كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion    كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion  Emptyالسبت 25 مايو 2024, 3:28 am

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Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion
Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Switches
Charles Platt

كتاب Make - Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1 - Power Sources & Conversion  E_o_e_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of ContentsHow To Use It . 14
What Can Go Wrong 15
Short Circuits: Overheating And Fire . 15
Diminished Performance Caused By Improper Recharging 15
Complete Discharge Of Lead-Acid Battery 15
Inadequate Current . 15
Incorrect Polarity 15
Reverse Charging . 16
Sulfurization 16
High Current Flow Between Parallel Batteries . 16
> > CONNECTION
3. Jumper 17
What It Does 17
How It Works . 17
Variants 18
Values 18
How To Use It . 18
What Can Go Wrong 19
4. Fuse . 21
What It Does 21
How It Works . 21
Values 22
Variants 22
Small Cartridge Fuses . 23
Automotive Fuses . 23
Strip Fuses 24
Through-Hole Fuses . 24
Resettable Fuses 24
Surface Mount Fuses 26
How To Use It . 26
What Can Go Wrong 27
Repeated Failure 27
Soldering Damage 27
Placement 28
5. Pushbutton 29
What It Does 29
How It Works . 29
Variants 30
Poles And Throws . 30
On-Off Behavior . 30
Slider . 31
Styles . 31
Termination And Contact Plating 32
Mounting Style 32
vi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Sealed Or Unsealed . 32
Latching 32
Foot Pedal 33
Keypad . 33
Tactile Switch . 34
Membrane Pad 34
Radio Buttons . 35
Snap-Action Switches . 35
Emergency Switch 35
Values 35
How To Use It . 35
What Can Go Wrong 35
No Button . 35
Mounting Problems . 35
LED Issues 36
Other Problems . 36
6. Switch . 37
What It Does 37
How It Works . 37
Variants 38
Terminology 38
Poles And Throws . 38
On-Off Behavior . 38
Snap-Action 39
Rocker 40
Slider . 40
Toggle 41
DIP . 43
SIP 44
Paddle 44
Vandal Resistant Switch . 44
Tactile Switch . 44
Mounting Options 44
Termination . 45
Contact Plating Options . 45
Values 45
How To Use It . 45
Power Switches . 45
Limit Switches 46
Logic Circuits 46
Alternatives . 47
What Can Go Wrong 47
Arcing 47
Dry Joints . 47
Short Circuits . 48
Contact Contamination 48
Wrong Terminal Type 48
Table of Contents viiContact Bounce . 48
Mechanical Wear 48
Mounting Problems . 48
Cryptic Schematics 48
7. Rotary Switch . 49
What It Does 49
How It Works . 50
Variants 50
Conventional . 50
Rotary DIP 51
Gray Code 52
PC Board Rotary Switch 53
Mechanical Encoder . 53
Pushwheel And Thumbwheel 53
Keylock . 53
Values 54
How To Use It . 54
What Can Go Wrong 54
Vulnerable Contacts . 54
Contact Overload . 55
Misalignment . 55
Misidentified Shorting Switch . 55
User Abuse 55
Wrong Shaft, Wrong Knobs, Nuts That Get Lost, Too Big To Fit 55
8. Rotational Encoder 57
What It Does 57
How It Works . 57
Variants 58
Pulses And Detents 59
Format 59
Output 59
Rotational Resistance 59
Values 59
Contact Bounce . 59
Sliding Noise 59
How To Use It . 60
What Can Go Wrong 60
Switch Bounce 60
Contact Burnout 60
9. Relay 61
What It Does 61
How It Works . 62
Variants 63
Latching 63
Polarity . 63
viii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Pinout Variations 63
Reed Relay 64
Small Signal Relay . 64
Automotive Relays 65
General Purpose/Industrial 65
Time Delay Relay 65
Contactor . 66
Values 66
How To Use It . 66
What Can Go Wrong 67
Wrong Pinouts 67
Wrong Orientation 68
Wrong Type . 68
Wrong Polarity 68
AC And DC 68
Chatter . 68
Relay Coil Voltage Spike . 68
Arcing 68
Magnetic Fields . 68
Environmental Hazards 68
> > MODERATION
10. Resistor . 69
What It Does 69
How It Works . 70
Variants 70
Resistor Array . 71
Values 73
Tolerance . 73
Value Coding 75
Stability . 76
Materials 76
How To Use It . 78
In Series With LED . 78
Current Limiting With A Transistor . 78
Pullup And Pulldown Resistors . 79
Audio Tone Control 79
RC Network . 79
Voltage Divider . 80
Resistors In Series . 80
Resistors In Parallel 80
What Can Go Wrong 81
Heat 81
Noise . 81
Inductance 81
Inaccuracy 81
Table of Contents ixWrong Values . 82
11. Potentiometer . 83
What It Does 83
How It Works . 84
Variants 84
Linear And Log Taper 84
Classic-Style Potentiometer 85
Multiple-Turn Potentiometer 86
Ganged Potentiometer 87
Switched Potentiometer . 87
Slider Potentiometer 87
Trimmer Potentiometer . 87
How To Use It . 88
What Can Go Wrong 89
Wear And Tear 89
Knobs That Don’t Fit . 89
Nuts That Get Lost . 89
A Shaft That Isn’t Long Enough 89
Sliders With No Finger Grip 90
Too Big To Fit 90
Overheating 90
The Wrong Taper 90
12. Capacitor 91
What It Does 91
How It Works . 91
Variants 92
Format 92
Principal Types 95
Dielectrics 97
Values 98
Farads 98
Commonly Used Values . 98
Dielectric Constant 99
The Time Constant 99
Multiple Capacitors 100
Alternating Current And Capacitive Reactance 100
Equivalent Series Resistance 100
How To Use It 101
Bypass Capacitor . 101
Coupling Capacitor 101
High-Pass Filter 101
Low-Pass Filter . 101
Smoothing Capacitor 102
Snubber . 102
Capacitor As A Battery Substitute . 103
What Can Go Wrong . 103
x Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Wrong Polarity . 104
Voltage Overload 104
Leakage . 104
Dielectric Memory . 104
Specific Electrolytic Issues 104
Heat . 104
Vibration 104
Misleading Nomenclature 104
13. Variable Capacitor . 107
What It Does 107
How It Works 107
Variants . 108
Values . 108
Formats . 109
How To Use It 109
What Can Go Wrong . 110
Failure To Ground Trimmer Capacitor While Adjusting It . 110
Application Of Overcoat Material Or “Lock Paint” 111
Lack Of Shielding 111
14. Inductor 113
What It Does 113
How It Works 114
DC Through A Coil . 115
Magnetic Core . 116
EMF And Back-EMF . 116
Electrical And Magnetic Polarity 118
Variants . 118
Magnetic Cores 118
Nonmagnetic Cores 119
Variable Inductors 119
Ferrite Beads . 120
Toroidal Cores . 120
Gyrator 121
Values . 122
Calculating Inductance . 122
Calculating Reactance 122
Calculating Reluctance . 123
Datasheet Terminology 123
Series And Parallel Configurations 123
Time Constant . 123
How To Use It 124
Core Choices . 125
Miniaturization 126
What Can Go Wrong . 126
Real-World Defects . 126
Saturation . 126
Table of Contents xiRF Problems . 126
> > CONVERSION
15. AC-AC Transformer 129
What It Does 129
How It Works 130
The Core . 131
Taps . 131
Variants . 133
Core Shapes . 133
Power Transformer . 133
Plug-In Transformer 133
Isolation Transformer 133
Autotransformer . 134
Variable Transformer . 134
Audio Transformer . 134
Split-Bobbin Transformer . 134
Surface-Mount Transformer 135
Values . 135
How To Use It 135
What Can Go Wrong . 136
Reversal Of Input And Output 136
Shock Hazard From Common Ground 136
Accidental DC Input 136
Overload 136
Incorrect AC Frequency 136
16. AC-DC Power Supply . 137
What It Does 137
Variants . 137
Linear Regulated Power Supply . 137
Switching Power Supply 138
Unregulated Power Supply . 140
Adjustable Power Supply . 140
Voltage Multiplier 140
Formats . 140
How To Use It 140
What Can Go Wrong . 141
High Voltage Shock 141
Capacitor Failure . 141
Electrical Noise 141
Peak Inrush 141
17. DC-DC Converter . 143
What It Does 143
How It Works 143
Variants . 144
xii Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Buck Converter 144
Boost Converter . 145
Flyback Converter With Inductor . 145
Flyback Converter With Transformer 145
Formats . 145
Values . 146
Nominal Input Voltage And Frequency . 146
Output Voltage 147
Input Current And Output Current 147
Load Regulation . 147
Efficiency 147
Ripple And Noise 147
Isolated Or Non-Isolated . 148
How To Use It 148
What Can Go Wrong . 149
Electrical Noise In Output 149
Excess Heat With No Load 149
Inaccurate Voltage Output With Low Load 149
18. DC-AC Inverter . 151
What It Does 151
How It Works 151
Variants . 152
Values . 152
How To Use It 153
What Can Go Wrong . 153
> > REGULATION
19. Voltage Regulator 155
What It Does 155
How It Works 155
Variants . 157
Packaging . 157
Popular Varieties . 157
Adjustable Regulators 157
Negative And Positive Regulators . 158
Low-Dropout Linear Regulators 158
Quasi-Low-Dropout Linear Regulators 159
Additional Pin Functions . 159
Values . 159
How To Use It 159
What Can Go Wrong . 160
Inadequate Heat Management . 160
Transient Response 160
Misidentified Parts . 160
Misidentified Pins 161
Dropout Caused By Low Battery 161
Table of Contents xiiiInaccurate Delivered Voltage . 161
> ELECTROMAGNETISM
> > LINEAR
20. Electromagnet . 163
What It Does 163
How It Works 163
Variants . 164
Values . 165
How To Use It 165
What Can Go Wrong . 166
21. Solenoid . 167
What It Does 167
How It Works 168
Variants . 170
Low Profile . 170
Latching . 170
Rotary . 170
Hinged Clapper 170
Values . 170
Coil Size Vs. Power . 171
How To Use It 171
What Can Go Wrong . 171
Heat . 171
AC Inrush 171
Unwanted EMF 171
Loose Plunger . 171
> > ROTATIONAL
22. DC Motor . 173
What It Does 173
How It Works 173
Variants . 175
Coil Configurations 175
Gearhead Motor . 175
Brushless DC Motor 177
Linear Actuator 178
Values . 178
How To Use It 179
Speed Control . 180
Direction Control 180
Limit Switches . 181
What Can Go Wrong . 181
xiv Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Brushes And Commutator 181
Electrical Noise 181
Heat Effects 182
Ambient Conditions 182
Wrong Shaft Type Or Diameter . 182
Incompatible Motor Mounts 182
Backlash . 182
Bearings . 182
Audible Noise 182
23. AC Motor . 185
What It Does 185
How It Works 185
Stator Design 185
Rotor Design . 186
Variants . 189
Single-Phase Induction Motor 189
Three-Phase Induction Motor 190
Synchronous Motor 190
Reluctance Motor 191
Variable Frequency Drive . 191
Wound-Rotor AC Induction Motor 192
Universal Motor 192
Inverted AC Motors 193
Values . 193
How To Use It 193
What Can Go Wrong . 193
Premature Restart 194
Frequent Restart . 194
Undervoltage Or Voltage Imbalance 194
Stalled Motor 194
Protective Relays . 194
Excess Torque 194
Internal Breakage 194
24. Servo Motor 195
What It Does 195
How It Works 195
Variants . 197
Values . 198
How To Use It 199
Modification For Continuous Rotation 200
What Can Go Wrong . 200
Incorrect Wiring 200
Shaft/Horn Mismatch 200
Unrealistically Rapid Software Commands 200
Jitter . 201
Motor Overload 201
Table of Contents xvUnrealistic Duty Cycle 201
Electrical Noise 201
25. Stepper Motor . 203
What It Does 203
How It Works 203
Reluctance Stepper Motors . 204
Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors 204
Bipolar Stepper Motors . 206
Unipolar Motors . 207
Variants . 209
High Phase Count 209
Hybrid . 210
Bifilar 210
Multiphase 210
Microstepping . 211
Sensing And Feedback . 211
Voltage Control 211
Values . 211
How To Use It 212
Protection Diodes 212
Positional Control 213
What Can Go Wrong . 213
Incorrect Wiring 213
Step Loss 213
Excessive Torque . 213
Hysteresis 214
Resonance . 214
Hunting . 214
Saturation . 214
Rotor Demagnetization 214
> DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTOR
> > SINGLE JUNCTION
26. Diode . 215
What It Does 215
How It Works 217
Variants . 218
Packaging . 218
Signal Diodes 218
Rectifier Diodes 218
Zener Diode . 218
Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) . 219
Schottky Diode 219
Varactor Diode . 219
xvi Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1Tunnel Diode, Gunn Diode, PIN Diode 220
Diode Array 220
Bridge Rectifier 220
Values . 220
How To Use It 221
Rectification . 221
Back-EMF Suppression . 222
Voltage Selection 223
Voltage Clamping 224
Logic Gate . 224
DC Voltage Regulation And Noise Suppression 224
AC Voltage Control And Signal Clipping . 225
Voltage Sensing 225
What Can Go Wrong . 226
Overload 226
Reversed Polarity 227
Wrong Type Of Diode 227
27. Unijunction Transistor . 229
What It Does 229
How It Works 230
Variants . 232
Values . 232
How To Use It 233
What Can Go Wrong . 233
Name Confusion . 233
Incorrect Bias 233
Overload 234
> > MULTI-JUNCTION
28. Bipolar Transistor 235
What It Does 235
How It Works 235
Current Gain . 238
Terminology . 239
Variants . 239
Packaging . 239
Connections . 240
How To Use It 240
Darlington Pairs 242
Amplifiers . 244
What Can Go Wrong . 245
Wrong Connections On A Bipolar Transistor . 245
Wrong Connections On A Darlington Pair Chip 245
Soldering Damage . 246
Excessive Current Or Voltage . 246
Table of Contents xviiExcessive Leakage . 246
29. Field Effect Transistor . 247
What It Does 247
How It Works 247
JFETs 247
JFET Behavior 249
MOSFETs 250
The Substrate Connection 255
Variants . 256
MESFET 256
V-Channel MOSFET 256
Trench MOS 256
Values . 256
How To Use It 257
P-Channel Disadvantage . 257
Bipolar Substitution 257
Amplifier Front Ends . 257
Voltage-Controlled Resistor 257
Compatibility With Digital Devices 257
What Can Go Wrong . 257
Static Electricity 257
Heat . 257
Wrong Bias 258
Appendix A. Schematic Symbols . 259
Index . 263
Symbols
1:1 transformers (see isolation
transformers)
A
absolute encoding, 52
AC adapters, 135, 137, 151, 153
AC inrush, 171
AC motors, 185–194
design of, 185
function of, 185
potential problems, 193
types of, 189
use of, 193
values for, 193
AC-AC transformers, 129–136
design of, 130
function of, 129
potential problems, 136
schematic symbol for, 129
types of, 133
use of, 135
values for, 135
AC-DC power supplies, 137–141
function of, 137
potential problems, 141
types of, 137
use of, 140
accumulators, 5
active mode, 239
actuators, 38
adjustable inductors, 119
adjustable output converters, 146
adjustable voltage regulators,
157
Ah/AH/A/H (see amp-hours)
air cores, 119
alkaline cells, 9, 13
alternate pushbuttons, 33
alternating current (AC), 129, 137,
151, 190, 215
amp-hour capacity, 11, 13
amp-hours (Ah), 11
amplifiers, 244
amplitude-modulated, 119
analog servo motors, 198
annulus, 177
anodes, 6, 215
anti-backlash gears, 108
apparent power, 135
arcing, 47, 68, 102
armatures, 62
audio tone control, 79
audio transformers, 134
audio-taper potentiometers, 85,
90
automotive fuses, 23
automotive relays, 65
autotransformers, 134
auxilliary winding, 190
avalanche breakdown, 227
axial leads, 93
axial loading, 179
axial resistors, 70
B
back EMF, 102, 212, 221, 222
backlash, 182, 198
bandpass filters, 125
basic switches, 39
batteries, 5–16
capacitors as, 103
capacity, 11
DC-AC inverters and, 154
design of, 6
Index 263
disposable, 7, 8
fuel cells, 8
function of, 5
potential problems, 15
rechargeable, 7, 9
schematic symbols for, 6
use of, 14
values for, 11
voltage, 13
battery acid, 9
battery chargers, 7
bearings
failure of, 182
beta value (β), 238
biased relays, 63
biased semiconductors, 235
bifilar motors, 210
bipolar electrolytic capacitors, 96
bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
(see bipolar transistors)
bipolar motors, 205
bipolar stepper motors, 207
bipolar transistors, 235–246
design of, 235
function of, 235
potential problems, 245
schematic symbols for, 236
types of, 239
use of, 240
BLDC motors (see brushless DC
motors)
blown fuses, 21, 27
body terminals, 255
boost-type converters, 145, 148
boots, 42
break-before-make switches, 39,
51
breakdown state, 250
breakdown voltage, 218
breakers, 154
breaking capacity, 22
bridge rectifiers, 220
brushes, 173, 181, 192
brushless DC motors, 177
buck converters, 144
buck-boost converters (see flyback converters)
bulk metal foil, 77
bushings, 38
button capacitors (see disk capacitors)
button cells, 5
bypass capacitors, 101, 148
bypass switches, 170
C
c-clamps, 104
C-rate, 12
capacitance, 99, 109
capacitive reactance, 100
capacitor arrays, 95
capacitor clamps, 104
capacitor networks, 95
capacitors, 8, 91–105, 91
(see also variable capacitors)
as alternative to shorting coils,
189
design of, 91
function of, 91
potential problems, 103
schematic symbols, 91
types of, 92
use of, 101
values for, 98
capacity, 11–14
caps (see capacitors)
carbon-composite resistors, 76
carbon-film potentiometers, 89
carbon-film resistors, 76
carriers, 177
cartridge fuses, 23
cathode-ray tubes, 165
cathodes, 6, 215
cells, 5, 6
ceramic capacitors, 97
charging
incorrect voltage and, 15
reverse charging, 16
chatter, 68
chokes, 113
chopper drives, 211
circuit breakers, 15, 21
circuits
RC circuits, 72
clamp diodes, 224
closed-loop systems, 204, 211
CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor), 247
code samples
digital access to, 3
coded rotary switches, 51
cogging, 187
coils, 62, 115, 129, 164
cold cranking rating, 153
collectors, 236, 240
common contacts, 38
common-bus configurations, 72
common-collector amplifiers, 244
common-emitter amplifier, 244
commutators, 173, 189, 192
complement-coded rotary
switches, 52
complementary metal oxide semiconductor (see CMOS)
components
definition of, 2
condensers (see capacitors)
contact bounce, 59
contacts
burnout of, 60
contamination of, 48, 68
overloading of, 55
relays and, 62
vulnerability of, 55
continuous inductors, 116
contractors, 66
control shaft encoders, 57
conventional current, 7
inductors and, 114
converters (see DC-DC converters)
cores, 113, 125, 131, 133
coupling capacitors, 101
covered power supplies, 140
crossover networks, 124
crystal diodes (see diodes)
crystal sets, 119
cup (potentiometer), 87
current, 5
inadequate, 15
stall current, 178
current amplifiers, 237, 247
current gain (hFE), 238
current ratings
DC motors, 178
264 Indexfuses, 22
pushbuttons, 35
relays, 66
rotary switches, 54
rotational encoders, 59
cutoff mode, 239
cylindrical capacitors, 93
D
damping, 214
Darlington chips, 243
Darlington pair chips, 245
Darlington pairs, 155, 212, 235,
242
DC current
AC-AC tranformers and, 136
inductors and, 115
DC motors, 173–183
current rating, 178
design of, 173
function of, 173
potential problems, 181
types of, 175
use of, 179
DC-AC inverters, 151–154
design of, 151
function of, 151
potential problems, 153
types of, 152
use of, 153
values for, 152
DC-DC converters, 143–149
design of, 143
function of, 143
potential problems, 149
types of, 144
use of, 148
values for, 146
DCR (DC resistance), 123
debounce, 48
decks, 50
decoupling capacitors, 101
deep cycle batteries, 9
degauss, 165
delay fuses, 23
delta configuration, 175
demagnetization
of rotors, 214
demagnetizing objects, 165
depletion device, 249
depletion layer, 249
depletion region, 217
detent torque, 214
detents, 57
dielectric absorption, 104
dielectric constant, 99
dielectric memory, 104
dielectrics, 91, 97, 107, 251
digital access
code samples, 3
digital servo motors, 198
diode arrays, 220
diodes, 215–227
DC circuits and, 47
design of, 217
function of, 215
potential problems, 226
schematic symbol for, 215
types of, 218
use of, 221
values for, 220
DIP (see dual-inline package)
DIP switches, 43, 51
(see also rotary DIP switches)
vs. jumpers, 17
direct current (DC), 137, 151
direct current-excited motors,
191
discrete semiconductors, 235
disk capacitors, 93
disposable batteries, 7, 8–9
doping, 247
double-pole pushbuttons, 29
double-pole switches, 37
double-throw (DT) switches, 37
drain-source breakdown, 250
dropout voltage, 155
dry cells, 7
dry joints, 47
dual-coil latching relays, 63
dual-ganged potentiometers, 87
dual-inline package (DIP), 71
dynamic resistance, 218, 219
dyne-meters, 179
E
effective series resistance (ESR),
92, 148
efficiency
converters and, 147
8-wire motors, 210
electrical capacity (see capacity)
electrical noise, 81, 91, 126, 141,
149, 201, 224
electrical polarity, 118
electrochemical cells, 5
electrochemical power sources, 5
electrodes, 6, 7
electrolysis, 5
electrolytes, 6
electrolytic capacitors, 95, 104,
141
electrolytic cells, 5
electrolytic layer dielectrics, 97
electromagnetic armature relays,
61
electromagnetic interference
(EMI), 141, 148, 181
electromagnets, 163–166
function of, 163, 163
potential problems, 166
types of, 164
use of, 165
values for, 165
electromechanical linear actuators, 178
electromechanical relays, 61
electromotive force (EMF), 171,
212, 221, 222
electron holes, 92, 217
electronic commutation, 178
electrostatic discharge (ESD), 219,
257
element, 21
emergency switches, 35
EMI (see electromagnetic interference)
emitters, 236, 240
enable pins, 159
encoded output rotary switches,
51
enhancement devices, 249, 252
Index 265epicyclic gears, 175
equivalent series resistance (ESR),
104
errata, web address for, 4
ESD (see electrostatic discharge)
F
farads (F), 98
ferrite beads, 120
ferromagnetic cores, 131
field effect transistor (FET)
design of, 247
function of, 247
potential problems, 257
types of, 256
use of, 257
values for, 256
field windings, 186
field-effect transistor (FET), 247–
258
555 timer, 180, 197, 207, 212, 229
flat-ganged potentiometers, 87
flip-flop behavior, 63
flooded design, 9
flux density, 164
flyback converters, 145
flyback diodes, 47
flyback-type converters, 138
foot pedal pushbuttons, 33
FORM A/B switches, 39
Form A/B/C pushbuttons, 30
formulae
presentation of, 3
forward bias, 235
forward direction (diodes), 215
forward EMF, 171
frames, 167
freewheeling diodes, 47
front panel mount switches, 45
fuel cells, 8
fuseholders, 27
fuses, 15, 21–28
(see also circuit breakers)
current rating, 22
design of, 21
function of, 21
potential problems, 27
schematic symbols for, 21
types of, 22
use of, 26, 28
voltage rating, 22
fusible links, 24
fusible resistors, 76
G
ganged potentiometers, 87
gear motors (see gearhead motors)
gearhead motors, 175, 182
gears
nylon vs. metal, 198
general-purpose resistors, 70
generators, 114
gigaohms, 73
Gray-coded outputs, 53
grounding
common ground, 136
variable capacitors and, 111
Gunn diodes, 215, 220
gyrators, 121, 126
H
H bridge system, 181
half-cells, 6
half-stepping mode, 211
Hall effect sensors, 178
harmonics, 151
header sockets, 18
headers, 17, 34
heat
AC motors and, 194
capacitors and, 104
converters and, 149
diodes and, 227
effect on motors, 182
power resistors and, 78
resistors and, 81
solenoids and, 171
voltage regulators and, 160
heat sinks, 70, 239
Henry units, 122
high phase count motors, 210
high side, 46
high-frequency transistors, 239
high-pass filters, 101, 124
high-speed diodes, 218
hold current, 25
holding torque, 214
horse-shoe magnet design, 164
hot switching, 37
hunting, 214
hybrid motors, 210
hysteresis, 116, 118, 165, 214
hysteresis motors, 191
I
IGBT (see insulated-gate bipolar
transistor)
illuminated pushbuttons, 31
impedance, 134
in-line fuse holders, 24
inaccuracy
resistors and, 81
incandescent bulbs, 31
incremental devices
rotational encoders, 57
indicators, 78
inductance, 81, 122
inductance index, 123
inductance-capacitance circuits
(see LC circuits)
induction motors, 204
induction rotors, 186
inductive loads
switch choices for, 47
voltage spikes and, 67
inductive reactance, 92, 100
inductors, 113–127
design of, 114
function of, 113
potential problems, 126
schematic symbol for, 113
types of, 118
use of, 124
values for, 122
inrunner configuration, 178
insulated-gate bipolar transistor
(IGBT), 180
266 Indexinsulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET), 247
integrated circuits, 235
internal resistance, 11
inverted AC motors, 193
ions, 6
ISAT (saturation current, 123
isolated vs. non-isolated, 148
isolation transformers, 133
J
jumper assemblies, 18
jumper sockets (see jumpers)
jumper wires, 17
jumpers, 17–19
junction field-effect transistor
(JFET), 247, 247–250
junction threshold voltage, 217,
230
K
Karbonite gears, 198
keylock switches, 53
keypad pushbuttons, 34
kilohms, 73
knife switches, 37
L
latching pushbuttons, 33
latching relays, 46, 63
LC (inductance-capacitance) circuits, 109
lead-acid batteries, 5, 9, 15
leakage, 92, 217, 235, 246
LED (light-emitting diode), 36,
215
pushbuttons and, 31
resistors and, 78
limit switches, 39, 178, 181
linear actuators, 178, 180, 212
linear mode, 239
linear motors, 189
linear regulated power supplies,
137
linear taper potentiometers, 84
linear voltage regulators (see
voltage regulators)
lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion), 9, 15
lithium-ion polymer batteries, 9
load regulation, 147
loads, 5
lock paint, 111
locked-rotor torque, 188
locking pushbuttons, 33
locking toggle switches, 42
log-taper potentiometers, 85, 90
logarithmic volume control, 88
logic chips, 48, 148
logic circuits, 46, 151
logic gates, 224
logic inverters, 151
low-dropout voltage regulators,
155, 158
low-pass filters, 101, 124
low-signal relays, 65
lubricants
environmental effects on, 182
M
magnetic circuits, 115
magnetic cores, 116, 118
magnetic domains, 116, 126, 165
magnetic fields, 68
magnetic polarity, 118
magnetic resistance (see reluctance)
magnetic saturation, 116
mAh (see milliamp-hours)
MAKE magazine
contact information, 4
make-before-break switches, 39,
51
make-to-break connections, 30,
39
make-to-make connections, 30
matrix encoded pushbuttons, 34
mechanical encoders, 53
mechanical rotary encoders, 57
mechanical wear
of switches, 48
potentiometers, 89
megohms, 73
membrane pad pushbuttons, 34
membrane separators, 6
memory effect, 10
MESFET (MEtal-Semiconductor
Field Effect Transistor), 256
metal-film resistors, 77
metal-oxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (see MOSFET)
meter loading, 82
microcontrollers
as alternative to switches, 47
as pulse sources, 180
increasing output of, 242
keypads and, 34
pushbuttons and, 33
rotary switches and, 54
rotational encoders and, 57, 60
servo motors and, 197
microfarads (μF), 98, 105
microhenrys (μH), 122
microstepping mode, 211
microswitches, 39
milliamp-hours (mAh), 11
millihenrys (mH), 122
milliohms, 73
miniaturized potentiometers, 86
modified sine waves, 152
monetary switches, 29, 63
MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor),
143, 180, 247, 250–255, 257
movable contacts, 38
multiphase motors, 210
multiple-turn potentiometers, 87
Must Operate By voltage, 66
Must Release By voltage, 66
mutual induction, 130
N
N layer, 217
N-channel, 247
N-type semiconductors, 235
nanofarads (nF), 98
Index 267nanohenrys (nH), 122
negative resistance region, 231
negative voltage regulators, 158
neon bulbs, 31
neutral relays, 63
Newton-meters, 179
nichrome (Ni-chrome) elements,
71
nickel-cadmium batteries (nicad/
NiCd), 9, 10
nickel-metal hydride batteries
(NiMH), 9, 10
noise
electrical, 81, 91, 126, 141, 149,
201
reduction of, 183, 224
non-excited synchronous motors,
191
non-flammable resistors, 76
nonlatching relays, 63
nonmagnetic cores, 119
nonshorting switches, 51, 55
normally closed (NC), 31, 39
normally open (NO), 31, 39
notch filters, 125
nuisance opening, 27
nylon vs. metal gears, 198
O
octal base, 65
OCV (see open circuit voltage)
ohmic region, 250
on-off switches, 37
open circuit voltage (OCV/Voc),
13
open-frame power supplies, 140
open-frame switches, 49
open-loop systems, 204, 211
operating point, 244
optical mouse, 57
oscillating, 214
ounce-inches, 179
output
voltage regulators and, 160
outrunner configuration, 178
overcoat material, 111
overheating
DC-AC inverters and, 154
MOSFETs, 257
potentiometers, 90
transformers and, 136
overshoot, 213
P
P layer, 217
P-channel, 247
P-type semiconductors, 235
paddle switches, 44
panel-mount switches, 45, 48
panel-mounted pushbuttons, 32
parallel batteries
high current flow, 16
parasitic capacitance, 126
parasitic inductance, 81, 97
pass transistors, 155
PC board rotary switches, 53
PC mount switches, 45
PC pushbuttons, 32
PC terminals, 45
peak inrush, 141, 171
peak inrush current, 27
permanent magnet stepper motors, 205
permeability, 116
Peukert number, 12
phase count, 203
phases (steps), 203
pick-offs, 84
picofarads (pF), 98
piles, 5
pin configurations
correct identification of, 161
relays, 63, 67
PIN diodes, 215, 220
pitch, 18
planetary gears, 175
plastic-film dielectrics, 97
plug fuses, 22
plug-in transformers, 133
plungers, 167
PN junction diodes (see diodes)
polarity
danger of incorrect, 15, 104
danger of reversed, 227
DC relays and, 63
mnemonics for, 118
preventing reversed, 136
polarized relays, 63
pole faces, 167
poles, 29, 30, 37, 38, 38
polymeric positive temperature
coefficient fuse, 24
polyphase AC, 190
positive charges, 92
positive voltage regulators, 158
potentiometers, 69, 83–90, 180
design of, 84
function of, 83
potential problems, 89
schematic symbols for, 83
types of, 84
use of, 88
pound-feet, 179
power cells, 5
power cords
correct choice of, 136
power MOSFETs, 256
power resistors, 70
power transformers, 133
power transistors, 239
power wire-wound resistors, 77
PPR (see pulses per rotation)
precision resistors, 70
precision wire-wound resistors,
77
press-twice pushbuttons, 32
primary cells, 7
primary coils, 129
programmable unijunction transistor (PUT), 229, 233
protection diodes, 212, 222
proximity effect, 127
PTC/PPTC (see polymeric positive
temperature coefficient fuse)
pull-in torque, 214
pull-out torque, 214
pulldown resistors, 79
pullup resistors, 54, 79
pulse-width modulation (PWM),
138, 144, 152, 180, 193, 195,
211
pulses per rotation (PPR), 59
268 Indexpush-lock push-release pushbuttons, 33
push-on push-off pushbuttons,
33
push-push pushbuttons, 33
pushbutton switches, 29
pushbuttons, 29–36
current ratings, 35
design of, 29
function of, 29
potential problems, 35
schematic symbol for, 29
types of, 30
use of, 35
pushwheel switches, 53
PUT (programmable unijunction
transistor), 229, 233
PWM (see pulse-width modulation)
Q
quadrature output, 59
quality factor, 100
quasi-low-dropout voltage regulators, 159
quick connect terminals, 45
quiescent current, 160
quiescent point, 244
R
radial leads, 93
radial loading, 179
radial resistors, 70
radio buttons, 35
radio crystal set, 119
radio frequencies (RF), 127
ramping, 213
rated current
fuses, 22
rated voltage, 22
RC (resistor-capacitor) network,
80, 92
RC circuits, 72
RC servo motors, 195
reactance, 109, 117, 122
real-coded rotary switches, 52
rechargeable batteries, 7, 9–10
rectified current, 193
rectifier diodes, 218, 221, 227
rectifiers, 135, 137, 138, 165, 215
reed relays, 64, 68
reed switches, 64, 165
relative devices
rotational encoders, 57
relative encoding, 52
relays, 61–68
current rating, 66
design of, 62
function of, 61
possible problems, 67
schematic symbols for, 61, 63
types of, 63
use of, 66
reluctance, 115, 123, 164, 169
reluctance motors, 178, 191, 193
reluctance stepper motors, 204
remanent magnetism, 116
reserve batteries, 9
resettable fuses, 21, 24
resistance, 204
rotational encoders, 59
resistor arrays, 71
resistor ladders, 54
resistor networks/ladders (see resistor arrays)
resistor-capacitor (RC) network,
80, 92
resistors, 69–82
design of, 70
function of, 69
materials, 76
possible problems, 81
schematic symbols for, 69
types of, 70
use of, 78
values for, 73
resistors in parallel, 80
resistors in series, 80
resonant frequency, 100, 214
response curves, 231
retentivity, 118
reverse charging, 16
rheostats, 83, 180
right-angle PC rotary switch, 52
right-angle PC terminals, 45
right-hand rule, 118
ripple-and-noise values, 148
RMS (see root mean square)
rocker switches, 40
root mean square (RMS), 152
rotary DIP switches, 51
rotary switches, 49–55
current rating, 54
design of, 50
function of, 49
potential problems, 54
schematic symbol for, 49
types of, 50
use of, 54
rotational encoders, 47, 57–60
current rating, 59
design of, 57
function of, 57
potential problems, 60
types of, 58
use of, 60
rotors, 49, 107, 173, 185, 186, 203
demagnetization of, 214
S
Safari Books Online, 3
safe operating area (SOA), 241
saturated mode, 239
saturation, 126, 214, 238
saturation current, 123
saturation region (Idss), 250
saturation, magnetic, 169
schematic symbols, 259
AC-AC transformers, 129, 132
batteries, 6
bipolar transistors, 236
capacitors, 91
diodes, 215
fuses, 21
inductors, 113
MOFSET, 252
potentiometers, 83
pushbuttons, 29
relays, 61, 63
resistors, 69, 76
rotary switches, 49
Index 269slide switches, 41
switches, 48
unijunction transistors, 229
Schottky diodes, 219
SCR (see silicon-controlled rectifier)
screw terminals, 45
secondary cells, 7
secondary coils, 129
self-discharge rate, 8
self-inductance, 113, 211
self-resonance, 126
self-resonant frequency, 100, 123
semiconductors, 217
series resistors, 78
servo motors, 195–201
design of, 195
function of, 195
potential problems, 200
types of, 197
use of, 199
values for, 198
vs. stepper motors, 213
settling time, 59
shaded pole motors, 189
shell cores, 133
shielding
variable capacitors and, 111
shock hazards
AC-AC transformers and, 136
AC-DC power supplies, 141
short-circuited batteries, 15, 26
short-circuited switches, 48
shorting coils, 189
shorting switches, 39, 51, 55
shunts (see jumpers)
signal clipping, 225
signal diodes, 218, 227
silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR),
180
single side stable relays, 63
single-coil latching relays, 63
single-inline package (SIP), 71
single-layer ceramic capicitors,
104
single-phase induction motors,
189
single-pole switches, 37
single-throw (ST) switches, 37
SIP (see single-inline package)
SIP switches, 44
skin effect, 127
slide pushbuttons, 41
slider potentiometers, 87
slider pushbuttons, 31
slider switches, 40, 48
sliding noise, 60
slip, 188
Slo-Blo fuses, 23
slow-blowing fuses, 26
small cartridge fuses, 23
small-signal relays, 65
small-signal transistors, 239
small-switching transistors, 239
SMPS (see switching power supply)
SMT (see surface-mount fuses)
snap-action switches, 35, 39
snap-in mount switches, 45
snubbers, 35, 47, 72, 102
SOA (see safe operating area)
solder lug terminals, 45
soldering damage, 27, 246
solenoids, 167–171
design of, 168
function of, 167
potential problems, 171
types of, 170
use of, 171
values for, 170
solid-state relays, 61
splines, 198
split-bobbin transformers, 134
split-phase induction motors, 190
sponge (lead), 9
spur gears, 175
squirre-cage motors, 186
squirrel-cage motors, 204
SRF (self-resonant frequency, 123
stability
resistors and, 76
stall current, 178
stall torque, 179
standard type regulators, 155
star configuration, 175
stationary contacts, 38
stators, 107, 173, 185, 203
status pins, 159
step angle, 204
step loss, 213
step motors (see stepper motors)
step-down transformers, 130
step-up transformers, 130
stepper motors, 203–214
design of, 203
function of, 203
potential problems, 213
types of, 209
use of, 212
values for, 211
stepping motors (see stepper
motors)
stops, 50
strip fuses, 24
subject-oriented organization, 2
subminiature fuses, 24
subminiature paddle switches, 44
subminiature slide switches, 41
subminiature switches, 40
subpanel mount switches, 45
substrate connections, 255
sulfurization, 16
sun gear, 177
supercapacitors, 8, 103
surface mount switches, 45
surface-mount (SMT) fuses, 26
surface-mount capacitors, 94
surface-mount resistors, 71
surface-mount transformers, 135
surface-mounted pushbuttons,
32
surge sensitivity, 22
switch bounce, 48, 60
switched potentiometers, 87
switched-mode power supply
(see switching power supply)
switchers (see DC-DC converters)
(see switching power supply)
switches, 17, 37–48, 49
(see also rotary switches)
design of, 37
function of, 37
potential problems, 47
terminology, 38
types of, 38
use of, 45
values for, 45
270 Indexswitching diodes, 218
switching power supplies, 137,
138, 153
switching regulators (see DC-DC
converters)
synchronous motors, 178, 191
T
tactile swithes, 34
tank circuits (see LC circuits)
tantalum capacitors, 96, 104
taps, 131
Tcr/Tc (see temperature coefficient)
teeth (rotor), 204
temperature coefficient (Tcr/Tc),
76
terminals, choosing correct, 48
terminals, for switches, 45
THD (see total harmonic distortion)
thick-film resistors, 71, 77
thin-film resistors, 77
three-phase induction motors,
190
through-hole chips (capacitors),
95
through-hole fuses, 24, 26
through-hole terminals, 45
throws, 30, 38
thumbwheel switches, 53
time constant, 99, 123
time-delay relay switches, 65
toggle switches, 42
tolerance
resistors, 73
toroidal core inductors, 120
torque
expression of, 179
fluctuations in, 187
motor overloading and, 194
stepper motors and, 214
total harmonic distortion (THD),
152
tracks, 84
transformer-based power supplies, 137
transient response, 160
transient suppressors, 222
transient voltage suppressor
(TVS), 219
transients, 137
transistors, 235
(see also bipolar transistors)
resistors and, 78
transit time, 199
TrenchMOS, 256
triggering voltage, 230
trimmer capacitors, 107, 111
trimmer potentiometers, 83, 87,
107
Trimpots (see trimmer potentiometers)
trip current, 25
tripped fuses, 21
true sinewave inverters, 152
tuning capacitors, 107
tunnel diodes, 215, 220
turn rate, 199
TVS (see transient voltage suppressor)
two-contact pushbuttons, 29
two-pole switches, 37
two-way switches, 37
U
UJT (see unijunction transistor)
unijunction transistor (UJT), 229–
234
design of, 230
function of, 229
potential problems, 233
schematic symbol for, 229
types of, 232
use of, 233, 234
values for, 232
uninterruptible power supplies, 9
unipolar motors, 205, 207
universal motors, 192
universal stepper motors (see bifilar motors)
unloaded speed, 179
V
V-channel MOSFET (VMOS FET),
256
VA (see volts times amps)
vacuum tubes, 215, 235
valley voltage, 231
value coding, 82
resistors, 75
valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (VRLA), 9
vandal resistant switches, 44
varactor diodes, 215, 219
variable capacitors, 107–111, 107
(see also capacitors)
design of, 107
function of, 107
possible problems, 110
types of, 108
use of, 109
values for, 108
variable condensers (see variable
capacitors)
variable frequency power supplies, 192
variable inductors, 119
variable reluctance, 204
variable resistors, 83
variable transformers, 134
variacs (see variable transformers)
varicaps (see varactor diodes)
Vc (see voltage coefficient)
Very Low Dropout voltage regulators, 159
vibration
capacitors and, 104
damping of, 214
relays and, 68
Voc (see open circuit voltage)
voltage, 13
automatic selection of, 223
imbalance in AC motors, 194
inaccurate in converters, 149
inaccurate in voltage regulators, 161
multiple outputs, 131
regulation with diodes, 224
Index 271sensing with diodes, 226
voltage amplifiers, 247
voltage coefficient (Vc), 76
voltage dividers, 54, 54, 69, 80,
157, 238
voltage multipliers, 140
voltage overload
bipolar transistors and, 246
capacitors and, 104
voltage rating, 22
voltage regulators, 155–161
design of, 155
function of, 155
potential problems, 160
types of, 157
use of, 159, 161
values for, 159
voltage spikes
protection against, 67, 215
voltage-controlled resistors, 250
volts times amps, 135
VRLA (see valve-regulated leadacid batteries)
W
wall-warts, 137
windings, 115, 203
wipers, 84, 134
wire lead terminals, 45
wire-wound resistors, 71
wound-rotor AC induction motors, 192
wye configuration, 175
Y
Y configuration, 175
yokes, 165
Z
Zener diodes, 215, 219, 224, 225,
227
Zener voltage, 224
zero ohm components
resistors, 76
zinc-carbon cells


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