كتاب Effective Project Management - Traditional, Agile, Extreme, Hybrid
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 كتاب Effective Project Management - Traditional, Agile, Extreme, Hybrid

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Effective Project Management - Traditional, Agile, Extreme, Hybrid
Eighth Edition
Robert K. Wysocki

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Contents at a glance
Preface xxxiii
Introduction xxxvii
Part I Understanding the Project Management Landscape 1
Chapter 1 What Is a Project? 3
Chapter 2 What Is Project Management? 23
Chapter 3 What Is Strategic Project Management? 63
Chapter 4 What Is a Collaborative Project Team? 91
Chapter 5 What Are Project Management Process Groups? 115
Part II Traditional Project Management 151
Chapter 6 How to Scope a TPM Project 153
Chapter 7 How to Plan a TPM Project 191
Chapter 8 How to Launch a TPM Project 263
Chapter 9 How to Execute a TPM Project 313
Chapter 10 How to Close a TPM Project 343
Part III Complex Project Management 353
Chapter 11 Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Landscape 355
Chapter 12 Agile Complex Project Management Models 381xiv Contents at a glance
Chapter 13 Extreme Complex Project Management Models 393
Chapter 14 Hybrid Project Management Framework 405
Chapter 15 Comparing TPM and CPM Models 453
Appendix A Terms and Acronyms 537
Appendix B Case Study: Workforce and Business Development Center 543
Appendix C Case Study: Pizza Delivered Quickly (PDQ) 557
Appendix D Cited References 561
Appendix E What’s on the eiipbs.com Website? 565
Index 569xv
Contents
Preface xxxiii
Introduction xxxvii
Part I Understanding the Project Management Landscape 1
Chapter 1 What Is a Project? 3
Defining a Project 4
Sequence of Activities 5
Unique Activities 5
Complex Activities 5
Connected Activities 5
One Goal 6
Specified Time 6
Within Budget 6
According to Specification 7
A Business-Focused Definition of a Project 7
An Intuitive View of the Project Landscape 8
Defining a Program 10
Defining a Portfolio 10
Understanding the Scope Triangle 11
Scope 11
Quality 12
Cost 12
Time 13
Resources 13
Risk 13
Envisioning the Scope Triangle as a System in Balance 14
Prioritizing the Scope Triangle Variables for Improved
Change Management 15xvi Contents
Applying the Scope Triangle 16
Problem Resolution 16
Scope Change Impact Analysis 16
The Importance of Classifying Projects 17
Establishing a Rule for Classifying Projects 17
Classification by Project Characteristics 17
Classification by Project Application 19
The Contemporary Project Environment 20
High Speed 20
High Change 21
Lower Cost 21
Increasing Levels of Complexity 22
More Uncertainty 22
Discussion Questions 22
Chapter 2 What Is Project Management? 23
Understanding the Fundamentals of Project Management 24
What Business Situation Is Being Addressed by This Project? 25
What Does the Business Need to Do? 25
What Are You Proposing to Do? 26
How Will You Do It? 26
How Will You Know You Did It? 26
How Well Did You Do? 26
Challenges to Effective Project Management 28
Flexibility and Adaptability 28
Deep Understanding of the Business and Its Systems 30
Take Charge of the Project and Its Management 30
Project Management Is Organized Common Sense 30
Managing the Creeps 31
Scope Creep 31
Hope Creep 32
Effort Creep 32
Feature Creep 32
What Are Requirements, Really? 32
Introducing Project Management Life Cycles 37
Traditional Project Management Approaches 40
Low Complexity 41
Few Scope Change Requests 41
Well-Understood Technology Infrastructure 42
Low Risk 42
Experienced and Skilled Project Teams 42
Plan-Driven TPM Projects 42
Linear Project Management Life Cycle Model 43
Incremental Project Management Life Cycle Model 44
Agile Project Management Approaches 45
A Critical Problem without a Known Solution 45
A Previously Untapped Business Opportunity 46Contents xvii
Change-Driven APM Projects 46
APM Projects Are Critical to the Organization 46
Meaningful Client Involvement Is Essential 46
APM Projects Use Small Co-located Teams 47
Iterative Project Management Life Cycle Model 48
Adaptive Project Management Life Cycle Model 49
Extreme Project Management Approach 50
The xPM Project Is a Research and Development Project 51
The xPM Project Is Very High Risk 51
The Extreme Model 52
Emertxe Project Management Approach 54
A New Technology without a Known Application 55
A Solution Out Looking for a Problem to Solve 55
Hybrid Project Management Approach 55
Recap of PMLC Models 56
Similarities between the PMLC Models 57
Differences between the PMLC Models 57
Choosing the Best-Fit PMLC Model 57
Total Cost 58
Duration 59
Market Stability 59
Technology 59
Business Climate 59
Number of Departments Affected 60
Organizational Environment 60
Team Skills and Competencies 60
Discussion Questions 61
Chapter 3 What Is Strategic Project Management? 63
Definition of Strategic Project Management 64
The Business Environment: A View from the Top 65
Business Climate 66
PESTEL 68
Porter’s Five Forces Model 69
SWOT 69
Market Opportunities 71
BCG Growth-Share Matrix 71
How to Use the BCG Growth-Share Matrix 73
How Are You Going to Allocate Your Resources? 73
Enterprise Capacity 73
SWOT 75
Value Chain Analysis 75
VRIO 76
Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics Model 77
Vision/Mission 78
Strategies 80
Tactics 81xviii Contents
OST Dependency Structure 83
What Is the Enterprise Project RASCI Matrix? 84
Complex Project Profiling 84
Putting It All Together 89
Discussion Questions 89
Chapter 4 What Is a Collaborative Project Team? 91
Overview 92
The Complex Project Team 93
Project Executive 97
Core Team 98
Project Sponsor 98
Process Co-Manager 98
Product Co-Manager 98
Development Team Leader 98
Client Team Leader 98
Business Systems Engineer and Business Analyst 98
Process Team and Product Team 99
Selecting the Project Team 99
Co-Managers Define Project Team Structure
and Core Team Roles 99
Co-Managers Populate the Roles with Skill Requirements 101
Gain Approval of the Staffing Plan 101
Using the Co-Manager Model 101
Establishing Meaningful Client Involvement 103
The Challenges to Meaningful Client Involvement 104
What If the Client Team Does Not Understand
the HPM Framework? 105
Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Facilitator-Led Training 106
Custom-Designed, Instructor-Led Training 106
Real-Time, Consultant-Led Training 106
What If You Can’t Get the Client to Be Meaningfully Involved? 107
What If the Client Is Hesitant to Get Involved? 108
What If the Client Wants to Get Too Involved? 108
Stakeholder Management 109
Who Are the HPM Framework Stakeholders? 110
Challenges to Attaining and Sustaining Meaningful Client
Involvement 111
Always Use the Language of the Client 111
Maintain a Continuous Brainstorming Culture 112
Establish an Open and Honest Team Environment 112
Use a Co-Project Manager Model 112
Discussion Questions 113
Chapter 5 What Are Project Management Process Groups? 115
Overview of the 10 Project Management
Knowledge Areas 116Contents xix
Project Integration Management 116
Project Scope Management 117
Project Schedule Management 117
Project Cost Management 118
Project Quality Management 118
Quality Planning Process 119
Quality Assurance Process 119
Quality Control Process 119
Project Resource Management 120
Project Communications Management 120
Who Are the Project Stakeholders? 121
What Do They Need to Know about the Project? 121
How Should Their Needs Be Met? 121
Project Risk Management 121
Risk Identification 123
Risk Assessment 124
Risk Mitigation 128
Risk Monitoring 128
Project Procurement Management 129
Vendor Solicitation 130
Vendor Evaluation 133
Types of Contracts 137
Discussion Points for Negotiating the Final Contract 138
Final Contract Negotiation 139
Vendor Management 139
Project Stakeholder Management 143
Overview of the Five Process Groups 144
The Initiating Process Group 144
The Planning Process Group 145
The Executing Process Group 146
The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group 147
The Closing Process Group 147
Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups 148
How to Use the Mapping 148
Using Process Groups to Define PMLC Models 149
A Look Ahead: Mapping Process Groups to
Form Complex PMLC Models 149
Discussion Questions 149
Part II Traditional Project Management 151
Chapter 6 How to Scope a TPM Project 153
Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Scope
a Project 154
Managing Client Expectations 155
Wants vs. Needs 155
Project Scoping Process 156xx Contents
Conducting Conditions of Satisfaction 157
Establishing Clarity of Purpose 158
Specifying Business Outcomes 159
Conducting COS Milestone Reviews 159
The Project Scoping Meeting 159
Purpose 160
Attendees 160
Agenda 161
Project Scoping Meeting Deliverables 161
Creating the RBS 162
Stakeholder Participation in Requirements Elicitation and
Decomposition 164
Approaches to Requirements Elicitation and Decomposition 165
Shuttle Diplomacy and Resolving Requirements Elicitation
and Decomposition Differences 170
Project Classification 171
Determining the Best-Fit PMLC Model 173
Writing the POS 174
Submitting the POS 187
Discussion Questions 190
Chapter 7 How to Plan a TPM Project 191
Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Plan a Project 192
The Importance of Planning 193
Using Application Software Packages to Plan a Project 194
Determining the Need for a Software Package 194
Project Planning Tools 195
Sticky Notes 196
Marking Pens 196
Whiteboard 196
How Much Time Should Planning Take? 197
Planning and Conducting Joint Project Planning Sessions 198
Planning the JPPS 199
Attendees 200
Facilities 202
Equipment 203
The Complete Planning Agenda 203
Deliverables 204
Running the Planning Session 205
Building the WBS 206
Using the RBS to Build the WBS 206
Uses for the WBS 208
Thought-Process Tool 209
Architectural-Design Tool 209
Planning Tool 209
Project-Status-Reporting Tool 209Contents xxi
Generating the WBS 210
Converting the RBS to the WBS 210
Six Criteria to Test for Completeness in the WBS 212
Status and Completion Are Measurable 212
The Activity Is Bounded 213
The Activity Has a Deliverable 214
Time and Cost Are Easily Estimated 214
Activity Duration Is Within Acceptable Limits 214
Work Assignments Are Independent 214
The Seventh Criterion for Judging Completeness 215
Exceptions to the Completion Criteria Rule 215
Approaches to Building the WBS 216
Noun-Type Approaches 218
Verb-Type Approaches 218
Organizational Approaches 219
Selecting the Best Approach 220
Representing the WBS 220
Estimating 223
Estimating Duration 223
Resource Loading versus Task Duration 224
Variation in Task Duration 226
Six Methods for Estimating Task Duration 226
Extrapolating Based on Similarity to Other Tasks 227
Studying Historical Data 227
Seeking Expert Advice 228
Applying the Delphi Technique 228
Applying the Three-Point Technique 229
Applying the Wide-Band Delphi Technique 230
Estimation Life Cycles 230
Estimating Resource Requirements 231
People as Resources 232
Resource Organizational Structure 233
Determining Resource Requirements 234
Resource Planning 234
Estimating Cost 235
Cost Budgeting 237
Cost Control 237
Constructing the Project Network Diagram 238
Envisioning a Complex Project Network Diagram 238
Benefits to Network-Based Scheduling 239
Building the Network Diagram Using the
Precedence Diagramming Method 240
Dependencies 242
Constraints 243
Technical Constraints 244
Management Constraints 246xxii Contents
Interproject Constraints 246
Date Constraints 247
Using the Lag Variable 247
Creating an Initial Project Network Schedule 248
Critical Path 250
Near-Critical Path 252
Analyzing the Initial Project Network Diagram 253
Compressing the Schedule 253
Management Reserve 255
Writing an Effective Project Proposal 256
Contents of the Project Proposal 257
Executive Summary 257
Background 257
Objective 257
Overview of the Approach to Be Taken 257
Detailed Statement of the Work 258
Time and Cost Summary 258
Appendices 258
Format of the Project Proposal 258
Gaining Approval to Launch the Project 258
Discussion Questions 259
Chapter 8 How to Launch a TPM Project 263
Using the Tools, Templates, and Processes to Launch a Project 264
Recruiting the Project Team 265
Core Team Members 266
When to Select the Core Team Members 266
Selection Criteria 266
Client Team 269
When to Select the Client Team 269
Selection Criteria 269
Contract Team Members 269
Implications of Adding Contract Team Members 270
Selection Criteria 270
Developing a Team Deployment Strategy 271
Developing a Team Development Plan 272
Conducting the Project Kick-Off Meeting 272
Purpose of the Project Kick-Off Meeting 273
Attendees 273
Facilities and Equipment 274
Sponsor-Led Part 274
Project Manager–Led Part 275
The Working Session Agenda 275
Introducing the Project Team Members to Each Other 275
Writing the Project Definition Statement 276
Reviewing the Project Plan 277Contents xxiii
Finalizing the Project Schedule 277
Writing Work Packages 277
Establishing Team Operating Rules 277
Situations that Require Team Operating Rules 278
Problem Solving 278
Decision Making 280
Conflict Resolution 281
Consensus Building 282
Brainstorming 283
Team Meetings 284
Team War Room 286
Physical Layout 286
Variations 287
Operational Uses 287
Managing Scope Changes 287
The Scope Change Management Process 288
Management Reserve 290
Scope Bank 292
Managing Team Communications 292
Establishing a Communications Model 292
Timing 293
Content 293
Choosing Effective Channels 294
Managing Communication beyond the Team 296
Managing Communications with the Sponsor 296
Upward Communication Filtering and “Good News” 297
Communicating with Other Stakeholders 298
Assigning Resources 298
Leveling Resources 299
Acceptably Leveled Schedule 301
Resource Leveling Strategies 301
Utilizing Available Slack 302
Shifting the Project Finish Date 302
Smoothing 303
Alternative Methods of Scheduling Tasks 303
Further Decomposition of Tasks 303
Stretching Tasks 304
Assigning Substitute Resources 304
Cost Impact of Resource Leveling 305
Finalizing the Project Schedule 305
Writing Work Packages 307
Purpose of a Work Package 307
Format of a Work Package 308
Work Package Assignment Sheet 308
Work Package Description Report 309
Discussion Questions 311xxiv Contents
Chapter 9 How to Execute a TPM Project 313
Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Monitor and Control 314
Establishing Your Progress Reporting System 314
Types of Project Status Reports 315
Current Period Reports 315
Cumulative Reports 315
Exception Reports 315
Stoplight Reports 316
Variance Reports 317
How and What Information to Update 319
Frequency of Gathering and Reporting Project Progress 320
Variances 321
Positive Variances 321
Negative Variances 321
Applying Graphical Reporting Tools 322
Gantt Charts 322
Stoplight Reports 322
Burn Charts 323
Milestone Trend Charts 324
Earned Value Analysis 326
Integrating Milestone Trend Charts and Earned Value Analysis 331
Integrating Earned Value 331
Integrating Milestone Trend Data 332
Managing the Scope Bank 334
Building and Maintaining the Issues Log 334
Managing Project Status Meetings 335
Who Should Attend Status Meetings? 335
When Are Status Meetings Held? 336
What Is the Purpose of a Status Meeting? 336
What Is the Status Meeting Format? 336
The 15-Minute Daily Status Meeting 337
Problem Management Meetings 338
Defining a Problem Escalation Strategy 338
Project Manager–Based Strategies 339
Resource Manager–Based Strategies 339
Client-Based Strategies 340
The Escalation Strategy Hierarchy 340
Gaining Approval to Close the Project 341
Discussion Questions 341
Chapter 10 How to Close a TPM Project 343
Using Tools, Templates, and Processes to Close a TPM Project 344
Writing and Maintaining Client Acceptance Procedures 344
Closing a TPM Project 345
Getting Client Acceptance of Deliverables 345
Ceremonial Acceptance 345
Formal Acceptance 346Contents xxv
Installing Project Deliverables 346
Phased Approach 346
Cut-Over Approach 346
Parallel Approach 347
By-Business-Unit Approach 347
Documenting the Project 347
Reference for Future Changes in Deliverables 347
Historical Record for Estimating Duration and
Cost on Future Projects, Activities, and Tasks 347
Training Resource for New Project Managers 348
Input for Further Training and Development of the
Project Team 348
Input for Performance Evaluation by the
Functional Managers of the Project Team Members 348
Conduct the Post-implementation Audit 349
Write the Final Report 351
Celebrate Success 352
Discussion Questions 352
Part III Complex Project Management 353
Chapter 11 Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Landscape 355
What Is Complex Project Management? 356
Implementing CPM Projects 357
Fully Supported Production Versions of Partial Solutions Are
Released to the End User Quarterly or Semi-Annually 357
Intermediate Non-production Versions Are
Released to a Focus Group Every 2–4 Weeks 358
Co-located CPM Project Teams 358
Cross-Project Dependencies 359
Project Portfolio Management 359
What Is Lean Agile Project Management? 360
Understanding the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain of Projects 361
Requirements 364
Flexibility 365
Adaptability 366
Risk vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 367
Team Cohesiveness vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 368
Communications vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 369
Client Involvement vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 370
The Client’s Comfort Zone 372
Ownership by the Client 372
Client Sign-Off 373
Specification vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 373
Scope Change vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 375
Business Value vs. the Complexity/Uncertainty Domain 377
Discussion Questions 379xxvi Contents
Chapter 12 Agile Complex Project Management Models 381
Iterative Project Management Life Cycle 382
Definition of the Iterative PMLC Model 382
Most of the Solution Is Clearly Known 383
Likely to Be Multiple Scope Change Requests 384
Concern about Lack of Client Involvement 384
Scoping Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model 384
Planning Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model 385
Launching Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model 386
Executing Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model 387
Closing Phase of an Iterative PMLC Model 387
Adapting and Integrating the APM Toolkit 387
Scoping the Next Iteration/Cycle 388
Planning the Next Iteration/Cycle 389
Launching the Next Iteration/Cycle 389
Executing the Next Iteration/Cycle 390
Closing the Next Iteration/Cycle 390
Deciding to Conduct the Next Iteration/Cycle 390
Closing the Project 391
Discussion Questions 391
Chapter 13 Extreme Complex Project Management Models 393
The Complex Project Landscape 394
What Is Extreme Project Management? 395
Extreme Project Management Life Cycle Model 395
What Is Emertxe Project Management? 396
The Emertxe Project Management Life Cycle 396
When to Use an Emertxe PMLC Model 396
Research and Development Projects 397
Problem Solving Projects 397
Using the Tools, Templates, and Processes
for Maximum Extreme PMLC Model Effectiveness 397
Scoping the Next Phase 398
Planning the Next Phase 398
Launching the Next Phase 399
Executing the Next Phase 399
Closing the Phase 400
Deciding to Conduct the Next Phase 400
Closing the Project 400
Using the Tools, Templates, and Processes for
Maximum xPM and MPx Effectiveness 400
Scoping the Next Phase 401
Planning the Next Phase 401
Launching the Next Phase 402
Executing the Next Phase 403
Closing the Phase 403Contents xxvii
Deciding to Conduct the Next Phase 403
Closing the Project 403
Discussion Questions 404
Chapter 14 Hybrid Project Management Framework 405
What Is a Hybrid Project? 406
What Is Hybrid Project Management? 407
A Robust Hybrid PMLC Model 407
Ideation Phase 408
Set-up Phase 408
Execution Phase 408
What Is a Hybrid Project Manager? 409
The Occasional Project Manager 409
The Career Project Manager 409
The Hybrid Project Manager 410
Following and Creating Recipes 411
Characteristics of the Hybrid Project Manager 412
What Does a Hybrid Project Manager Want? 412
Background of the Effective Complex
Project Management (ECPM) Framework 415
What Does the ECPM Contain? 416
ECPM Process Flow Diagram 417
Project Ideation Phase 420
Step 1: Develop a Business Case 420
Step 2: Elicit Requirements 420
Step 3: Write a Project Overview Statement 421
Project Set-up Phase 421
Step 4: Classify the Project 421
Step 5: Choose the Best-Fit PMLC Model Template 422
Step 6: Assess Project Characteristics 424
Step 7: Modify PMLC Model Template 424
Project Execution Phase 425
Step 8: Define Version Scope 426
Step 9: Plan the Next Cycle 426
Step 10: Build the Next Cycle Deliverables 426
Step 11: Conduct Client Checkpoint 427
Step 12: Close the Version 430
Variations 430
Proof of Concept 431
Revising the Version Plan 431
Imbedding ECPM in Traditional Project Management 432
The Hybrid PMLC Project Types 434
Traditional Hybrid Projects 435
Agile Hybrid Projects 435
Extreme Hybrid Projects 436
Emertxe Hybrid Projects 436
Hybrid Project Types 436xxviii Contents
Process/Product Design 437
Process/Product Improvement 437
Problem Solution 437
Standards and the Hybrid Framework 438
Project Ideation: What Are We Going to Do? 440
Input Phase: Define the Problem or Opportunity 440
Project Set-up: How Will We Do It? 442
Project Execution: How well did we do? 443
The Hybrid Team Structure 444
Co-Project Managers 446
The Occasional PM: Project Support Office 448
Vetted Portfolio of Tools, Templates, and Processes 449
Coaching and Consulting 450
Targeted and Customized Training 450
PSO Support Services for Business Unit Managers 450
Discussion Questions 451
Chapter 15 Comparing TPM and CPM Models 453
Linear PMLC Model 454
Characteristics 455
Complete and Clearly Defined Goal, Solution,
Requirements, Functions, and Features 455
Few Expected Scope Change Requests 455
Routine and Repetitive Activities 456
Use of Established Templates 457
Strengths 458
The Entire Project Is Scheduled at the Beginning
of the Project 458
Resource Requirements Are Known from the Start 459
Linear PMLC Models Do Not Require the Most
Skilled Team Members 459
Team Members Do Not Have to Be Co-located 459
Weaknesses 459
Does Not Accommodate Change Very Well 460
Costs Too Much 460
Takes Too Long before Any Deliverables Are Produced 460
Requires Complete and Detailed Plans 460
Must Follow a Rigid Sequence of Processes 461
Is Not Focused on Client Value 461
When to Use a Linear PMLC Model 461
Specific Linear PMLC Models 461
Standard Waterfall Model 461
Rapid Development Waterfall Model 462
Incremental PMLC Model 464
Characteristics 464
Strengths 465
Produces Business Value Early in the Project 465
Enables You to Better Schedule Scarce Resources 466Contents xxix
Can Accommodate Minor Scope Change Requests between
Increments 466
Offers a Product Improvement Opportunity 466
More Focused on Client Business Value Than the
Linear PMLC Model 467
Weaknesses 467
The Team May Not Remain Intact Between Increments 467
This Model Requires Handoff Documentation between
Increments 467
The Model Must Follow a Defined Set of Processes 468
You Must Define Increments Based on Function and
Feature Dependencies Rather Than Business Value 468
You Must Have More Client Involvement Than
Linear PMLC Models 469
An Incremental PMLC Model Takes Longer to Execute
Than the Linear PMLC Model 469
Partitioning the Functions May Be Problematic 470
When to Use an Incremental PMLC Model 470
Incremental PMLC Models 470
Staged Delivery Waterfall Model 471
Feature-Driven Development Model 472
Iterative PMLC Model 474
Characteristics 475
Complete and Clearly Defined Goal 475
Minor Parts of the Solution Not Yet Defined 475
Incomplete Requirements 475
Some Scope Change Requests Are Expected 476
The Solution Is Known, but Not to the Needed Depth 476
Often Uses Iconic or Simulated Prototypes to
Discover the Complete Solution 476
Strengths 476
Based on Just-in-Time Planning 477
Accommodates Change Very Well 477
Is Focused on Generating Business Value 477
Client Reviews Partial Solutions for Improvement 477
Can Process Scope Changes between Iterations 478
Adaptable to Changing Business Conditions 478
Weaknesses 478
Risk Losing Team Members between Iterations 478
Subject to Losing Priority between Iterations 478
Resource Requirements Unclear at Project Launch 479
Requires a More Actively Involved Client Than
TPM Projects 479
Requires Co-located Teams 479
Difficult to Implement Intermediate Solutions 479
Final Solution Cannot Be Defined at the Start of the Project 479xxx Contents
When to Use an Iterative PMLC Model 480
Specific Iterative PMLC Models 480
Prototyping Model 480
Evolutionary Development Waterfall Model 481
Rational Unified Process (RUP) 483
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) 485
Adaptive Software Development (ASD) 488
Scrum 490
Adaptive PMLC Model 492
Characteristics 493
Iterative Structure 493
Just-in-Time Planning 493
Critical Mission Projects 493
Thrives on Change through Learning and Discovery 493
Continuously Reviewed and Adapted to
Changing Conditions 494
Strengths 494
Continuously Realigns the Project Management Process to
Accommodate Changing Conditions 494
Does Not Waste Time on Non-Value-Added Work 494
Avoids All Management Issues Processing Scope Change
Requests 495
Does Not Waste Time Planning Uncertainty 495
Provides Maximum Business Value within the
Given Time and Cost Constraints 495
Weaknesses of the Adaptive PMLC Model 495
Must Have Meaningful Client Involvement 496
Cannot Identify Exactly What Will Be Delivered
at the End of the Project 496
When to Use an Adaptive PMLC Model 496
Hybrid Project Management Framework 496
The HPM Framework Is an Industrial-Strength Model 497
The HPM Framework Project Team 498
The HPM Framework Roots 498
Scope Is Variable 499
The HPM Framework Is Just-in-Time Planning 500
Change Is Expected 500
The HPM Framework Project Contract 501
An HPM Framework Project Is Mission Critical 501
The Role of the Client and the Project Manager
in an HPM Framework Project 502
The HPM Framework Is Not a Recipe to be
Blindly Followed 502
Why Do We Need the HPM Framework? 503
Benefits of APM vs. Other Approaches 503
Core Values of APM 505
An Overview of the HPM Framework Life Cycle 509Contents xxxi
Extreme PMLC Model 516
Characteristics 516
High Speed 516
High Change 517
High Uncertainty 517
Strengths 517
Keeps Options Open as Late as Possible 517
Offers an Early Look at a Number of Partial Solutions 518
Weaknesses 518
May Be Looking for Solutions in All the Wrong Places 518
No Guarantee That Any Acceptable Business
Value Will Result from the Project Deliverables 518
Specific Extreme PMLC Models 518
INSPIRE Extreme PMLC Model 518
INitiate 520
SPeculate 525
Incubate 529
REview 530
Challenges to Project Set-up and Execution 532
Sponsors Have a Hard Time Accepting Variable Scope 532
Achieving and Sustaining Meaningful
Client Involvement through the Phases of the
Chosen PMLC Model 533
Adapting the Chosen PMLC Model to Changing Conditions 533
Delivering Business Value in a Complex Project Landscape 534
Discussion Questions 535
Appendix A Terms and Acronyms 537
Appendix B Case Study: Workforce and Business Development Center 543
Hypothesis 543
Synopsis 543
The Need 544
The Problem 544
The Business Environment 545
The Worker Environment 546
The Learning Environment 547
The Solution 547
Components of the WBDC Model 548
Learning Environment 548
Business Environment 550
Student Environment 550
Business Incubation Center 550
Linkages in the WBDC Model 551
Learning <-> Business Linkages 551
Learning <-> Student Linkages 552
Business <-> Student Linkages 552xxxii Contents
The Business Case for a WBDC 552
Next Steps 554
Putting It All Together 555
Appendix C Case Study: Pizza Delivered Quickly (PDQ) 557
Pizza Factory Locator Sub-system 558
Order Entry Sub-system 558
Logistics Sub-system 558
Order Submit Sub-system 559
Inventory Management Sub-system 559
Routing Sub-system 559
Appendix D Cited References 561
Appendix E What’s on the eiipbs.com Website? 565
Course Master File 565
A Note on the Answer File for the Discussion Questions 566
Additional Chapters 566
Index 56
A
abandonment, cost of, 429
ability to use project management
tools, as selection criteria for core
team members, 269
ability to work across structure and
authorities, as selection criteria for
core team members, 268
ability to work within schedules and
constraints, as selection criteria
for core team members, 268
AC (Avoid Costs), 26
Accept, as a risk response, 128
action, in objective statements, 181
action to be taken, in risk log, 129
activities
bounded, 213–214
complex, 5
connected, 5–6
deliverables of, 214
duration of, 214
sequence of, 5
unique, 5
activity duration estimate, as JPPS
deliverable, 204
Activity level, in RBS, 164
activity schedule, as JPPS
deliverable, 204
adaptability
as a challenge to effective project
management, 28–29
for complex projects, 366
adapting APM Toolkit, 387–391
adaptive cycle plan, 489
Adaptive PMLC model
about, 47, 49–50, 172, 492–493
characteristics of, 493–494
strengths of, 494–495
weaknesses of, 495–496
when to use, 496
Adaptive Software Development
(ASD), 488–490
Adjusted HPM Model Template, 443
advertising, 130
agenda
for Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS), 203–204
for Project Scoping Meeting, 161
working session, 275
Agile Hybrid projects, 435–436
Index
Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme, Hybrid, Eighth Edition.
Robert K. Wysocki.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.570 Index ■ B–B
Agile Manifesto, 356
Agile Project Management (APM)
about, 30, 381–382
adapting APM Toolkit, 387–391
approaches to, 45–50
integrating APM Toolkit, 387–391
Iterative PMLC model, 382–387
allocating resources, 73
analyzing initial project network
diagrams, 253
APM (Agile Project Management)
about, 30, 381–382
adapting APM Toolkit, 387–391
approaches to, 45–50
integrating APM Toolkit, 387–391
Iterative PMLC model, 382–387
APM Toolkit, 387–391
Appendices, in project proposal, 258
application, classifying projects by,
17, 19–20
application software packages,
planning projects using, 194–198
applying
Delphi technique, 228–229
graphical reporting tools, 322–324
Scope Triangle, 16
Three-Point technique, 229–230
Wide-Band Delphi technique, 230
approval
criteria for, 189–190
gaining to close projects, 341
gaining to launch project, 258–259
participants in the process, 188–189
architectural-design tool, 209
ASD (Adaptive Software
Development), 488–490
asking previous vendors, 131
assigning
resources, 298–301, 529
substitute resources, 304
assignment sheet, work package,
308–309
assumptions, listing in POS, 183–184
attachments, to POS, 184–186
attendees
for Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS), 200–202
for Project Kick-Off Meetings,
273–274
at Project Scoping Meeting, 160
status meetings, 335–336
attending trade shows, 131
Avoid, as a risk response, 128
Avoid Costs (AC), 26
avoidant conflict resolution style, 281
B
B2B (Business-to-Business), 67
B2C (Business-to-Consumer), 67
Background, in project proposal, 257
BCG Growth-Share Matrix, 71–73
best-fit PMLC model, determining,
173–174
best-practices constraints, 244–245
bidder questions, 132–133
brainstorming
continuous, 112
team operating rules for, 283–284
breakeven analysis, as POS
attachment, 186
briefing tool, 175–176
Budget estimate, 236
buffer, 292
build iteration, 487
building
initial project network schedules,
248–253
Issues Log, 334–335
Requirements Breakdown
Structure (RBS), 162–164
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS),
206–208, 210–212
Burn charts, 323
Business Analyst, 98, 110, 165, 447Index ■ C–C 571
Business Case, as Project Ideation
deliverable, 442
business climate, PMLC models and,
59
business environment
about, 65–66
business climate, 66–71
complex project profiling, 84–88
enterprise capacity, 73–75
market opportunities, 71–73
Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics
(OST) model, 77–78
OST dependency structure, 83–84
RASCI Matrix, 84
strategies, 80–81
SWOT, 75
tactics, 81–82
Value Chain Analysis, 75–76
Vision and Mission statements,
78–80
VRIO, 76–77
business outcomes, specifying, 159
business process, as an
organizational approach, 220
Business Process Engineers
about, 110
as Scoping Meeting stakeholders,
165
business situation, addressed by
projects, 25
business study, 487
Business Systems Engineers, 98, 447
business unit managers, PSO
support services for, 450–451
business value
about, 31
classifying projects by, 17
complexity/uncertainty domain vs.,
377–378
delivering, 534–535
business-focused projects, 7–8
Business-to-Business (B2B), 67
Business-to-Consumer (B2C), 67
by-business-unit approach, for
installing project deliverables, 347
C
calculating critical path, 251
Career Project Manager (CPM),
409–410
cash cows, in BCG Growth-Share
Matrix, 72
causal relationships, project success
and, 184
CCPM (Critical Chain Project
Management), 292
celebrating success, 352
ceremonial acceptance, 344
change-driven APM projects, 46
channels, choosing for effective
communication, 294–296
choosing
best-fit PMLC model, 57–61
channels for effective
communication, 294–296
Project Team, 99
clarity of purpose, establishing, 158
classifying projects, 17–20
C-Level Sponsors, 110
client acceptance procedures,
writing and maintaining, 344–352
Client Checkpoint, 427, 444, 514–515
client group, at Project Scoping
Meeting, 160
client involvement
in APM projects, 46
challenges to attaining and
sustaining meaningful, 111–113
challenges to meaningful, 104–105
complexity/uncertainty domain vs.,
370–373
client representative, at JPPS, 201
client request, 178
client sign-off, 373572 Index ■ C–C
Client Team
about, 447
for launching TPM projects, 269
Client Team Leader, 98
client-based strategies, 340
client-driven, as core value of APM,
506–507
client-focused, as core value of APM,
505–506
clients
about, 110
as an approved POS audience, 187
in approval process, 189
comfort zone of, 372
managing expectations of,
155–190
ownership by, 372–373
transitioning from vendor to,
141–142
using language of the, 111–112
closing, of TPM projects
about, 343–344
maintaining client acceptance
procedures, 344–352
using tools, templates, and
processes for, 344
writing client acceptance
procedures, 344–352
closing phase, of Iterative PMLC
models, 387
Closing Process Group, 147–148,
400, 403
coaching, 450
Coad, Peter
Java Modeling in Color with UML
(Coad, Lefebvre and DeLuca),
472
Collaborate phase, 489
collaborative conflict resolution
style, 282
collaborative project team
about, 1–2, 91–93
challenges to attaining and
sustaining meaningful client
involvement, 111–113
challenges to meaningful client
involvement, 104–111
Co-Manager model, 101–102
complex project team, 93–101
establishing meaningful client
involvement, 103
co-located CPM project teams,
358–360
co-located teams, small, APM
projects using, 47–48
Co-Manager model
about, 92–93, 95–97
benefits of, 103
using, 101–102
Co-Managers
defining Project Team structure
and Core Team roles, 99–100
populating roles with skill
requirements, 101
combative conflict resolution style,
282
comfort zone, of clients, 372
“The Coming of the New
Organization” (Drucker), 21
Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS)
facilitator-led training, 106
commitment to the project, as
selection criteria for core team
members, 267
communications
complexity/uncertainty domain vs.,
369–370
establishing models, 292–296
managing beyond the team,
295–298
Competitive Forces model, 69
competitors
actions of, 428
entry of new, 428–429Index ■ C–C 573
completion, measuring for WBS,
212–213
completion date, of projects, 6
complex activities, 5
complex project landscape, 394
complex project management,
356–360
Complex Project Management
(CPM) models
compared with TPM models,
453–536
implementing, 357–358
complex project profiling, 84–88
complex project team, 93–101
complexity, low, in TPM, 41
complexity and uncertainty
classifying projects by, 17
in project landscape
about, 355–356
business value vs., 377–378
client involvement vs., 370–373
communications vs., 369–370
complex project management,
356–360
domain of projects, 361–378
Lean Agile Project Management,
360–361
risk vs., 367–368
scope change vs., 375–377
specifications vs., 373–375
team cohesiveness vs., 368–369
compressing schedules, 253–255
computing slack time, 251–252
concept, proof of, 431
concurrent component engineering,
489
Conditions of Satisfaction (COS), 7,
157, 159, 526
conducting
post-implementation audits,
349–351
Project Kick-Off Meetings, 272–277
“Conflict and Conflict
Management” (Thomas), 282
conflict resolution, team operating
rules for, 281–282
connected activities, 5–6
connected networks, 242
consensus building, team operating
rules for, 282–283
constraints
about, 243–244
best-practices, 244–245
date, 247
discretionary, 244
interproject, 246–247
logical, 245
management, 246
technical, 244–245
unique, 245
construction, 485
consultative model, of decision
making, 280–281
consulting, 450
contemporary project environment,
20–22
content, for communications, 293
Contingency Planning, as a risk
response, 128
contract team members, for
launching TPM projects, 269–271
contracts, types of, 137–138
control, project network diagrams
and, 240
Convergent phase, 441
Co-Project Manager model, 112–113
co-project managers, 446–447
Core Team
about, 98, 99–100
in approval process, 188
at JPPS, 201
for launching TPM projects,
266–269
corporate initiative, 178574 Index ■ D–D
COS (Conditions of Satisfaction), 7,
157, 159, 526
cost
classifying projects by, 17
estimating, 214, 235–237
as a project constraint, 11, 12–13
cost and benefit analyses, as POS
attachment, 186
cost budgeting, 237
cost control, 237
cost impact, of resource leveling, 305
Cost Performance Index (CPI), 331
Cost Plus contracts, 138
COTS (Commercial Off the Shelf)
facilitator-led training, 106
Couger, J. Daniel
Creative Problem Solving and
Opportunity Finding, 278
CPI (Cost Performance Index), 331
CPM (Career Project Manager),
409–410
CPM Chef co-project manager, 447
CPM (Complex Project Management)
models
compared with TPM models,
453–536
implementing, 357–358
creating
initial project network schedules,
248–253
Issues Log, 334–335
Requirements Breakdown
Structure (RBS), 162–164
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS),
206–208, 210–212
Creative Problem Solving and
Opportunity Finding (Couger), 278
creeps, managing, 31–32
Critical Chain Project Management
(CCPM), 292
critical path
about, 250–251
calculating, 251
computing slack, 251–252
defined, 248
near-, 252–253
critical success factor (CSF), 67, 93,
104
cross-project dependencies, 359
CSF (critical success factor), 67, 93,
104
cultural influences, project success
and, 184
cumulative reports, 315
current period reports, 315
custom-designed instructor-led
training, 106
customers, as a Scoping Meeting
stakeholder, 164–165
customized training, 450
cut-over approach, for installing
project deliverables, 346
Cycle Build, 513–514
Cycle Plan, 444, 512–513
D
daily status meetings, team
operating rules for, 285
dampening oscillation, 318
date constraints, 247
decision making, team operating
rules for, 280–281
decomposition, of tasks, 303
defining
problem escalation strategy,
338–341
project objectives, 180–181
Definitive estimate, 236
deliverables
of activities, 214
getting client acceptance of,
344–346
identifying first-phase, 527–528
installing, 346–347Index ■ E–E 575
for Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS), 204
Project Ideation, 442
Project Scoping Meeting, 161–190
Delphi technique, 228–229, 230
DeLuca, Jeff
Java Modeling in Color with UML
(Coad, Lefebvre and DeLuca),
472
departmental, as an organizational
approach, 219–220
dependencies
about, 242–243
cross-project, 359
description report, work package,
308, 309–311
design-build-test-implement,
218–219
Detailed Statement of the Work, in
project proposal, 258
determining
best-fit PMLC model, 173–174
resource requirements, 234
developing
team deployment strategy, 271–272
team development plan, 272
Development Team, 447
Development Team Leader, 98
directive model, of decision
making, 280
discretionary constraints, 244
Divergent phase, 441
documenting projects, 347–349
dogs, in BCG Growth-Share
Matrix, 72
Doran, George, 179–180
Drucker, Peter
“The Coming of the New
Organization,” 21
DSDM (Dynamic Systems
Development Method), 48–49,
485–488
duration
of activities, 214
estimating, 223–224
PMLC models and, 59
dynamic risk assessment, 126–127
Dynamic Systems Development
Method (DSDM), 48–49, 485–488
The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A
Practitioner’s Guide (Mayer), 282
E
earliest finish (EF) time, 249–250
earliest start (ES) time, 249–250
Earned Value Analysis (EVA)
about, 323, 326–331
integrating with milestone trend
charts, 331–334
Ecological factors, in PESTEL
framework, 68–69
Economic factors, in PESTEL
framework, 68–69
ECPM (Effective Complex Project
Management) Framework, 36,
104–105, 432–434
ECPM/kit, 416–417
EF (earliest finish) time, 249–250
Effective Complex Project
Management (ECPM) Framework,
36, 48, 104–105, 415–451, 432–434
efficiency, of worker’s time, 226
effort creep, 32
elaboration, 485
e-mail communication, 294–295
Emergent phase, 441
Emertxe Hybrid projects, 436
Emertxe PMLC model, 396–397
Emertxe Project Management (MPx),
30, 54–55, 396
enterprise capacity, 73–75
Enterprise Project Portfolio
Management (EPPM), 63–64, 65,
83–84576 Index ■ E–E
environment, business
about, 65–66
business climate, 66–71
complex project profiling, 84–88
enterprise capacity, 73–75
market opportunities, 71–73
Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics
(OST) model, 77–78
OST dependency structure, 83–84
RASCI Matrix, 84
strategies, 80–81
SWOT, 75
tactics, 81–82
Value Chain Analysis, 75–76
Vision and Mission statements,
78–80
VRIO, 76–77
environmental influences, project
success and, 184
EPPM (Enterprise Project Portfolio
Management), 63–64, 65, 83–84
equipment
for Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS), 203
for Project Kick-Off Meetings, 274
as resources, 232
ES (earliest start) time, 249–250
escalation strategy hierarchy,
340–341
establishing
communications models, 292–296
progress reporting systems,
314–322
project goal, 178–180
team operating rules, 277–287
estimating
about, 223
cost, 214, 235–237
duration, 223–224
life cycles, 230–231
methods for estimating task
duration, 226–230
resource loading versus task
duration, 224–225
resource requirements, 231–234
time, 214
EVA (Earned Value Analysis)
about, 323, 326–331
integrating with milestone trend
charts, 331–334
Evolutionary Development Waterfall
model, 48–49, 481–483
exception reports, 315–316
executing, TPM projects
about, 313–314
applying graphical reporting tools,
322–324
building Issues Log, 334–335
defining problem escalation
strategy, 338–341
establishing progress reporting
system, 314–322
maintaining Issues Log, 334–335
managing project status meetings,
335–338
managing Scope Bank, 334
using tools, templates, and
processes for, 314
executing phase, of Iterative PMLC
models, 387
Executing Process Group, 146–147,
390, 399–400, 403
Execution Phase
challenges to, 532–535
of Hybrid PMLC model, 408–409
Executive Summary, in project
proposal, 257
Executive’s Guide to Project
Management: Organizational
Processes and Practices for
Supporting Complex Projects
(Wysocki), 85
expectation setting, 139–140
expert advice, seeking, 228Index ■ F–F 577
extrapolating, based on similarity to
other tasks, 227
Extreme Hybrid projects, 436
Extreme PMLC models
about, 172, 393, 516
characteristics of, 516–517
complex project landscape, 394
extreme project management,
395–397
INSPIRE, 518–532
specific models, 518
strengths of, 517–518
using tools, templates, and
processes for maximum
effectiveness, 397–400
using tools, templates, and
processes for maximum xPM
and MPx effectiveness,
400–403
weaknesses of, 518
Extreme Project Management (xPM)
about, 30, 395–397
approaches to, 50–54
F
face-to-face, in-person meeting, 294
facilitated groups sessions, 167, 168
facilitator group, at Project Scoping
Meeting, 160
facilitators, at JPPS, 200
facilities
for Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS), 202–203
for Project Kick-Off Meetings, 274
as resources, 231
FDD (Feature-Driven Development)
model, 472–474
feasibility studies
about, 487
as POS attachment, 185–186
feature creep, 32
Feature level, in RBS, 164
Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
model, 472–474
FF (finish-to-finish) dependency, 243
FFP (Firm Fixed Price) contract, 137
15-Minute daily status meeting,
337–338
finalizing project schedules, 277,
305–307
financial analysis, as POS
attachment, 185
finish-to-finish (FF) dependency, 243
finish-to-start (FS) dependency, 243
Firm Fixed Price (FFP) contract, 137
Five Forces model, 69
fixed price contracts, 137
fixed resources, 6
flexibility
as a challenge to effective project
management, 28–29
for complex projects, 365–366
as selection criteria for core team
members, 268
float. See slack time
forced ranking, 134
formal acceptance, 345
format, of status meetings, 336–337
4-quadrant complex project
landscape, 382
Fowler, Martin, 356
free slack, 252
FS (finish-to-start) dependency, 243
Function level, in RBS, 163–164
function or process managers, in
approval process, 189
functional decomposition, 218
Functional Managers
about, 110
at JPPS, 202
functional model iteration, 487
functional requirements, 169
functional specification. See scope
fuzzy goals, 52578 Index ■ G–H
G
Game Storming: A Playbook for
Innovators, Rulebreakers, and
Changemakers, 440
Gantt chart, 239, 322
generating
initial project network schedules,
248–253
Issues Log, 334–335
Requirements Breakdown
Structure (RBS), 162–164
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS),
206–208, 210–212
geographic, as an organizational
approach, 219
global requirements, 170
goals
fuzzy, 52
of a project, 6
project landscape and, 8–10
S.M.A.R.T., 179–180
go/no-go decision, 528, 532
good news syndrome, 297–298
Graham-Englund model, 359–360
graphical reporting tools, applying,
322–324
A Guide to the Project Management
Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide),
2, 30, 115, 330
“The Guide to the Business Analysis
of Body of Knowledge,” 33
H
The Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology
(Thomas), 282
Hass, Kathleen B.
Managing Complex Projects: A New
Model, 84, 87
high change, contemporary project
environment and, 21
high speed, contemporary project
environment and, 20–21
High-Level Requirements, as Project
Ideation deliverable, 442
Highsmith, James A., III, 356, 362,
488
historical data, studying, 227
hope creep, 32
HPM co-project manager, 447
HPM (Hybrid Project Management)
Framework
about, 64–65, 71, 77–78, 105–106,
405–406, 407, 496
as an industrial-strength model,
497–515
approaches to, 55–56
benefits of, 503–505
core values of, 505–508
Effective Complex Project
Management (ECPM)
Framework, 415–451
expected change, 500
hybrid project managers,
409–415
hybrid projects, 406–415
just-in-time planning, 500
as mission critical, 501
overview of life cycle, 509–515
project contract, 501
project team, 498
reason for having, 503
role of client and project manager
in, 502
roots of, 498–499
stakeholders, 110–111
variability of scope, 499
HPM Framework Project Manager,
111
HPM Model Template, 443
HPM Project Characteristics,
443
HRIS (Human Resource Information
System), 55
HRMS (Human Resource
Management System), 55, 359–360Index ■ I–I 579
Human Resource Information
System (HRIS), 55
Human Resource Management
System (HRMS), 55, 359–360
Hybrid PMLC model
project types, 434–435, 436–451
standards and, 437–440
team structure, 444–446
Hybrid Project Management (HPM)
Framework
about, 64–65, 71, 77–78, 105–106,
405–406, 407, 496
as an industrial-strength model,
497–515
approaches to, 55–56
benefits of, 503–505
core values of, 505–508
Effective Complex Project
Management (ECPM)
Framework, 415–451
expected change, 500
hybrid project managers, 409–415
hybrid projects, 406–415
just-in-time planning, 500
as mission critical, 501
overview of life cycle, 509–515
project contract, 501
project team, 498
reason for having, 503
role of client and project manager
in, 502
roots of, 498–499
stakeholders, 110–111
variability of scope, 499
Hybrid Project Manager, 409–415,
410–415
hybrid projects, 406–415
I
ID number, in risk log, 129
idea generation, 487
Ideation phase, of Hybrid PMLC
model, 408
identifying success criteria, 181–183
imbedding ECPM in Traditional
Project Management, 432–434
implementing
about, 488
CPM projects, 357–358
project network diagrams and,
239–240
Improved Services (IS), 26
inception, 484–485
Increased Revenue (IR), 26
Incremental Project Management
Life Cycle (PMLC) model
about, 44–45, 172, 464, 470–471
characteristics of, 464–465
Feature-Driven Development
(FDD) model, 472–474
Staged Delivery Waterfall model,
471–472
strengths of, 465–467
weaknesses of, 467–470
when to use, 470
Incubate, 529–530
inherited project, 175
INitiate, 520–525
Initiating Process Group, 144–145
Input Phase, of ECPM, 440
INSPIRE Extreme PMLC model,
518–532
installing project deliverables,
346–347
integrating
APM Toolkit, 387–391
Earned Value Analysis (EVA)
and milestone trend charts,
331–334
interpersonal influences, project
success and, 184
interproject constraints, 246–247
interviews, 167, 168–169
IR (Increased Revenue), 26
IRACIS acronym, 26
Iron Triangle, 11580 Index ■ J–L
IS (Improved Services), 26
Issues Log, building and
maintaining, 334–335
Iterative PMLC model
about, 47, 48–49, 382–387, 474–475
characteristics of, 475–476
specific, 480–492
strengths of, 476–478
weaknesses of, 478–479
when to use, 480
J
Java Modeling in Color with UML
(Coad, Lefebvre and DeLuca), 472
Joint Project Planning Sessions
(JPPS)
agenda for, 203–204
attendees for, 200–202
core team members needed for, 266
deliverables for, 204
equipment for, 203
facilities for, 202–203
planning and conducting, 198–222
running, 205
JPPS (Joint Project Planning
Sessions)
agenda for, 203–204
attendees for, 200–202
core team members needed for, 266
deliverables for, 204
equipment for, 203
facilities for, 202–203
planning and conducting, 198–222
running, 205
JPPS consultant, at JPPS, 200–201
just-in-time planning, 493, 500
K
Knowledge Areas
mapping to Process Groups,
148–149
Project Communications
Management, 120–121
Project Cost Management, 118
Project Integration Management,
116–117
Project Procurement Management,
129–143
Project Quality Management,
118–119
Project Resource Management, 120
Project Risk Management, 121–129
Project Schedule Management,
117–118
Project Scope Management, 117
Project Stakeholder Management,
143
L
lag variables, 247–248
latest finish (LF) time, 249–250
latest start (LS) time, 249–250
launching phase, of Iterative PMLC
models, 386–387
Launching Process Group, 389–390,
399, 402
launching,TPM projects
about, 263–264
assigning resources, 298–301
conducting project kick-off
meetings, 272–277
developing team deployment
strategy, 271–272
establishing team operating rules,
277–287
finalizing project schedules,
305–307
managing scope changes, 287–292
managing team communications,
292–298
recruiting project team, 265–271
resource leveling strategies,
301–305
using tools, templates, and
processes for, 264
writing work packages, 307–311Index ■ M–M 581
Lean Agile Project Management,
360–361
Learn phase, 489
learning, amplifying, 361
Lefebvre, Eric
Java Modeling in Color with UML
(Coad, Lefebvre and DeLuca),
472
Legal factors, in PESTEL framework,
68–69
length, classifying projects by, 17
Lessons Log, 100
leveling resources, 299–304
LF (latest finish) time, 249–250
life cycles
estimating, 230–231
of project management, 37–57
Line of Business (LOB) Managers,
110
Linear Project Management Life
Cycle (PMLC) model
about, 43–44, 172, 454–455
characteristics of, 455–458
specific, 461–464
strengths of, 458–459
weaknesses of, 459–461
when to use, 461
LOB (Line of Business) Managers,
110
logic diagram, 238
logical constraints, 245
lower cost, contemporary project
environment and, 21–22
LS (latest start) time, 249–250
M
maintaining
client acceptance procedures,
344–352
Issues Log, 334–335
management constraints, 246
management reserve, 255–256,
290–292
managing
client expectations, 155–190
communication beyond the team,
295–298
creeps, 31–32
project status meetings, 335–338
Scope Bank, 334
scope changes, 287–292
team communications, 292–298
Managing Complex Projects: A New
Model (Hass), 84, 87
mandated requirements, 178
mapping Knowledge Areas to
Process Groups, 148–149
market opportunities, 71–73
market stability, PMLC models
and, 59
marking pens, 196
masked behavior, 272
Mastering the Requirements Process,
3rd Edition (Robertson and
Robertson), 167
materials, as resources, 232
materials contracts, 137–138
Mayer, Bernard S.
The Dynamics of Conflict
Resolution: A Practitioner’s
Guide, 282
measure, in objective statements,
181
milestone trend charts
about, 324–326
integrating with Earned Value
Analysis, 331–334
Mission statements, 78–80
Mitigate, as a risk response, 128
models
Adaptive PMLC model
about, 47, 49–50, 172, 492–493
characteristics of, 493–494
strengths of, 494–495
weaknesses of, 495–496
when to use, 496582 Index ■ M–M
Co-Manager
about, 92–93, 95–97
benefits of, 103
using, 101–102
Complex Project Management
(CPM)
compared with TPM models,
453–536
implementing, 357–358
Evolutionary Development
Waterfall, 48–49, 481–483
Extreme PMLC
about, 172, 393, 516
characteristics of, 516–517
complex project landscape, 394
extreme project management,
395–397
INSPIRE, 518–532
specific models, 518
strengths of, 517–518
using tools, templates, and
processes for maximum
effectiveness, 397–400
using tools, templates, and
processes for maximum xPM
and MPx effectiveness,
400–403
weaknesses of, 518
Feature-Driven Development
(FDD), 472–474
Hybrid PMLC
project types, 434–435, 436–451
standards and, 437–440
team structure, 444–446
Incremental Project Management
Life Cycle (PMLC)
about, 44–45, 172, 464, 470–471
characteristics of, 464–465
Feature-Driven Development
(FDD) model, 472–474
Staged Delivery Waterfall
model, 471–472
strengths of, 465–467
weaknesses of, 467–470
when to use, 470
INSPIRE Extreme PMLC,
518–532
Iterative PMLC
about, 47, 48–49, 382–387,
474–475
characteristics of, 475–476
specific, 480–492
strengths of, 476–478
weaknesses of, 478–479
when to use, 480
Linear Project Management Life
Cycle (PMLC)
about, 43–44, 172, 454–455
characteristics of, 455–458
specific, 461–464
strengths of, 458–459
weaknesses of, 459–461
when to use, 461
OST (Objectives, Strategies, and
Tactics), 77–78, 83–84
project management life cycle
(PMLC)
about, 9–10
choosing best-fit, 57–61
comparison between, 56–57
defining using Process Groups,
149
determining best-fit, 173–174
mapping Process Groups to
form complex, 149
processes in, 37–40
money, as resources, 232
Monitoring and Controlling Process
Group, 147
monitoring progress and
performance, 140–141
Most Likely estimate, in Three-Point
technique, 230
MPx (Emertxe Project Management),
30, 54–55, 396
Mulally, Mark, 55, 405, 406Index ■ N–P 583
N
Naisbitt, John
The Third Wave, 21
Naisbitt, John (Naisbitt), 21
near-critical path, 252–253
needs, wants vs., 155–156
negative variances, 321–322
negotiating final contracts, 138–139
network diagram, 238, 239
network-based scheduling, benefits
to, 239–240
networks, connected, 242
non-functional requirements,
169–170
non-value-added work, 363
noun-type approaches, to building
WBS, 217, 218
number of departments affected
classifying projects by, 17
PMLC models and, 60
O
Objective, in project proposal, 257
Objectives, Strategies, and Tactics
(OST) model, 77–78, 83–84
objectives approach, 219
obstacles, listing in POS, 183–184
Occasional Project Manager (OPM),
409
open-minded, as selection criteria
for core team members, 268
OPM (Occasional Project Manager),
409
opportunity, stating, 176–178
Optimistic estimate, in Three-Point
technique, 229
Order of Magnitude estimate, 236
organizational approaches, to
building WBS, 217, 219–220
organizational environment, PMLC
models and, 60
organized common sense, 30–31
oscillation, dampening, 318
OST (Objectives, Strategies, and
Tactics) model, 77–78, 83–84
outcome
in objective statements, 181
in risk log, 129
Overview of the Approach to Be
Taken, in project proposal,
257–258
ownership, by clients, 372–373
P
paired comparisons, 134–135
parallel approach, for installing
project deliverables, 347
participative model, of decision
making, 280
partitionable tasks, 254
PDM (precedence diagramming
method), 240–242
PDS (Project Definition Statement)
about, 199
writing during Project Kick-Off
Meetings, 276–277
people, as resources, 231, 232
performance, monitoring, 140–141
PERT (Project Evaluation and
Review Technique) chart, 195
Pessimistic estimate, in Three-Point
technique, 230
PESTEL factors, 68–69
phased approach, for installing
project deliverables, 346
phone, for communication, 295
physical decomposition, 218
PIS (Project Impact Statement),
15–16, 288
planning
project network diagrams and, 239
resource, 234–235
TPM projects
about, 191–192
constructing project network
diagram, 238–256584 Index ■ P–P
estimating, 223–237
gaining approval to launch
projects, 258–259
importance of, 193–194
joint planning sessions, 198–222
using application software
packages for, 194–198
using tools, templates, and
processes for, 192–193
writing effective project
proposals, 256–258
planning phase, of Iterative PMLC
models, 385–386
Planning Process Group, 145–146,
389, 398, 401–402
planning tool, 209
PMLC (project management life
cycle) models
about, 9–10
choosing best-fit, 57–61
comparison between, 56–57
defining using Process Groups,
149
determining best-fit, 173–174
mapping Process Groups to form
complex, 149
PMO (Project Management Office),
448
Political factors, in PESTEL
framework, 68–69
Porter’s Competitive Forces model, 69
portfolios, defining, 10–11
POS (Project Overview Statement)
about, 26, 82, 157, 159
as Project Ideation deliverable, 442
writing, 174–186
positive variances, 321
post-implementation audits,
conducting, 349–351
post-project, 488
precedence diagramming method
(PDM), building network
diagrams using, 240–242
priority, radical change in, 427–428
problem escalation strategy,
defining, 338–341
problem management meetings, 338
problem resolution meetings, team
operating rules for, 286
problem solving, team operating
rules for, 278–280
problems, stating, 176–178
Process Co-Manager, 98
process flow diagram, ECPM,
417–419
Process Groups, mapping
Knowledge Areas to, 148–149
Process level, in RBS, 164
process owner, at JPPS, 202
process quality, 12
Process Team, 95, 99
processes
using for closing TPM projects


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