 25, 32–69, 85, 255
Normal mode of operation, 33, 45–47,
66–67, 71–73, 85–87, 126, 178
(See also Demand mode of operation)
Normally active (see Normal mode of
operation)
Normally inactive (see Demand mode of
operation)
Operability testing (see Testing hidden
systems)
Operator rounds, 70, 116–117, 124, 186
Operational criteria (see Asset reliability criteria)
Optimum state, 244–245, 248, 261
Performance, 13–14, 84, 195, 209, 214,
260
calculations, 230–235
comparison with human body,
220–222
monitoring strategy, 221
plant metrics of, 217, 219, 222–230
weighting factors of, 230–231
(See also Aggregate metrics; Monitoring and trending; Performance
graphs; Performance rates)
Performance graph(s), 235–240, 261
Performance rate(s), 219, 223, 234–236,
241, 247, 260–261
actual, 234–235, 247, 261
expected, 234–236, 241, 247,
260–261
Periodicity, 81, 83, 153, 156, 163–165,
210, 212–213, 246, 248
and craft feedback, 196, 198–200, 203
defined, 9–10
determining optimum for, 164–165
for PdM tasks, 172
for instruments, 182–191
related to grace period, 230
Phases of RCM, 8, 29–31, 85, 131, 153
Piece parts, 79, 87, 93, 102, 162, 256
(See also Causes of failure)
Plant (see Facility)
Potential failure, of given component,
48
Potentially critical components, 4, 8, 18,
27, 29, 37, 42–58, 62–69, 73–75,
82–83, 100, 110–120, 133, 137–141,
255–258
deeper look at, 65
and failure-finding tasks, 160, 178
and multiple failures, 48–49
as second stage of RCM filter, 119
and time, 48–49
(See also Missing link; Potentially
Critical Guideline)
Potentially Critical Guideline, 112–120,
139–140
illustrated, 114
as part of RCM filter, 119
(See also Potentially critical components)
Predictive maintenance (PdM), 30, 83,
155–159, 170
types of, 172–175
(See also Condition-directed task)
Preventive maintenance (PM), 1–13,
46–47, 67–68, 107, 112, 250, 256
and aggregate metrics, 223–229
compared to defensive strategy of
football team, 75
and complacency, 241–246
for instruments, 181–182
integrated with corrective maintenance, 57–59
and living RCM program, 194,
203–214
maintaining vigilance of, 261–262
as means of translating plant design
objectives, 131
monitoring of, 237–241
and operator rounds, 70
as part of canon law for run-tofailure, 53–57
290 IndexPM task selection logic tree for, 159,
211, 258
and PM Task Worksheet, 100, 158
three phases of, 30–32
understanding PM task terminology
for, 154–157
Qualifying conditions, 109–111, 146,
225, 256
(See also Asset reliability criteria)
RCM (see Reliability centered maintenance)
RCM concepts (see Concepts of RCM)
RCM decision logic tree (see COFA
Logic Tree)
RCM filter, 119–120
RCM living program (see Living RCM
program)
RCM pitfalls, 13–15, 18, 26
Redundancy, 3, 8, 17, 34–37, 43, 50,
62–64, 70–73, 255
misunderstanding of, 24–25
(See also Standby functions)
Reliability, 3–5, 12–13, 27, 33, 65, 193,
250–262
complacency about, 241–242
maintaining performance of, 242–248
measuring, 217–239
optimum time to establish program
for, 165
Reliability centered maintenance
(RCM), 1–14
classical, 5–6, 28, 76, 79, 87, 175
definition of, 8
“made difficult,” 147–151
not defined as PM reduction program, 16, 23
as plant culture, 249–251
streamlined, 5–7, 141–143, 147–148
as white elephant, 16
Run-to-failure, 1, 4, 8, 25–26, 37, 52–58,
258
anomalies, 68–69
canon law for, 54–55
in component classifications, 73–74
versus economic component, 102
in equipment database, 210
as misunderstood orphan of reliability, 53, 56, 61
as part of bigger picture, 59
in RCM filter, 119–120
(See also Canon law for run-to-failure)
SAE Standard, 14, 29, 80–81, 99,
134–135, 147, 210
Safety criteria (see Asset reliability criteria)
Sampling strategy, 169–171
Single failure, 3–4, 33–37, 50–55,
62–64, 75, 85, 117, 255
Single point of contact (SPOC), 90, 108,
211, 251
Sleeper cell, 7, 37, 43–48, 64, 141
Standby components and functions,
3–4, 25, 34–40, 66–67, 70–73,
86–87, 255
analyzing, 45
Testing hidden systems, 41–42, 45–47,
62, 64–65, 85
Time-directed task, 155, 159–162, 258
(See also Bathtub curve; Conditiondirected task; Failure-finding task)
Timely manner, 38–39, 45, 53–58, 68
(See also Canon law for run-tofailure; Run-to-failure)
Types of facilities, 12, 272
Unnecessary burdens, 20, 28–29, 77
Work control organization, 30–31, 204


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