كتاب 3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب 3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction

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3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction
Gary C. Confalone, John Smits, Thomas Kinnare
East Coast Metrology
Topsfield, MA, USA

كتاب 3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction  3_d_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xi
How to Use This Book xiii
Chapter 1 History of Metrology 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 The History of Metrology 2
1.3 The International System of Units (SI) 3
1.4 The History of the Metric System 3
1.5 The History of the British Imperial System (IS) 4
1.6 Evolution of Metrology 13
1.7 Milestones of Metrology 22
Chapter 2 3D Scanning Basics 25
2.1 Basics of Laser Light Technology 25
2.2 Laser Safety 25
2.3 So What Exactly Is a Laser? 28
2.4 Laser Types 29
2.5 LIDAR vs Laser-Radar 32
2.6 Laser-Radar 32
2.7 Basics of 3D Scanning 35
2.8 How It Works 35
2.9 Limitations 35
2.10 Accuracy 36
2.11 Modern Metrology 37
Chapter 3 Scanning Equipment 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Triangulating Laser Scanners 39
3.3 Data Acquisition Variables 41
Chapter 4 Data Acquisition and Processing Software 65
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Data Acquisition Software 66
4.3 Inspection Software 71
4.4 Data Export Options 72
4.5 Point Clouds 73viii Contents
4.6 Processing and Registration 78
4.7 Survey Controls 80
4.8 Polygonal Mesh 81
4.9 Using Processed Datasets 82
Chapter 5 Post-Processing 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.2 Coordinate Systems 86
5.3 Scaling 93
5.4 Mapping Techniques 93
5.5 CAD to Part Comparison 97
5.6 Root Mean Square and Standard Deviation 98
5.7 The Method of Least Squares 99
5.8 What Is Uncertainty? 102
5.9 Contributing Factors to Uncertainty 105
5.10 Typical Post-processing Workflow 108
Chapter 6 Reverse Engineering for Industrial and
Consumer Applications 111
6.1 Introduction 111
6.2 Industrial Applications 112
6.3 Case Studies 118
6.4 Racing Yacht Boat Build 118
6.5 Reverse Engineering: Cessna Caravan Performance Upgrade 121
6.6 Replication of a Classic Propeller Design 123
6.7 Roller Coaster Inspection 126
6.8 Argomaiden Sculpture 129
Chapter 7 Reverse Engineering for Architecture,
Engineering, and Construction 133
7.1 Introduction 133
7.2 Modeling for Architects and Engineers 134
7.3 Case Studies 142
7.4 Research Facility Coordinate Control System 142
7.5 Architectural Ornament Replication 146
7.6 Fonthill Castle, Bronx, NY 149
7.7 Infrastructure Preservation 153
7.8 Generating Station Turbine Replacement 158
Chapter 8 Future Directions 161
8.1 Software Development 162
8.2 Technology 162
8.3 Extended Reality 163Contents ix
8.4 UAV and AV 165
8.5 Industry Trends 165
8.6 Summary 168
Chapter 9 Resources 169
9.1 Units of Measure 175
9.2 Coordinate Metrology Society (CMS) Certification 181
9.3 Certification Committee 181
9.4 CMS Certification Levels 183
9.5 CMS Level-Two Certification 185
9.6 National Metrology Laboratories and Institutes 187
Metrology Glossary 191
Index 201For many years additive manufacturing and 3D scanning were considered a futuristic
science seen only in Hollywood movies and television shows. This technology has now
become a reality which has found its way into mainstream society.
Today, with relative ease, folks in this field can explain their vocation in a manner
that others can recognize and appreciate. The career opportunities in this profession are
wide and varying as technology expands the scope of these revolutionary applications
through multiple industries.
3D Scanning for Advanced Manufacturing, Design, and Construction is a result of
many years spent in the field and in the lab throughout the formative development of
this science. The authors combine to bring over 100 years of experience as they worked
in varying facets of this field, and the manner in which it was applied to their area of
expertise. Aerospace, manufacturing, industrial research and development, architecture,
engineering, and construction all use this technology to advance the improvement of
their respective trades. Each of these business segments and many more are explored
with real-world examples. To that we credit our coworkers, clients, and vendors for their
support and advice throughout the creation of this text. Without their experience and
diverse knowledge, the culmination of work in the following pages would not exist.
Index
Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures; those in bold to tables
A
accordion fringe interferometry (AFI), 50
accuracy, 36–37, 105, 106–107, 116, 191
acre (unit of measurement), 9–10, 9
additive manufacturing see 3D printing
AEC see architectural/engineering/
construction industry
aerial imaging
airborne LIDAR systems, 31
photogrammetry, 62
unmanned aerial vehicles, 165, 165
AFI see accordion fringe interferometry
aircraft
Cessna Caravan performance
upgrade, 121–123, 122, 123
coordinate system, 90, 90, 92
alignment
cloud to cloud, 79
control points, 80
definition, 191
photographs, 60, 62–63
post-processing techniques, 93–97
registration of multiple scans, 78–80
use of targets, 51, 78–79
see also mapping; registration
ambient temperature
stabilization/soaking before
scanning, 107
see also coefficient of thermal expansion;
thermal/temperature compensation
angle of incidence, 41–42, 76, 76, 77
AR see Augmented Reality
architectural/engineering/construction
(AEC) industry
case studies, 142–160
cloud-to-cloud fitting, 96
future use of scanners, 166
reverse engineering, 111, 133–160
architectural ornament replication
case study, 146–149
Argomaiden sculpture, 129–131, 130, 131
arm scanners, 15–16, 15, 48–49, 48
articulated arm Coordinate
Measuring Machines, 48–49, 48
artwork, reverse engineering, 129–131,
130, 131
as-built condition
as-built models versus design intent
models, 115
dataset in digital twin creation, 142
definition, 191
documentation variation from original
design, 112–113
turbines in generating station case
study, 158–160
ASCII (American Standard Code for
Information Interchange), 72, 191–192
Atlantic Trawlers case study, 123–126,
124–126
Augmented Reality (AR), 163–164,
164, 166
Autodesk software, 141, 156
automated 3D scanning devices,
166–167, 167
autonomous vehicles (AVs), 28–29, 165
axisymmetric objects, cylindrical
coordinate system, 88
azimuth (yaw), rotational motion, 92
B
ball-bars, 192
basic dimensions, 192
basic principles, 25–37
3D scanning, 35–37
lasers, 28–31
LIDAR and laser-radar systems, 32–34
Bear Swamp Generating Station,
turbine replacement case
study, 158–160, 159202 Index
BIM see Building Information Modeling
BL see Buttock Line
blue light scanning, structured light
scanning, 50
boats
propeller design replication project,
123–126, 124–126
racing yacht build project, 118–121,
119–121
boresighting, 191, 192
bridge-type Coordinate Measuring Machines,
44, 45, 45, 191
Brookfield Renewable Power, generating
station turbine replacement case study,
158–160, 159
Building Information Modeling (BIM),
134, 140, 141
buildings
clash detection in redesign, 139–140, 140
documentation, 136–137, 136
internal level alignment, 150, 152
ongoing sensor data for digital
twins, 142
point cloud data, 73, 135, 137, 138, 152–153
reverse engineering applications, 134–135
use of drones and robots to scan, 166
Buttock (butt) Line (BL), aircraft coordinate
system, 90, 90
C
CAD (computer-aided design)
architecture and construction, 134, 136,
138, 140, 141
CAD-to-part comparison for aircraft
performance upgrade, 123, 123
definition, 192
model mapping, 97–98
calibration, 46, 52, 94, 181, 187, 192, 195
camera sensitivity, versus angle from
normal, 43
cantilever-type Coordinate Measuring
Machines, 46
Cartesian coordinate system, 87–88, 87, 90–91
case studies
architectural ornament replication case
study, 146–149
Argomaiden sculpture, 129–131, 130, 131
boat propeller design replication project,
123–126, 124–126
Cessna Caravan aircraft
performance upgrade,
121–123, 122, 123
Claiborne Pell Bridge, 153–156,
155–156, 157
Fonthill Castle, 149–152, 149, 150, 152, 153
racing yacht boat build, 118–121,
119–121
roller coaster inspection, 126–129,
126, 127
tokamak fusion machine, 142–145,
143–145
cell phones see smartphones
cells see structured meshes
chain (unit of measurement), 7, 8, 176
checkerboard targets, reference marks for
scans, 78–79, 79, 151
Claiborne Pell Bridge, infrastructure preservation
case study, 153–156, 155–156, 157
clash detection, building redesign, 139–140,
140
cleaning up point cloud data, post-processing,
108
cloud to cloud fitting, mapping, 93–94,
95–96
CMMs see Coordinate Measuring Machines
CMSC see Coordinate Metrology Society
certification
CNC (computer numerical control) machines,
88, 117, 117, 121, 126, 130–131
coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE),
106–107, 107, 113, 114, 193
College/University 3D scanning study programs, 172–175
collimation, 28, 30
Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format,
80, 80, 193
compass, history, 16, 16
compensation
data acquisition software, 70
definition, 193
thermal, 92, 106, 113, 199
tilt compensators, 59
computer-connected (tethered) handheld
scanners, 52–53, 53
computer numerical control (CNC) machines,
88, 117, 117, 121, 126, 130–131
computers
future technology, 162–163
storage capacity and processing speeds, 85
see also smartphones; tablet computers
conferences, 171–172
contact measuring probes (touch probes),
43–45, 44, 47, 48, 197
control points (common points/benchmarks)
alignment, 80
coordinate system requirement, 143, 143,
144, 192–193
importing by data acquisition software, 71
mapping, 94–95, 95
Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs),
43–48, 193
advantages, 46–47Index 203
arm mounted laser scanners, 20
history, 14–16
laser scanners, 47–48
level-one Coordinate Metrology Society
certification, 184, 184
limitations, 47
setup, 43–45
use in quality assurance, 43, 45, 48
Coordinate Metrology Society certification
(CMSC), 181–187
committee, 181–183
level-one, 183–185, 183, 184
level-two, 185–187, 186, 187
coordinate systems, 85, 86–92
aircraft, 90, 90, 92
Cartesian coordinate system and variations, 87–88, 87, 90–91
cylindrical coordinate system, 88–89, 88
relative to object, 143
spherical coordinate system, 89–90, 89
corners, effects on beam, 42
correction, 193
cross-sectioning, using processed
datasets, 83
CRS see coordinate reference system
CSV (Comma Separated Values) file format,
80, 80, 193
CTE see coefficient of thermal expansion
cubit (unit of measurement), 7
curvature-based sampling, post-processing,
110
cylindrical coordinate system, 88–89, 88
D
data acquisition
speeds and number of points, 85
variables, 41
data acquisition and processing software,
65–84
data collection software, 65, 66–71
features, 66–71
instrument compatibility, 66
point cloud or structured meshes, 67–68
view control, 67
data inspection software, 65
data processing, skill and expertise in building
documentation, 137
data processing and registration, 78–80
datums/datum features, 80, 86, 90, 143, 191, 193
degrees of freedom (DOF), rotational motion,
19, 91–92, 92, 101
density of scanned points, 73–74, 75–76,
75, 155, 198
design intent models
idealization, 115, 116
versus as-built models, 115
deviations from the design intent, checking in
manufacture, 119–121
diffuse reflecting surfaces, data acquisition
characteristics, 41
digital twins, 61, 134, 141–142, 166
dimensional inspection, 193
diopter instrument, history, 17, 17
display formats, data acquisition software, 70
distortion from stress or load, changing shape of
scanning subject, 107
documentation
buildings, 136–137, 136
of scanned data, 65
DOF see degrees of freedom
drift
instrumental drift, 195
scan drift in multiple scanning, 79–80
drones see unmanned aerial vehicles
Duke University, architectural ornament replication case study, 146–149
dumb models/dumb solids, 115, 197
DW Fritz ZeroTouch, automated 3D scanning
device, 167–168, 167
dye lasers see liquid lasers
E
E57 file format, 72
electromagnetic radiation/spectrum,
28, 28
electronic measurement machines, history, 14–16
English units
conversions, 176–181
see also imperial system
entertainment industry, future use of
scanners, 165
environmental effects
contribution to uncertainty, 105–107, 106
variation from original design, 113
errors in mapping, 94–95
Evaluation of Measurement Data – Guide to the
Expression of Uncertainty (GUM), 169
extended reality (XR), future technological
development, 163–164
external corners, effects on beam, 42
F
FAI see first article inspection
Faro Technologies, 21204 Index
Claiborne Pell Bridge case study, 154
Fonthill Castle case study, 150
generating station turbine replacement case
study, 158, 159, 160
laser scanners, 21, 127, 128, 150, 154
laser trackers, 144, 158, 159, 160
SCENE software, 156, 157
tokamak fusion machine case
study, 144
fathom (unit of measurement), 8–9
Ferranti coordinate measuring machine,
14, 14, 15
fiber lasers, 32
file formats, 72, 117–118
see also CSV; STL, XYZ
first article inspection (FAI), 194
floors, topographic mapping, 138–139, 139
Fonthill Castle, building documentation case
study, 149–152, 149, 150, 152, 153
foot (unit of measurement), 6, 6, 176–177
forensic study, surface characteristics of
buildings, 137–139
4D models, 142
free-form shapes, 194, 196
reverse engineering case studies,
118–131, 147–149
furlong (unit of measurement), 8, 176
future directions, 161–168
G
gage repeatability and reproducibility
(gage R&R), 194
gantry-type Coordinate Measuring Machines,
46, 46, 194
gas lasers, 29–30, 30
GD&T see geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing
General Conference on Weights and
Measures (GCWM), 3
geocentric terrestrial (global) coordinate
system, surveying coordinates, 91
Geomagic, 66, 131
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
(GD&T), 2, 100, 194
geometric fit methods, 99–100
glossary, 191–199
graphics window size, data acquisition
software, 69
ground-based close-range photogrammetry,
62
ground-based scanners
architectural ornament replication,
146, 146, 147
see also terrestrial laser scanners
GUM see Evaluation of Measurement Data –
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty
H
handheld scanners, 49–55
architectural ornament replication,
146–147, 147
choosing the correct device, 49–50
structured light scanning, 50–51
time of flight, 50–51
types, 51–55
hand (unit of measurement), 5–6
hardware manufacturers, 170–171
history
measuring instruments, 13–22
units of measurement, 2–13
Hodgdon Yachts case study, 118–121,
119–121
horizontal arm Coordinate Measuring
Machines, 46, 47, 47
I
idealization
changing the accuracy of the model, 116
design intent models, 117
IGES file format, 72
IGS file format, 72
imperial system (IS)
history, 2, 3–13
unit conversions, 176–181
importing control points and geometric
features, data acquisition software, 71
IMU see Inertial Measurement Unit
inch (unit of measurement), 5, 176, 177
industrial applications
automated 3D scanning devices,
166–167, 167
future directions, 166
in-process metrology to compare parts to
design, 168
reverse engineering, 111–132
industrial revolution, 13–16
industry trends, 165–168
Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), SLAM
systems, 59
influence quantities, 195
infrastructure preservation, Claiborne Pell
Bridge case study, 153–157
inspection software, comparing measurements
with ideal of prescribed shape, 66, 71–72Index 205
instrumental drift, 79–80, 195
instrumental uncertainty, 195
instrument compatibility, data collection
software, 66
instrument location, data acquisition
software, 69
interface simplicity, data collection software, 67
interferometers, 19, 50
internal corners, effects on beam, 42
International System of Units (SI), 3, 4,
10–11
International Vocabulary of Metrology
(VIM), 169, 199
IS see imperial system
L
LAS see Leica Absolute Scanner
laser diodes see semiconductor lasers
laser light technology, basic principles, 25–34
Laser-Radar, 32–33, 33, 34
lasers
classes, 26–27
definition, 28
safety, 25–27, 26
types, 29–30
laser scanners
capabilities by type, 22
data acquisition variables, 41
handheld devices, 49–55
history, 20–22
retrofitted onto Coordinate Measuring
Machines, 47
see also scanning equipment
laser scanning, definition, 195
laser source, future technology, 163
laser trackers
architectural ornament replication, 146, 147
definition, 195
generating station turbine replacement case
study, 158, 159, 160
history, 19–20
metrology-level handheld scanners, 54–55
racing yacht boat build project,
119, 120, 121
tokamak fusion machine case study,
143–144, 143, 144
layer cut depth, topographical mapping, 138
least squares adjustment, data fitting, 99, 195
Leica Absolute Scanner (LAS), 144, 145, 146
Leica Geosystems, 21
laser scanners, 21, 21
laser trackers, 19, 144, 144, 145, 146
Nova M60 “multi-station”, 19
Scan Station, 154
LiDAR pucks, SLAM laser systems, 59–60, 61
LIDAR systems, 33–34
applications, 34
characteristics, 58
Claiborne Pell Bridge case study, 156
comparison with focused lasers, 26
definition, 32
equipment types, 56–59
extended reality, 164
Fonthill Castle case study, 149
future technology, 163
history, 56
Laser-Radar comparison, 32, 33
limitations to be overcome, 163
limiting parameters, 29
RADAR comparison, 29, 32, 33
scan controls, 58–59
time of flight versus phase-based scanners,
56–58, 57
unmanned aerial vehicles/autonomous
vehicles, 165
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation, laser acronym, 28
Light Image Detection and Ranging, LiDAR
acronym, 56
light scattering, diffuse reflecting surfaces, 41
limitations of laser scanning, 35–36
line of sight problems, 42
liquid (dye) lasers, 30
local (topocentric) coordinate system, surveying
coordinates, 91
long distance measurement, 35, 35
long-range scanning, mapping, 95–96
lost information, need for reverse engineering, 112
M
machined parts, automated 3D scanning
devices, 166–167, 167
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), used to
create point clouds for 3D printing, 166, 167
manual registering of clouds, 96
manufacturing industry
3D scanning in mechanized inspection, 168
future use of scanners, 166
mapping
uncertainty, 102–107
see also Simultaneous Localization
and Mapping
mapping techniques, post-processing, 85, 93–97,
94, 95, 96
mapping terrain, LIDAR use in drones,
165, 165206 Index
material properties, measurement accuracy
effects, 106–107, 107
matte surfaces, diffuse reflection, 41
maximum permissible error (MPE),
93–94, 195–196
measurand, definition, 196
measurement accuracy, effects of material
properties, 106–107, 107
measurement result, 196
measurements
functionality of data acquisition software,
68, 70
using processed datasets, 83, 83
measurement traceability, 196
measurement uncertainty, 196
measuring instruments
history, 14–22
measuring systems, 196
measuring systems, 2, 3–13, 10–11, 12, 196
mechanized inspection, 3D scanning in
manufacturing process, 168
meshes
data collection software, 67–68
definition, 196
file formats, 117–118
using polygonal mesh files, 81–82
metric system
history, 1, 2–3, 2, 11
unit conversions, 176–181
USA, 11–13
metrology
definition, 2, 196
history, 1–24
milestones, 22–23
metrology-level handheld scanners, 54–55, 55
micrometer (instrument), 14
micrometer (micron), 194
mile (unit of measurement), 10, 176, 177
military equipment manufacture, history, 13–14
mil (one-thousandth of an inch), 5
mirror like surfaces, data acquisition
characteristics, 41
mobile mapping see Simultaneous Localization
and Mapping
mobile phones see smartphones
modeling
architects and engineers, 134
polygonal mesh, 81–82, 81, 117
software, 65
see also documentation; 4D models;
meshes; reverse engineering
model updating, digital twins, 142
MPE see maximum permissible error
MRI see magnetic resonance imaging
multi-station instruments, 19
N
National Institute for Standards and
Technology (NIST), 4
National Metrology Laboratories and
Institutes, 187–190
Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum
garnet) lasers, 31
NIST see National Institute for Standards and
Technology
noise
affecting accuracy level, 116
background noise from other light
sources, 36
definitions, 82, 196
discrimination threshold, 194
from surface characteristics, 51
reduction
post-processing, 108–109
processing stage, 78, 82, 151
scanners, 58
nominal dimensions, 197
noncontact measurement, 20–21, 22, 47,
130–131, 166–167, 168, 197
nonparametric models (dumb models),
197
NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline)
curves and surfaces, 125, 196, 197
O
Object files (.obj), 118
ongoing sensor data, building use information
for digital twins, 142
organizations, 169–170
outliers, 78, 108, 196
overlapping scans, mapping, 96
P
pace (unit of measurement), 10
parametric model, 197
PCMM see portable coordinate
measuring machine
phase-based long-range laser scanner
see LIDAR
phase-based scanners, versus time of flight
scanners, 56–58, 57
photographs
imagery used with scans, 58
photogrammetry, 39, 40, 50, 61–63, 93,
112, 162, 197
SLAM 3D mapping, 59, 60Index 207
photon avalanche, gas lasers, 29
piping and ductwork in buildings, 140, 141
pitch, rotational motion, 92
plastic materials, logistical issues when using a
contact probe CMM, 47
PLY (Polygon File Format/Stanford Triangle
Format) files, 118
point clouds, 72–78, 73
data collection software, 67–68, 70
definition, 197
density, 73–74, 75
editing functions, 68
multiple scans, 76–78, 77
resolution level, 74
scanner distance and angle of incidence,
75–76, 75, 76, 76, 77
scan spacing and overlap, 76–77
surface characteristics of object, 75
surface fluctuations, 116
time available, 77–78
point identification, data acquisition
software, 71
polygonal mesh data files, 81–82, 81,
117–118
polygonal modeling, 197
Polygon file format (PLY), 118
Polyworks, 66, 81
portable coordinate measuring machine
(PCMM), Laser-Radar comparison, 34
portable devices, see also smartphones;
tablet computers
portable scanners
articulated arm Coordinate Measuring
Machines, 48–49
level-one Coordinate Metrology Society
certification, 184, 184
post-processing, 85–110
coordinate systems, 85, 86–92
future automation, 168
mapping, 85, 93–97, 94, 95, 96
sampling point cloud, 108–110, 108, 109
scaling, 85, 93
software functions needed, 85–97
typical workflow, 108–110
uncertainty determination, 85
post-processing type functions in data acquisition software, 68–69
power supplies, future scanning
technology, 162
precision
cost of scanners, 55
decreased in SLAM technology, 61
definition, 197–198
Laser–Radar, 32
level required for reverse engineering, 116
probes
definition, 197
see also contact measuring probes
pulsed laser beams, measuring distance, 31
Q
quality assurance, Coordinate Measuring
Machines, 43, 45, 48
quick measurements for field checking, data
acquisition software, 70
R
RADAR, LIDAR comparison, 29, 32
random point cloud sampling, 108, 109
range of scanners, 58
real surfaces, reflective characteristics, 41–43
reference books, 169
reference dimension, 198
reference model, 198
reference systems, spatial/coordinate, 198
registration, post-processing mapping
techniques, 94–95
repeatability
history of measurement, 14
and repeatability condition, 198
see also gage repeatability and reproducibility
replicating ornamental features on
buildings, 137
reproducibility and reproducibility
condition, 198
research facility, tokamak fusion machine case
study, 142–145, 143–145
resolution
of display devices, 198
of measuring instruments, 58, 74, 198
resources, 169–190
reverse engineering
AEC industry, 111, 133–160
applications, 134–135
architectural ornament replication case
study, 146–149
building documentation, 136–137
case studies, 118–131, 142–160
Cessna Caravan aircraft performance
upgrade case study, 121–123, 122, 123
creating artwork, 129–131, 130, 131
definition, 198
design theft, 115
industrial/consumer applications, 111–132
infrastructure preservation, Claiborne Pell
Bridge case study, 153–157208 Index
modeling of scanned data, 65
needs in industry, 112
reflecting design intent or as-built
condition, 115
scanning parts in place, 107
surface and forensic structural analysis of
buildings, 137–139
use of coordinate systems, 86
see also documentation; modeling
Rhode Island Turnpike and Bridge Authority
(RITBA), Claiborne Pell Bridge case
study, 153
roads, scanning road surface, 153–157,
155–156, 157
robots, scanning routes within buildings,
166
rod (unit of measurement), 7–8, 8, 176
roll, rotational motion, 92
roller coaster inspection, 126–129, 128, 129
root mean square, 98
rotational motion, roll/pitch/yaw, 92, 92
rusticated masonry, building documentation,
138, 149
S
SA see Spatial Analyzer
safety issues, lasers, 25–27
sampling point cloud, post-processing,
108–110, 108, 109
Sanayei, Masoud, 126–127
scaling
post-processing, 85, 93
thermal compensation, 92, 113
scan alignment and drift, 79–80
scan bounding, data acquisition software, 70
scan density, 73–74, 75–76, 75, 155, 198
scanner distance/proximity to object,
effects, 42, 75–76
scanning equipment, 39–64
capability of unit types, 22
categories, 39, 43–63
future development, 162–163
history, 20–22
principles, 39–43
scan quality, building documentation purposes,
135, 136–137, 136
scan registration, 78–80, 151–152
scan speed, 198
scan to mesh systems, additive
manufacturing/3D printing, 117
sculpture
architectural ornament replication case
study, 146–149
reverse engineering, 129–131, 130,
131, 146–149
self-contained handheld scanners, 51–52, 52
semiconductor lasers (laser diodes),
30–31, 31, 32
semi-tethered handheld scanners, 53–54, 54
sensing technology
LIDAR use in unmanned aerial vehicles/
autonomous vehicles, 165
solid-state systems, 163
settings adjustment, data acquisition
software, 69
SI see International System of Units
Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
(SLAM), 59–61, 60, 163
SLA/SL see stereolithography
smartphones
augmented reality, 164
photogrammetry, 63, 162
self-contained handheld scanners, 53
SMR see spherically mounted retroreflector
soaking, stabilization to ambient temperature
before scanning, 107
software, 65–84
Claiborne Pell Bridge case study, 156
data collection, 65, 66–71
data export options, 72
data processing and registration, 78–80
future development, 162
handheld scanners, 49, 50, 51, 53
history, 22
inspection software, 71–72
list, 171
overcoming processing limitations, 85
photogrammetry, 63
polygonal mesh, 81–82, 81
post-processing, 85–110
processed dataset use, 82–84, 83
SLAM scanning systems, 60, 61
survey controls, 80, 80
theodolites, 18
types, 65
solid-state lasers, 31–32
Spatial Analyzer (SA), 66, 94, 95, 102, 108,
109, 144–145
spatial reference system (SRS), 198
specular surfaces, data acquisition characteristics, 41
spherical coordinate system, 89–90, 89
spherically mounted retroreflector (SMR),
54, 143, 195
sports industry, future use of scanners, 166
SRS see spatial reference system
STA see Station Line
StandardAero case study, 121–123, 122, 123Index 209
standard deviation, 98–99, 199
standardization of weights and measures,
1, 2, 22–23
Standard Tessellation Language/Standard Triangle Language, 199
see also STL file format
Stanford Triangle Format files, 118
Station Line (STA), aircraft coordinate
system, 90, 90
STEP file format, 72
stereolithography (SLA/SL), 199
STL (STereo-Lithography/Standard Triangle
Language/Standard Tessellation Language)
file format
structured light scanning
accordion fringe interferometry versus blue
or white light scanning, 50
equipment types, 39, 40, 50–51
future technology, 163
handheld scanners, 50, 51
principles, 50
structured meshes
file formats, 117–118
see also STL file format
surface characteristics, affecting laser reflection, 36–37, 41, 41, 75
surface characteristics of buildings, forensic
study, 137–139
surge/sway/heave, translational motion naval
vessels, 92
survey controls, 80, 80
surveying, history, 16–19
surveying coordinate system, 91, 91
suspension bridge, Claiborne Pell Bridge case
study, 153–157, 155–156, 157
system accuracy, contribution to uncertainty, 105
systematic errors, correction, 193
T
tablet computers, 50, 53, 54, 147, 159
targets
alignment, 51, 78–79
reference marks for scans, 79, 79,
149, 150, 151
registration, 77–78, 78
technology, future development, 162–163
tenth (one-tenth of one-thousandth of
an inch), 5
terrestrial laser scanners
applications, 56
LIDAR, 56–59
time of flight versus phase-based scanners, 56–58
tethered (computer-connected) handheld scanners, 52–53, 53
theodolites, history, 17–19
thermal/temperature compensation, 92,
106, 113, 199
see also coefficient of thermal expansion
third-party software, 66
thou (one-thousandth of an inch), 5
3D best-fitting, mapping, 100–101
3D Manufacturing Format files (.3MF), 118
3D printing
architectural ornament replication case
study, 148–149, 148
joints and bone structures, 166, 167
scan to mesh systems, 117
time-of-flight scanners
handheld scanners, 50–51
long distance measurements, 36, 57
principles, 31, 35–36, 57
replacing interferometers, 19
versus phase-based scanners, 56–58, 57
tokamak fusion machine, case study, 142–145,
143–145
tooling balls, 101, 199
topocentric (local) coordinate system, surveying coordinates, 91
topographic mapping, walls, 137–138, 138
total station (theodolites) (TS/TST) instrument, 18–19, 18
total station (TS) instrument, 37, 80, 91,
95, 155
touch probes see contact measuring probes
tradeshows, 171–172
transit instruments, 17–18
translational motion naval vessels, surge/
sway/heave, 92
transportation industry, autonomous vehicles
using scanners, 165–166, 165
triangulating laser scanners, 39–40, 40, 43
tripod-mounted LIDAR terrestrial laser
scanners, 56, 56
TS see total station
turbine replacement case study, Bear Swamp
Generating Station, 158–160, 159
U
UAVs see unmanned aerial vehicles
uncertainty
contributing factors, 105–107
environmental effects, 105–107
estimations, 102–105, 103
instrumental uncertainty, 195, 196
measurement uncertainty, 196210 Index
procedural and environmental uncertainty, 196
reduction using multiple scanning
paths, 145
system accuracy effects, 105
Unified Spatial Metrology Network (USMN),
102, 144–145
uniform grid sampling, post-processing,
109–110, 109
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
datums, 59, 80, 85
units of measurement
angles, 179
area, 177–178
conversions, 176–181
England, 4
history, 2–13
International System, 2, 10–11
length, 3–10, 4, 6, 8, 9, 176–177
mass, 178–179
metric system, 2–4, 4
possible confusion when using STL file
format, 117–118
pressure, 180–181
systems, 3, 11–13, 175–176
temperature, 179–180
USA, 11–13
volume, 178
world use, 12
unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs/drones),
LIDAR use, 165, 165, 166
USGS see United States Geological Survey
USMN see Unified Spatial Metrology Network
V
validation, 199
variation from original design, need for reverse
engineering, 112–113
verification, 70, 199
vernier caliper, history, 13, 14
view control, data collection software, 67
VIM see International Vocabulary of
Metrology
Virtual Reality (VR), future technological
development, 163–164
visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping
(vSLAM), 59
VR see Virtual Reality
vSLAM see visual Simultaneous Localization
and Mapping
W
walls, topographic mapping, 137–138, 138
Water Line (WL), aircraft coordinate
system, 90, 90
watertight solid surface models, 131,
131, 147, 148
wavelength distortion due to environmental
effects, 106, 106
wearable SLAM devices, 60, 60, 61
websites, 175
weighted fitting, mapping, 101–102
weights and measures, standardization,
1, 2, 22–23
white light scanners, structured light
scanning, 50
WL see Water Line
X
XR see extended reality
XYZ file format, 72, 83
Y
yard (unit of measurement), 7, 176
yaw (azimuth) rotational motion, 92
Z
ZeroTouch, automated 3D scanning
device, 167–168, 167


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